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Critical Decision Method (Cdm)
Critical Decision Method (Cdm)
Critical Decision Method (Cdm)
Critical Decision Method (Cdm)
Critical Decision Method (Cdm)
Critical Decision Method (Cdm)
Critical Decision Method (Cdm)
Critical Decision Method (Cdm)
Critical Decision Method (Cdm)
Critical Decision Method (Cdm)
Critical Decision Method (Cdm)
Critical Decision Method (Cdm)
Critical Decision Method (Cdm)
Critical Decision Method (Cdm)
Critical Decision Method (Cdm)
Critical Decision Method (Cdm)
Critical Decision Method (Cdm)
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Critical Decision Method (Cdm)

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Penghong

Penghong

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  • 1. Critical Decision Method (CDM) Peng Hong
  • 2. What is CDM?
    • Critical Decision Making (CDM) is a retrospective interview method that employs a set of cognitive probes to non-routine incidents that required expert judgment or decision making (Klein, Calderwood, & MacGregor, 1989).
  • 3. When?
    • CDM is used for eliciting expert knowledge, decision strategies and cues attended to, and system in naturalistic decision making environment (Militello & Lim, 1995).
  • 4. Importance of knowledge elicitation
    • Why??
      • Improve the overall level of human performance
      • Understand how proficient individuals perform the task
      • To study general knowledge, specific information and reasoning process of expert
    • CDM- derived from a recognition of critical information and prior knowledge. (as described in Recognition-Primed Decision model)
  • 5. Distinctions from other knowledge elicitation methods
    • Focus on non-routine cases
    • Case-based approach
    • Cognitive probes
    • Semi-structured probing
  • 6. CDM Interview
    • Basic:
      • About two hours
      • Two researchers
      • Introduction and establish rapport
    • Four phases
      • Incident identification
      • Timeline verification
      • Deepening
      • “ What If” Queries
  • 7. The structure of CDM procedure (Crandall, Klein, & Hoffman, 2006)
  • 8. Step 1: Selecting an incident
    • Select a non-routine, challenging event
    • Identify a incident contains cognitive components
    • Avoid death or unusual episode
    • Obtain unstructured incident account by providing view of the incident
  • 9. Step 2: Constructing a Timeline
    • Identify key events and segments
    • Reconstruct the account in form of a timeline
    • Diagramming the timeline
    • Establish a shared view of the facts of the case
  • 10. Example of timeline from an interview: Fireground Commander
  • 11. Step 3: Deepening
    • Deepen the understanding of the events
    • To build a comprehensive, detailed, and contextualized account of the incident
    • From the decision maker’s point of view
    • Be able to get a detailed, specific picture
  • 12. Critical Decision Interview Probes (Klein, Calderwood, & MacGregor, 1989) Probe type Probe content
  • 13. Step 4:“What If” Queries
    • Hypothetical about the incident
    • Illuminate expert-novice differences
    • Potential vulnerabilities for error
    • Training requirements
  • 14. Boundaries and Limitations
    • Situations where CDM interviews are not feasible
      • No real expert
      • Unable to generate useful incidents
  • 15. Applications
    • Knowledge engineering approach for building expert systems
    • Evaluating expert systems
    • Identifying training requirements
  • 16. References
    • Crandall, B., Klein, G. A., & Hoffman, R. R. (2006). Working minds : a practitioner's guide to cognitive task analysis London, England: The MIT Press.
    • Klein, G. A., Calderwood, R., & MacGregor, D. (1989 ). Critical decision method for eliciting knowledge. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 19 (3), 462-472
    • Militello, L., & Lim, L. (1995). Patient assessment skills: Assessing early cues of necrotizing enterocolitis. The Journal of Perinatal and Neonatal Nursing, 9 (2), 42-52.
  • 17.  

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