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GIS Use in Map, Chart, and Data Production

GIS Use in Map, Chart, and Data Production



GIS is an important tool used by national mapping agencies, aeronautical and nautical organizations, and commercial map and chart publishers around the world.

GIS is an important tool used by national mapping agencies, aeronautical and nautical organizations, and commercial map and chart publishers around the world.



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    GIS Use in Map, Chart, and Data Production GIS Use in Map, Chart, and Data Production Document Transcript

    • GIS Use in Map, Chart& Data Production
    • Table of ConTenTs 3 Welcome to the MaPs Community esri designs and develops the world’s leading geographic information system 4 Topographic Mapping (GIs) technology. GIs is an important 5 Geoscience australia SubMIT Your STorY for PrINT tool used by national mapping 6–7 natural Resources Canada agencies, aeronautical and nautical organizations, and commercial map 8–9 TasMaP and chart publishers around the world. 10 Department of sustainability and for more information about esri, environment, Victoria, australia please visit esri.com. To learn more about GIs for the MaPs community, 11 Spatial Data Infrastructure visit esri.com/maps. 12–13 Geospatial one-stop If you are interested in learning more 14–15 Geoss Geo Portal about the solutions in this booklet or 16–17 Center for GIs, Qatar would like to submit your own solution story, please e-mail cartoinfo@esri.com. 18–19 small Island sDI 20 Geospatial Intelligence 21 national Geospatial-Intelligence agency 22 United nations operation in Côte d’Ivoire 23 north atlantic Treaty organization International security assistance force 24 Imagery 25 foreign agricultural service 26 Woods Hole Research Center 27 Indian space Research organization 28 Nautical 29 The Marine Chart Division at the national oceanic and atmospheric administration 30–31 Portuguese Instituto Hidrografico 32–33 new York ocean and Great lakes ecosystem Council 34 Aeronautical 35 International Civil aviation organization 36–37 french aeronautical Information service 38–39 Romanian Civil aeronautical authority 40 Cartography 41 swiss federal office of Topography 42 Good shepherd engineering and Computing 43 Mapping specialists, ltd.
    • Welcome to theMAPS CommunityOrganizations are under great pressure to generatemore products and services in less time and withfewer resources. Esri® software helps meet theserequirements, no matter the size of the organization,through a database-centric workflow. The databaseacts as the hub to coordinate activities, from capturethrough production, data dissemination, andmaintenance. Changes can be made at any step in theprocess. Compared with traditional linear workflows,this unified approach increases return on investment,improves data integrity and decreases risk. Using GISto collect, manage, produce, and share informationmakes the ability to create maps, charts, data, andWeb services an achievable goal for any organization.Esri’s ArcGIS® system of software ties workflowswith tried-and-true GIS methodologies, ensuring astreamlined production environment. The software’sability to handle the specific data, products, datamodels, and symbology of different industries meansthat aeronautical, nautical, topographic, and otheragencies can create their own unique informationusing the same geographic database.To find out more aboutEsri’s solutions, please visitesri.com/maps. 3
    • Topographic Mapping4
    • GIS Automates National Mapping in AustraliaGeoscience AustraliaHighlights Checks for completeness, positional accuracy, attribute• GIs enables faster workflow. accuracy, and logical consistencies are performed.• Maintenance and data costs decreased. on passing validation, the data is checked back into the• Multiple products can be generated. national database, and a largely push-button approach is undertaken to output print files for color maps.• The group now attracts young, technically savvy staff. Using a geodatabase allows Geoscience australia to createaustralia has a land area of more than 7.5 million square nonstandard maps as they are requested. an examplekilometers and an exclusive economic zone of a further is the recently released West MacDonnell national Park8 million square kilometers. australia’s coastline (including series, developed to satisfy land management, emergency8,000 islands) is almost 60,000 kilometers long. Readily management, and tourism needs. In this particular case,accessible fundamental information and knowledge a number of customizations were made including theabout this area is essential for national security, public addition of a satellite image map on the reverse side,safety, resource management, agricultural production, nonstandard map extents, and a customized map surround.environmental management, infrastructure development,recreation, and many other uses by government, business, Implementing GIs throughout the Geographic Informationand the community. Group has enabled faster workflow, easier maintenance of data, and cost efficiencies in terms of the ability to generatefor 47 years, the Geographic Information Group of multiple products—digital and hard copy—from a singleGeoscience australia has mapped the country at scales database. The organization is now able to generate a suiteof 1:100,000 to 1:20,000,000. for many years, Geographic of digital products including GIs-ready vector data, rasterInformation Group used manual methods of cartography maps, and PDf format maps suitable for backdrops in ato produce paper maps. This was a time-consuming and broad range of new technologies such as GPs receivers andexacting blend of art and science undertaken by teams of personal computing or telephony devices.cartographers using pens, ink, and scribe tools. GIs has also made it easier to attract younger staff whoIn the last 20 years, digital methods of cartography and a see the potential of the new technology and the broaderbroader range of products, many of which are also digital, range of career options it offers them, such as in the fields ofhave been introduced. Recent advances in database analytic GIs, map production, and data management.technology for managing GIs spatial data have beenembraced by Geoscience australia and promise to further In the case of the West MacDonnell national Park maps,revolutionize the way the group fulfills its national mapping Geoscience australia has been able to easily generate aobligations. for instance, it has created an object-oriented number of potential mock-ups of the map face and print,seamless topographic database for the entire continent and inspect, and improve them efficiently until the desireddeveloped tools in arcobjects™ for the automated push- product was achieved.button production of hard-copy maps.Geoscience australia relies on esri’s arcGIs system formap production, from data extraction to data production.first, data is extracted from existing databases. The datais then checked for position against satellite imagery oraerial photography and for attribution against intelligencegathered from a variety of sources including state and localgovernments; publications; and older, large-scale maps.field mapping is undertaken to upgrade the accuracy ofroads and other infrastructure features and to broadlycheck the validity of the data. formal data validationis undertaken to ensure that the data meets qualityrequirements as defined in the database specification. 5
