Human Factors In Groupware Applications

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  • 1. Human Factors in Product Data Management Lakshmanan Lakshmanan M6603 – Human Factors Methods
  • 2. Life Cycle of a Product
  • 3. Why PDM?
    • Large companies have TB (Terabytes) of data (1TB=1,000 GB)
      • One company estimated 250,000 pages to describe a new product
    • Lack of control over engineering data and engineering process
    • Finding the right data or right version of data is not possible. Many times data is recreated
    • Design history not maintained. Past experience unavailable.
  • 4. Why PDM?
    • Engineering changes are poorly coordinated. All copies of drawings are not changed
    • Time taken for raising, approving & implementing ECOs much longer
    • All the above lead to increase in costs associated to engineering and development
  • 5. Industry Problems Suppliers & Customers
    • Poor design re-use - Overwritten / lost data -Costly versioning
    • mistakes
    • Manual Data Entry -Part number and revision -Paper ECOs and
    • errors out of sync BOMs
    • Slow Paper/eMail -Data Errors -No version history
    Designer Designer Designer Test Engineering Production Control Purchasing Sales Manager Design & Engineering Manufacturing
  • 6. What is PDM?
    • Groupware system that manages engg. data
    • Data related to a product & process used to design, manufacture & support the product
    • Data may be product specifications, plans, geometric models, CAD drawings and images
  • 7. What is PDM?
    • Usually a complex software framework that enables intelligent sharing of information
    • Increased complexity leads to unmanageable systems and failures in implementation
    Application of Usability Methods is a powerful way to improve efficiency of PDM systems
  • 8. HF Methods for PDM
    • HF evaluation of a groupware application is different as compared to single-user application
  • 9. HF Methods for PDM
    • Overview of steps to evaluate the HF efficiency of a PDM system
    • Based on CUA ( Pinelle, et. all, 2003) & SUMI (Dr. Eric, 2002)
  • 10. HF Methods for PDM - 1
    • Determine user profiles
      • CAD Designer
      • CAD Manager
      • Purchase Engineer
      • Vendor
      • Shop floor Engineer
      • QC Engineer
      • Support Engineer, etc.
    • Could be further broken down to 4 user classes based on domain & system knowledge
  • 11. HF Methods for PDM - 2
    • Identify scenarios based on user profiles and classes
      • Create document
      • Check-in, Check-out
      • X-reference documents
      • Search for documents
      • Release/publish a document
      • Approve a document
      • ECO – raise, approve, implement
      • And more…
  • 12. HF Methods for PDM - 3
    • Collaboration Usability Analysis (CUA) Format:
    • Scenario : High-level description of activities related to achieving a specific outcome. Scenarios contain the following information: high level activity description, user specification, group goal, set of circumstances
      • Tasks : Basic components of scenario, usually explicitly stated in scenario activity description. Describes what occurs in a scenario event, but not how it occurs
        • Individual subtasks : The loosely-coupled, individual work in a task
          • Collaborative subtasks : The tightly-coupled work in a task. Carried out more than one person
            • Actions : Common ways to perform a collaborative subtask
  • 13. HF Methods for PDM - 4
    • Perform evaluation of scenarios:
      • Document all the scenarios as per Collaboration Usability Analysis (CUA)
      • Prepare questions/pointers on the tasks, sub-tasks & group tasks in terms of:
        • Are user interfaces task oriented?
        • Ease-of-learning (for laypersons) & ease-of-use (for experts) addressed?
        • Customisable interfaces for all tasks to cater to all classes?
  • 14. HF Methods for PDM - 5
    • High quality user interfaces: Does the UI follow standards and norms?
      • Perform heuristic evaluation or user surveys on the seven fundamentals of ISO 9241 (Part 10) adherence for all identified tasks
        • Suitability for the task
        • Suitability for learning
        • Suitability for individualisation
        • Conformity with user expectations
        • Self descriptiveness
        • Controllability
        • Error tolerance
      • Analyse the evaluation results
  • 15. HF Methods for PDM - 6
    • Task oriented user interfaces can further be studied for the compliance of following standards (optional):
      • Product Usability (ISO/CD 20282)
      • User-centred Design for Interactive Systems (ISO 13407 and ISO TR 18529)
  • 16.
    • Evaluate each task and its HF elements on a 5 point scale
    • Tabulate the results of all the tasks of each scenario
    • Identify tasks with low scores in each scenario
    HF Methods for PDM - 7
  • 17. Recommendations
    • PDM as an application has a wide coverage
    • Emphasis on studying user profiles, scenarios and tasks as a whole
    • Design the interactions / workflow
    • Provide pre-built interfaces based on user profiles
    • Ability to customise
  • 18. References
    • Dr. Erik P.W.M. van Veenendaal CISA, Low Cost Usability Testing , Software Quality and Software in Internet Time, Springer Publishing
    • Mutschler, B, Bumiller, J, Improving the Return-on-Investment of Product Data Management-Systems using Usability Engineering , DaimlerChrysler AG Research & Technology, Germany
    • Pinelle, D, Gutwin, C, Greenberg, S, Task Analysis for Groupware Usability Evaluation: Modeling Shared-Workspace Tasks with the Mechanics of Collaboration , 2003, ACM Transactions on Human Computer Interaction, 10-4, 281-311
    • Rosson, M.B, Carroll, J.M, Usability Engineering – Scenario-Based Development of Human-Computer Interaction, Academic Press, 2002