    • Generating New Canadian Topographic MapsToPoGrAPhIC MAPPING Natural Resources Canada Highlights that were previously unmapped are also included. These • automated symbolization, text placement, and map are the first of 2,500 new topographic maps of Canada surround creation to be produced by nRCan over a three-year period. The map publishing process has been automated to the point • easier text placement for maps where each new map requires less than half a person-day, • Quadrupled capacity for cartographic editing including text placement, for completion. natural Resources Canada (nRCan) provides various types The initial objectives were to develop a map generator to of geospatial data for Canada including topographic maps automate cartographic symbolization, text placement, and at 1:50,000 and 1:250,000 scales. over the past 15 years, the building of the map surround so that the map technician nRCan has focused on building and improving national would be able to publish two 1:50,000-scale maps per day. coverage of vector topographic data, including integrating since users of nRCan’s topographic maps expect a high updated data from the Geobase initiative (Geobase.ca) caliber of cartographic quality and content, there were several and legacy data from the national Topographic Database challenges to overcome. Initial challenges were twofold. (nTDb). Topographic products are distributed online The first was to manage the map content in a way that takes through the GeoGratis Web portal (GeoGratis.gc.ca) at no advantage of the newly acquired Geobase data for roads cost and with no restrictions. and hydrography, integrate this data with a large number since 2009, a new program of topographic map revision of other feature classes drawn from the nTDb data, and and production has used this vector database to produce update the place-names and administrative boundaries. The a new generation of 1:50,000-scale maps covering selected second challenge was the integration of datasets originating areas of Canada. The map sheets chosen for production are from a variety of sources having various data formats, scales, those deemed most in demand by the public and various and collection techniques to allow manipulation to achieve a government agencies. areas of Canada’s northern region high cartographic standard output. Center for Topographic Information Map Production Other Sources Map Generator   • Extraction to PGDB (FME) • Integration (ArcInfo, ArcEditor, .NET) • Geospatial Editing (ArcEditor) • Format Manipulation • Labeling (Label-EZ) Cartographic • Data Verification Database • Quality Control (ArcEditor) • Process (Opalis) Federal Geospatial Database 6
    • other challenges involving map compilation activities There is a significant amount of data verification andinclude the conversion of imperial contours to metric data manipulation required prior to the editing stage,measurement and the compilation of new resource roads and for this, safe software’s fMe is used. software fromfrom imagery where required. ongoing principles include opalis software Inc. was adopted to manage the overallmaximizing the use of automation for cartographic work and production flow.minimizing human intervention for editing. by adopting a combination of GIs tools, nRCan hasThe use of various facets of the arcGIs system has been succeeded in maximizing the automation of a mapinstrumental in accomplishing a working production line production process that generates topographic mapsfor Canadian topographic maps. nRCan presently uses using the best available national digital geospatial data.arcsDe® for cartographic database storage and arcMap™ This automation provides nRCan with the ability tofor the manipulation of spatial entities, representations and quadruple its cartographic editing capacity. The actualproduction line tasks, and verification and quality control. time necessary to complete a map depends on a numberfrom a cartographic perspective, text placement is one of of factors, for example, the number of toponyms (or names)the most demanding tasks in topographic map production. included on the map sheet. The future of cartographyautomating text placement requires all named features to looks bright as the processes become more efficient. In thebe tagged in advance with the name as an attribute. The end, the quality of the topographic data remains the keyprocess of digitally compiling geographic names will soon to successfully and effectively implement an automatedbe migrated to the arcGIs platform. cartographic production workflow. 7
    • Digital Mapping Is Cutting Edge in TasmaniaToPoGrAPhIC MAPPING TASMAP Highlights data. fMe 2008 is from safe software Inc. (surrey, british • Mapping attributes are generated from geodatabases. Columbia, Canada), a partner of esRI Canada limited, esri’s international distributor in Canada. When maps are • Data can be updated and edited quickly with fewer errors. completed, they are sent via PDf file for offset printing. • symbolization and placement of annotation is easily managed. Upgrading TasMaP’s mapping process was broken down into four main areas: marginal information, data extraction Tasmania is australia’s only island state, consisting of more and geoprocessing, cartographic editing and production, than 300 islands. Managing the state is the responsibility of and printing. the state government’s Department of Primary Industries and Water. branded TasMaP in the 1970s, the mapping all marginal information is stored as an attribute to the group creates a variety of topographic mapping products, feature that represents the map. all changes to the from a wide range of series maps to national park maps, attributes are managed through an easy-to-use form that tourism products, and a comprehensive street atlas. simplifies editing and reduces the potential for mistakes. The most popular map series is the 1:25,000-scale map Grid references are created from a sample point that is series, the production of which began in the late 1970s, unique for each map. a staff member edits data for new consisting of 415 maps covering the entire state. This map points and precalculates the universal grid reference. series provides large-scale basemaps for all of Tasmania Climate graphs are created from climate data obtained and consists of topographic information such as elevation, from the bureau of Meteorology (boM). Map names, water bodies, and government landmarks, along with numbers, editions, and dates, as well as the cover and property information. location box, are also objects created from code. Producing 415 maps leaves limited resources, and following the initial setup, the end results are that each employing GIs technology allows more efficient production margin and template takes less than one minute to management. The organization uses arcInfo® for data input generate, mistakes and errors are greatly reduced, and a and editing; arcGIs server for management of the spatial considerable amount of work is saved. data; and fMe 2008 to extract, transform, and load (eTl) extraction and geoprocessing of the map data are performed on the editor’s desktop in a personal geodatabase with fMe software. Using this software to build graphic geoprocessing models automates data manipulation from a variety of sources. new information is created by applying geoprocessing operations to existing data, such as clip to boundary; making single layers into multiple layers; joining lookup tables; and rotating objects like waterfalls to rivers, gates to roads, and buildings to roads. eleven different models running one after another are coupled with Visual basic code in arcGIs Desktop to complete the geoprocessing. The models vary in complexity and require in-depth knowledge of the data. although developing these models took considerable time, now geoprocessing takes only 20 minutes and vastly reduces mistakes and errors. GIs helped the Tasmanian government’s Department of Primary Industries and Water move forward to a modern, efficient mapping production system. 8
    • The third challenge TasMaP solved was in cartographicediting and production. The top issue was placement ofannotation, which is now created directly from the dataitself using esri’s Maplex® for arcGIs extension. Maplexfor arcGIs manages symbolization and placement ofannotation through user-defined rules based on mapcomplexity. annotation placement is prioritized accordingto sophisticated cartographic rules, and filters are set up tohandle densely packed annotation in urban areas differentlythan filters for annotation in rural areas.The changes TasMaP has seen with digitally managingannotation include a significant reduction in time spent tocreate the maps.The last challenge in the workflow of cartographicproduction is printing. TasMaP produces maps using offset The 1:25,000-scale mapprinting, sending maps in PDf files to the printers. The series for Tasmania includes information likemaps are created using standard cyan, magenta, yellow, elevation, water bodies,and key black (CMYK) color. government landmarks, and property information.a feature class of the map extents is linked to the stockdatabase in arcGIs to produce maps and reports ofreal-time stock levels, predicted stock levels for thecoming 12 months, and where the highest-selling areasare. Modelbuilder™, the interface used to build andedit geoprocessing models in arcGIs, is used to createa weighted matrix to model these factors to assistin identifying which maps should be worked on overthe coming 12 months. In the past, it took up to fourcartographers 6 months to produce a map. Today, mapscan be produced quickly and efficiently in about two weeksby automating many of the mundane tasks.arcGIs is now used for the entire mapping process—fromdata extraction, editing, and finishing to the final export toPDf for printing. arcGIs Modelbuilder is used to create a weighted matrix to identify real-time stock levels of each map. 9
    • Breaking New Ground for Manufacturing Geodata ProductsToPoGrAPhIC MAPPING and National Map Series Swiss Federal Office of Topography Highlights two projects, the Topographic Geographic Information • The map production workflow is a 3D topographic system (ToPGIs) and Genius-Db. landscape model with better than one-meter accuracy of ToPGIs is the central production environment for the primary geometry in x, y, and z axes. TlM and is based on arcGIs. Using arcGIs, swisstopo • TlM data is transferred to digital cartographic models can take advantage of a central database for capturing, to be managed and edited using a high-performance editing, management, storage, and checking consistency cartographic production system. of data. arcGIs also allows ToPGIs to completely integrate • The system efficiently handles incremental updates. photogrammetry and 3D GIs. ToPGIs has been in full-scale production since 2008 and provides GIs data to a large The swiss federal office of Topography—swisstopo number of projects. (swisstopo.ch) in Wabern, near bern—is responsible for the creation and periodic updates of the nationwide geodesic Genius-Db is a cartographic map production system for the foundations, as well as the topographic and geologic maps, national map series and is also based on arcGIs. Genius-Db of switzerland and producing and updating the national facilitates the management and editing of the DCMs, map series. swisstopo publishes the well-established and which are transformed out of the TlMs using a third-party world-renowned topographic map series in scales from cartographic generalization tool. 1:25,000 up to 1:1,000,000. swisstopo produces a whole suite of DCMs, each of them The New Processes corresponding to one of the various map scales and for To produce geographic data and maps, swisstopo is using which swisstopo derives its printed products, such as the innovative new processes, workflows, and procedures to swiss national Maps series or the popular hiking maps, as decrease production time and ensure the accuracy of the well as digital products like swissMap. To simplify the work data. Vector data is maintained in a topographic landscape of the cartographers, the links between the features of TlM model (TlM), which consists of basic topographic data like and DCM are maintained. This is of special importance land use, water, roads, and buildings. The TlM is kept up when changes in the real world occur. When this happens, to date for the entire country, is seamless for the whole incremental updates are performed by modifying and region, and has a resolution better than one meter in three editing only those objects that have changed since the last dimensions. The TlM is accompanied by a new digital update. terrain model (DTM), which is designed to be consistent at all times with the TlM. This DTM-TlM is derived principally from lidar data, and both the TlM and the DTM-TlM are photogrammetrically updated based on aDs40 imagery. several map products, including the national topographic map series, are created using digital cartographic models (DCMs) derived from the TlM. like the TlM, DCMs are seamless. However, DCM data is in 2D and is cartographically enhanced. both the TlM and DCMs are processed and stored using arcGIs. Updated information from the TlM gets translated into the DCMs. Using this method, the span of time between the capture of aerial imagery, which is the basis for the creation and maintenance of the TlM, and the publication of geodata and completed map products at a ToPGIs workstation, the two left screens serve software control and data editing, whereas the monitor on the right is the 3D has been dramatically reduced. These new workflows and stereoscopic screen used for photogrammetric interpretation and processes at swisstopo have been implemented through operations. (Photo © 2009 swisstopo) 10
    • Spatial Data Infrastructure 11
    • SPATIAL DATA INfrASTruCTurE A Search Engine for Geospatial Data Geospatial One-Stop Highlights records (information about the data) and links to map • find geospatial data from many sources in one location. services, online mapping applications, downloadable datasets, catalog services, map images, clearinghouses, • Data sharing reduces redundancy in data collection and map files, and more. The metadata records were submitted usage. to the portal by federal, state, and local government • build partnerships for planned data acquisitions through agencies; individuals; and companies. as the catalog the Geospatial one-stop marketplace. becomes more comprehensive, its utility as a one-stop • Provide custom search interfaces for use in other portal for finding geospatial data for the United states applications, Web pages, and catalogs. continues to improve. Geodata.gov is a GIs portal also known as Geospatial Map services accessed through Gos can be used with a one-stop (Gos), which serves as a public gateway for variety of desktop mapping and viewing clients such as improving access to geospatial data and map services in esri arcGIs explorer; Microsoft ® Virtual earth®; national the United states. Gos was built to address the need for aeronautics and space administration’s (nasa) World a comprehensive geospatial data catalog—one location Wind; and other open Geospatial Consortium, Inc.® (oGC®)- where a user can go to find geospatial data, avoiding the compliant viewers such as GaIa (thecarbonproject.com). need to search the many Web sites published by individual Gos search tools identify relevant map services based on agencies and entities. Managed by the U.s. Geological either subject matter or geographic extent and can then survey, the portal was created under the Geospatial one- be combined with local map services and data content. a stop e-government initiative, sponsored by the federal mashup of several live map services, providing access to office of Management and budget (oMb), to enhance dozens of data layers, can be saved as a URl and sent via government efficiency and improve citizen services. Gos e-mail to other users. makes it easier, faster, and less expensive for all levels of new enhancements to Geospatial one-stop version 2.3 government and the public to access geospatial information. include features such as a redesigned Maps tab with The geodata.gov portal (gos2.geodata.gov) is designed expanded ready-to-use maps; search results that can be to facilitate discovery and sharing of geographic data and exposed to external applications such as Rss readers, resources through a search interface or by browsing within HTMl pages, and KMl readers such as esri arcGIs topical communities of interest. The portal is a catalog of explorer; and integration with an federal Geographic geospatial information containing thousands of metadata Data Committee (fGDC) map service status checker that The mashup map in the Gos Map Viewer depicts how over a dozen ohio map services from different sources are overlain. 12
    • indicates whether a map service listed in a search result isavailable and can be displayed in the Gos viewer.Gos now includes several special search filters that allowsearching of content related to special collections or subsetsof data within Gos, such as the Interagency Working Groupon ocean and Coastal Mapping and the state GIs Inventory(aka RaMona). Using the new ResT interface, users cansubscribe to updates or develop their own search interfacesin Gos while not being forced to use the Gos portal Website itself as the main point of interaction. The wealth ofgeospatial resources registered with Gos is now availableto be leveraged in federal, state, and local governmentagencies as well as by the general public.The Gos portal is built on the esri arcGIs server Geoportalextension and other CoTs products. Gos uses open a Maps tab gives visitors to the site quick accessibility to expandable,standards in many of its features, including metadata ready-to-use maps.harvesting, data sharing, and viewing Web map services.Geospatial data includingimagery is available for theUnited States governmentand the general public. 13
    • SPATIAL DATA INfrASTruCTurE Global Doorway to Understanding the Earth GEOSS GEO Portal Highlights finalized in 2015, Geoss will yield a broad range of • single Internet access point for data, imagery, and societal benefit areas that address many major challenges analytic software facing our world. among these societal benefits, which require precise geospatial awareness to address, are • Connects users to existing databases and portals reducing deaths and loss of property from natural and • organizes and publishes locations of geospatial datasets, human-caused disasters, understanding and improving applications, and Web resources environmental factors that are harmful to human health In 2003, the european Commission, along with 76 other and biodiversity, and improving the management of energy international governments, formed the Group on earth resources. of the many goals for Geoss, one is to eliminate observations (Geo) to strengthen global cooperation key obstacles to data access. Geo recognizes the need for in developing earth observation systems. Geo is a full and open exchange of observations, guaranteed data voluntary coalition of governments that serves as a task access and usability, and a solid regulatory framework for force for developing new earth observation projects and earth observations. coordinating strategies and investments to increase global soon after Geoss was proposed, Geo contracted with awareness. esri Professional services to build the Geoss Geo Portal To achieve its task, Geo began constructing the Global using esri’s arcGIs server Geoportal extension (formerly earth observation system of systems (Geoss) in 2005. the GIs Portal Toolkit). The Geoss Geo Portal offers based on a 10-year implementation plan that will be a single Internet access point for data, imagery, and The Geoss Geo Portal makes data available to scientists around the globe. esri’s arcGIs server Geoportal extension offers a single Internet access point for spatial data. 14
    • Understanding the earth by viewing and analyzing location data helpsorganizations better manage natural resources.analytic software packages that are relevant to all partsof the globe. It connects users to existing databasesand portals and provides reliable, up-to-date, and user-friendly information, vital for the work of decision makers,planners, and emergency managers. The arcGIs serverGeoportal extension is a standards-based platform forbuilding geospatial portals, spatial data infrastructures, andmetadata catalogs. It gives Geo partners the capability toorganize and publish the locations of geospatial datasets,applications, and Web resources while providing userswith the ability to discover those resources and facilitatingaccess to them.Today, the Geoss Geo Portal provides scientists witheasy access to a wealth of earth observation data and Webmapping services. It is a global doorway to increasing our sharing data will ultimately help provide scientifically-based reasons for action in our changing world.understanding of the earth and helping participants movefrom principles to action. To learn more about Geo, visitearthobservations.org.To use the Geo Portal, visit geoss.esri.com/geoportal. 15
    • SPATIAL DATA INfrASTruCTurE National GIS Provides Consistent Framework Center for GIS, Qatar Highlights Qatar is currently experiencing an expanding economy • GIs maintains the accuracy and accessibility of the digital and massive infrastructure development. because of database. the established standards, companies and agencies can easily access and share the GIs data they need, when they • oversight of land development and environmental need it. Mohamed abd el-Wahab Hamouda, head of the impact is aided by GIs. Planning and Projects Division at the Center for GIs (CGIs), • The compatibility of data aids cooperation between comments, “Data compatibility itself tends to encourage agencies. and sustain cooperation among agencies because the data In 1989, the state of Qatar, a small nation on the arabian is readily transferred and easy to use.” Gulf, conducted a government-wide user needs assessment With the technical assistance, training, and guidance from to determine which areas of government would benefit the CGIs, most government agencies have implemented GIs- most from the implementation of GIs. Today, more than based solutions that take advantage of the wealth of data 40 government agencies in Qatar are using GIs in their day- that has been created during the past 20 years. to-day activities. because the same GIs standards are used throughout the country, the data and resultant applications as the agency responsible for maintaining and providing of all government agencies are compatible, providing a online access to Qatar’s Digital Topographic Database, nationwide GIs. In addition, the agencies are connected CGIs makes sure that the comprehensive database through GIsnet, a high-speed network that allows the rapid comprises highly accurate, topologically structured vector transfer of data. Dozens of GIs applications have been maps; high-resolution orthoimagery and satellite and developed that benefit the country’s government agencies, oblique images; a high-precision digital elevation model; private businesses, and residents. The Ministry of environment oversees development and environmental impact through GIs, using a revision and quality control system selective check. 16
    • a map of Doha shows part of GIsnet and the unique data sharing among agencies.and, most recently, a 3D city model of urban areas with ahigh level of detail.since the topographic vector database consists of ahuge volume of information, the data needs to be ofthe highest quality with respect to precision, accuracy,attribute information, and so on. To maintain such a hugedatabase, a systematic approach was needed to performrevision and quality control for all incoming data (vector andorthoimages) and surveyed data.a number of steps have been taken to ensure the quality ofthe data. These can be broken down into three primary areas:• Content completeness checks ensure that all needed features were captured.• The systematic routine examination of topological relationships involves using a variety of routines to look for such things as specific combinations of features that are not acceptable or features falling outside the map limits.• Data enhancement is done using edgematching, which provides mathematical continuity from one sheet to the next, thus allowing any two sheets to be appended without any resultant polygon misclosures or linear discontinuity.Through CGIs, the government encourages and facilitatesspatial data sharing and interagency cooperation amongQatari organizations, enterprises, and government entities.CGIs maintains a rich and comprehensive national basemapand a robust framework for communication among groupsin the country working with GIs.survey parcel extents and policy plans are of high quality for usethroughout the nation. 17
    • SPATIAL DATA INfrASTruCTurE Remote Communities Prevail with GIS Small Island SDI Highlights since 2005, GIs has been used to synthesize disparate • small nations benefit from geospatial data being stored databases and datasets and create new maps and images and shared. for environmental management. GIs also assists with other applications including the environmental Health • Data quality and control are increased. Department’s mapping of rat control and documenting • Information is shared for use between governmental of the eclectic set of historical sites such as the guns agencies and private organizations. of the sunken HMs Hood, Dampier’s Drip (the original Thanks to special funding through the joint United Kingdom freshwater source), and concrete water catchments in foreign office/Department for International Development the mountainside that collect scarce cloud water for the environment Programme, a group of UK overseas territories population’s predesalination plant. and the member states of the organization of eastern Using arcView ®, a component of arcGIs Desktop, the Carribean states are able to rely on GIs for spatial data system works well. “The software is easy enough to be infrastructure (sDI), using the solution for data quality and handled by nonexperts. We are able to use a flexible control, information sharing, and delivering finished products framework that accepts new monitoring data and can for use between governmental agencies and private integrate datasets from a wide variety of sources and organizations. Calling themselves “tiny sDI,” these small types,” says Dr. edsel Daniel, professor, Vanderbilt islands use arcGIs as the backbone for spatial data sharing. University in nashville, Tennessee, and GIs manager at Ascension Island Discovers Benefit in Data Sharing ascension Island. one island that has many unique needs housed in a small arcView integrates all the data necessary for the space is UK overseas territory (UKoT) ascension Island, government to make informed planning decisions to balance situated in the sea halfway between africa and brazil. environmental, amenity, and infrastructural priorities. Clear only 34 square miles in area (approximately 91 square protocols and procedures have been determined to pass kilometers), the island is inhabited by about 1,000 people. data from the field to the end user. “The key to this system a relatively recent volcanic emergence close to the Mid- to function in such a small area so economically with great atlantic Ridge, it has little natural vegetation except for a benefit is the fact that data gathered for one purpose can be few species of ferns as well as spurge, a plant that exudes shared in many applications,” says alan Mills, director, alan a bitter milky juice. The island became a refuge for a wide Mills Consulting ltd. variety of marine species and is the second-largest atlantic nesting site for green turtles. Saint Helena Finds Cooperation Is the Key saint Helena, about 750 miles southeast of ascension Island, cannot be reached by air. Instead, a visitor must take the Royal Mail ship (RMs) St. Helena. GIs was first used to determine the best locations to place freshwater boreholes. In 2004, other projects began, the largest being construction of the island’s cadastre. The agriculture and natural Resources Department (anRD), along with the saint Helena national Trust (sHnT), implemented arcView and a Microsoft access® database to monitor clearance of invasive flax and other plants and manage the growth of endemic cabbage trees and tree ferns. a single system was then designed to minimize duplication of effort and share the burden of data collection and management. The legal, lands, and Planning Department (llPD) was keen on expanding on its new cadastral GIs and ascension Island’s Conservation Department is one of many database, and working with anRD meant environmental departments that can share data gathered across the island; this map is for bird nesting habitats. 18
    • concerns were known by the planning unit for bothstrategic plans and the development control process.sharing resources also made it easier for training sessionsto be organized and held for occasional users of GIs. Datais not duplicated, and there is better quality control andattribution when it is used for multiple applications. Visitingscientists and consultants can search the data catalog andhave a recognized way of contributing information to thesystem in a structured manner once a project is completed. This map defines trends of the mountain chicken habitat of Montserrat.Mapping Resources on Rodrigues Island to SustainHuman Activity society for the Protection of birds (RsPb); and the RoyalRodrigues is a partly autonomous island found 650 kilometers botanical Gardens, Kew—is helping to protect endangeredeast of Mauritius. one of the more populated islands in this species like the mountain chicken.grouping, it is home to 40,000 people who live off reef andsubsistence farming; it has few support services and only a Long-Term Planningfledgling tourism industry. fluctuating commodity prices and reduced european Union trade preferences have made the island’s reliancesHoals Rodrigues—a nongovernmental organization on single-crop agriculture an economic vulnerability. To(nGo) working closely with the island’s government, address such vulnerabilities, in 2005 Government of st. Kittsthe Regional assembly—conducts marine research, and nevis (GosKn) made the decision to close the sugareducation, and training addressing the extensive reef area, industry and vigorously pursue economic diversificationwhich extends more than twice the size of the land itself. by placing emphasis on more viable alternatives, such asone major activity is assessing the extent and health of tourism and nonsugar agriculture including field cropsthe marine resources, including the corals, seagrasses, and livestock. one of the major challenges of this effortand mangroves. With the support of the universities of is adopting careful planning that ensures that the island’snewcastle and bangor in the United Kingdom and using land resources, previously utilized by the sugarcane crops,arcView, sHoals created a map of the basic reef structure are optimized for the long-term economic, social, andusing supervised classification of landsat enhanced environmental sustainability of the country.Thematic Mapper (eTM) data, with the intent to useQuickbird satellite imagery in the near future for the more after the closing of the sugar industry, the Physical Planningdetailed map of the resources, as well as for educational Department (PPD) and Department of agriculture (Doa)work and in governmental planning. spearheaded planning for the agricultural transition. a land resource analysis study was conducted using arcGIsGIS Keeps People and Mountain Chickens Safe on Montserrat (arcView), identifying the most suitable lands for sixIn the eastern Caribbean sea, Montserrat is another UK nonsugar agriculture products: vegetable crops (e.g.,overseas territory, 20 kilometers west of antigua. after a tomatoes, peppers), pineapples, fruit tree crops (e.g., sugarvolcanic eruption in 1997, the population dwindled from apples, guava), field crops (e.g., cassava, sweet potato),11,000 to 3,500 and is now settled on only one-third of the livestock production, and pasture/grass (e.g., guinea grassisland. These few people are in need of GIs to assist them for feeding livestock). The community was able to evaluatein mapping safe zones and planning for permanent homes future land use, such as housing for tourism, industrial,and services away from the dangerous area around the and residential, along with suitable lands for nonsugarvolcano. GIs is also used to map endangered species in the agriculture activities. GIs provided a bigger picture of howCenter Hills area, including the curiously named mountain to develop areas for the benefit of the community.chicken, a frog that is a local delicacy and has beenunfortunately decimated by a fungal disease. Work by theDepartment of environment in Montserrat—supported bythe likes of Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust; the UK Royal 19
    • Geospatial Intelligence20
    • Improving Efficiency with Enterprise Product on Demand Service National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency Highlights nGa. This status provides funding through fiscal year 2015 • better able to provide customers with timely access to and the opportunity to become part of nGa’s life cycle relevant and accurate data processes. although ePoDs maritime production has been ongoing since 2007, it recently passed nGa’s operational • Reduced time required to produce maps and charts, Readiness Review (oRR)/operational acceptance Review in some cases from hundreds of hours to less than one (oaR). This milestone was the final step in nGa’s acceptance • Increased efficiency by creating products based on use process and determined that the maritime service can be The national Geospatial-Intelligence agency (nGa) is a officially considered operational by nGa. U.s. Department of Defense combat support agency and a The success of ePoDs has allowed nGa to change its member of the national intelligence community. Its primary focus from producing cartographic products to providing mission is to provide geospatial intelligence (GeoInT) the Special Advertisingsupport its customers’ most accurate data possible to Section to members of the U.s. armed forces and government needs. With the help of ePoDs, nGa has significantly agencies that support U.s. national security, as well as reduced the time required to produce maps and charts. for aeronautical and nautical safety. ENTERPRISEWIDE GIS some maps and charts, production time has dropped from hundreds of hours to less than one. To better provide its users with access to timely, accurate, and relevant GeoInT, nGa contracted with esri nGa further increased its efficiency by using ePoDs to Improving Efficiency with Enterprise Professional services in 2004 for a new initiative known now as enterprise Product on Demand service (ePoDs). one determine, on a case-by-case basis, how much production Product on Demand Service time to spend on a product based on the intended use ofGEOINT Applications Showcase of the project’s main goals was to automate map and chart the product, eliminating the need to spend hundreds of creation to gain efficiency and reduce errors. In addition, hours finishing a one-off product that will be used only for T nGa sought to permit access to the most current nGa quick analysis. data in all domains, Geospatial-aeronautical, nautical, and he National including Ongoing Development product that only will be used for topographic. TheAgency to designaand print custom continued to The ePoDs portal allows nGa to focus more of its Intelligence ability (NGA) is ePODS has maps mature and quick analysis. U.S. Department of Defense com- resources on data quality, integrity, and to focus more was also high on the list of desired functionality. products to NGA’s user com- offer more ePODS allows NGA currency rather bat support agency and a member of its resources on data quality, munity. In April 2007, ePODS cartographic product generation. With ePoDs, than moved of the national intelligence commu- ePODS Functionality from being a prototype to an official integrity, nGa is able to provide its customers with timely access S.S. Curtiss nity. ePoDs Web portal is to provide to access the record at NGA. This status The Its primary mission allows users program of and currency geospatial intelligence (GEOINT) to provides funding throughtoscal year and accurate GeoInT data. navigation safety fi relevant rather than system from specific nGa networks built on service- members of the U.S. armed forces and 2015 and the opportu- is also significantly improved for military personnel and oriented architecture (soa) using esri’s arcGIs system. part government agencies who support U.S. nity to become civilians with improvements in accuracy and timeliness of nationalserver provides the GIs Web services and life cycle arcGIs security, as well as aeronauti- of NGA’s portal aeronautical and nautical charts. cal and nautical safety. processes. Although functionality. esri Production Mapping provides a robust To better provide its users with final touch-up or “finishing” environmentePODS maritime for aeronautical, access to timely, accurate, and relevant production has been nautical, and topographic maps and charts that nGa 2007, GEOINT, NGA contracted with ESRI ongoing since Professional edit prior to publication. chooses to Services in 2004 for a new it recently passed initiative known now as Enterprise NGA’s Operational Product on Web interface, users select theReadiness Review Using the Demand Services (ePODS). data they need; configure the datamain a map; apply specific cartographic One of the project’s into goals was to (ORR)/Operational automate map and chart product;to gain rules; preview the end creation and printAcceptance Review it or download efficiencypackage that includes data, instructions, and a source and reduce errors. In addition, (OAR). This mile- NGA sought to permit access to the stone was the final media to work locally on the maps for further refinement. most current NGA data in all domains, step in NGA’s accep- With ePoDs, users can produce output in several formats, including aeronautical, nautical, and tance process and de- topographic. The ability toJPeG, CaDRG, and geodatabase/ including .pdf, GeoTIff, design and termined that the print custom maps was also high on the arcMap document (MXD) downloads. maritime service can list of desired functionality. be officially consid- Ongoing Development ered operational by ePODSePoDs has continued to mature and offer more nGa’s Functionality NGA. With ePoDs, nGa customers can access the most current nGa data ePODS is a Web portal that allows users ePODS has holdings to build on-demand nautical maps and charts. as a result, products to the user community. In april 2007, ePoDs moved navigation safety has been significantly improved for both military access to the system from specific NGA allowed NGA to networks builtprototype to an official program of record atfrom from being a on service-oriented archi- change its focus personnel and civilians. tecture (SOA) using ESRI’s ArcGIS® fam- producing cartograph- ily of products. ArcGIS Server provides ic products to provid- the geographic information system (GIS) ing the most accurate 21 Web services and portal functionality. data possible to PLTS™ for ArcGIS provides a robust final support its customers’
    • GIS Delivers Purpose-Driven Maps in a Timely Manner to UNOCIGEoSPATIAL INTELLIGENCE United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire Highlights The Ivory Coast road map was created using a workflow • Maps for planning and operations are delivered within that included the customer in each step: one day. • expression of the user’s needs through online map • Creating maps in-house allows UnoCI to create purpose- requests driven products. • Discussions with the user on content detail and product • standard maps are available anytime to all staff members uses over the Internet. • Determination of required data and sources for the United nations (Un) peacekeeping mission in the • acquisition of required data including scanning, Ivory Coast, the United nations operation in Côte d’Ivoire digitization, field collection, and imagery (UnoCI) needed to create a road map for the country. • Data processing and analysis Digital data from a local mapping agency was deemed • feature attribution too expensive, and management had the perception that GIs was a system that could provide maps quickly; it didn’t • Product design and layout understand the considerable task of creating accurate • Quality control/Quality assurance by both the GIs team basemaps to support mapping efforts. and the map user In 2005, GIs staff, hardware, and software were transferred • Product delivery from a Un mission in sierra leone to cut down on startup before the establishment of GIs in UnoCI, the organization time and training. Two staff members spent four months was purchasing paper maps from external sources, a process extracting features from an old paper map that was that could take from two to three months. as these maps considered to be one of the best data sources to produce were outdated and not purpose designed, staff could not a country road map. The paper map was scanned by WIDe rely on them for planning and operations. Using arcGIs in a Image software and digitized in arcInfo, a component functional GIs department, more than 100 copies of existing of esri’s comprehensive arcGIs software. arcPad® was maps can now be delivered in one day by a single staff used for field data collection of x, y, and z data, and a member. Using fully digitized base data, specific-purpose digital elevation model (DeM) was created with arcGIs products are available in three to five days. a number of 3D analyst™. a third-party imagery program was used standard products are also accessible over the intranet at to update portions of the data before the design and any time by all staff from locations around the country. compilation were completed in arcGIs. The final product was saved to .pdf format to permit rapid background printing and ensure that the product could not be changed while in digital format. Portion of UnoCI area of Interest in Ivory Coast 22
    • NATO’s Afghanistan Country Stability Picture PortalNorth Atlantic Treaty Organization International Security Assistance ForceHighlights The aCsP project is divided into six regions. The user has• aCsP is available on the Internet to naTo, nGos, access to different links depending on the area of interest: and Goa and is the only database that provides a Region Centre (capital), Region south, Region north, Region consolidated picture of all reconstruction projects in West, Region east, and Country Wide (all afghanistan). afghanistan. for all these regions, the user has access to spatial and nonspatial information as well as predefined GIs analysis.• Complex spatial queries are transparent for the user and are executed on the server side. Through the intuitive interface, the user can easily access all• non-GIs experts can use the tool easily. the information required. With the identification tool, it is possible to access information about the objects on the map.The afghanistan Country stability Picture (aCsP) is ageographic database—whose creation effort is led easy use of predefined spatial queries allows fastby the north atlantic Treaty organization (naTo) visualization of specific reconstruction projects and theirInternational security assistance force (Isaf)—of more impact on the region. There is a tool to export thosethan 45,000 reconstruction and development projects queries as maps, reports, or any other information to a PDfacross afghanistan. It holds information about different document or Microsoft excel® spreadsheet.afghan national Development strategy sectors like finding a specific location in afghanistan is easy using theeducation, good governance, health, agriculture and rural gazetteer. It contains more than 135,000 names, and thedevelopment, infrastructure and natural resources, private- map will zoom to and center on the chosen location.sector development, security, and social protection. Thedata held in the aCsP comes from three primary sources: The purpose of the aCsP portal is to provide an easygovernment of afghanistan (Goa), provincial reconstruction and effective tool for consulting and querying theteams (PRTs), and nongovernmental organizations. aCsP database on the Internet. This spatial database incorporates all reconstruction project-related informationThe aCsP geospatial Web portal was developed and obtained from different sources in a standardized andpublished on the Internet by nC3a Geo-Team at the harmonized format.beginning of 2007. The portal is used by naTo, nGos, andGoa for optimization/monitoring of reconstruction efforts The application was built on esri arcGIs server.and is updated at three-month intervals.The aCsP Web client interface shows Region south. on the left side is The aCsP Web client interface shows the nonspatial information andthe table of contents with all the layers available for this area. the ability to export it to a PDf document or excel (on the bottom of the page). 23
    • Imagery24
    • Analyzing and Monitoring Myanmar’s Damaged RiceProduction Regions with GISForeign Agricultural ServiceHighlights the severity of flooding, and the rate of cropland recovery.• arcGIs software-based maps provide a detailed The United nations, nongovernmental organizations, and perspective of where remediation efforts are needed. the international agriculture industry have also used these resources to evaluate the scope of the cyclone’s impact.• Remote sensing and GIs are used to analyze global crop production capacity. arcGIs software-based maps depicting the cyclone• Post-Cyclone nargis GIs maps of Myanmar monitor the damage in Myanmar provide the agriculture industry ongoing flood recovery. with a detailed perspective of where remediation efforts need to be conducted before the country can produceWith winds of 132 miles per hour, Cyclone nargis, a a normal rice harvest. In fas’s second commoditycategory 3 tropical storm, struck the low-lying and intelligence report, issued on June 10, 2008, GIs mapsheavily populated Myanmar coastline on May 2, 2008. showed that approximately 80 percent of the originalThe intense storm produced a 12-foot sea wave that rice production area was still affected by some degree offlooded an area of approximately 2,000 square miles with a flooding. fortunately, at that time, conditions in the corepopulation of 24 million. nargis left behind 90,000 fatalities damage zone had improved considerably, with only 418,000and 56,000 missing persons in Myanmar, the country once hectares, or 46 percent of the original area, still showingknown as burma. flood damage.subsequent to Cyclone nargis, the foreign agricultural Post-Cyclone nargis GIs maps of Myanmar generated byservice (fas) of the United states Department of fas have proved so valuable in monitoring the floodagriculture (UsDa) began producing a series of commodity recovery in the country that the agency has receivedintelligence reports focusing on Myanmar’s damaged custom map requests from many organizations. asagricultural areas. fas’s mission is to improve foreign conditions change and new data becomes available,market access to U.s. agricultural products, build new fas will continue to produce its own GIs maps, performmarkets, improve the competitive position of U.s. analyses, and issue commodity intelligence reports focusedagriculture in the global marketplace, and provide food on Myanmar’s rice production regions.aid and technical assistance to foreign countries. fas usesremote sensing and GIs software to analyzeglobal crop production capacity, then issuescommodity intelligence reports containingmaps created with geospatial data and thetechnology found in arcGIs software, whichhas been the UsDa’s standard GIs since 2001.The maps that support fas commodityintelligence reports include data from varioussources. for example, satellite imageryobtained from the U.s. national aeronauticsand space administration’s moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer(MoDIs) satellite delineates the postcycloneflooding region. Combined with rice land-cover classification data from the landsatsatellite program and the tools in arcGIssoftware, maps of the damaged riceproduction regions of Myanmar are easilycreated. These fas-produced maps reveal thecyclone’s effects on cropland and livestock, Data from the MoDIs and landsat satellites allow fas to produce a map of the cyclone-damaged rice production regions of Myanmar. 25
    • Monitoring the Albertine Rift in Africa Woods Hole Research Center Highlights such as the Wildlife Conservation society (WCs) and the Uganda Wildlife authority (UWa).IMAGErY • arcGIs server runs geoprocessing routines on the fly, such as extracting shapefiles and converting features to WHRC activities have included the integration of remote- graphics. sensing analysis into existing decision support systems • Using arcobjects, many custom tools and interfaces are (such as the Uganda Management Information system); built for the Web GIs. the production of basemaps of land use/land cover, • Data for five protected areas throughout Uganda is deforestation, and fire extent; and the development available through one access point. of monitoring tools that combine remote-sensing and biodiversity data. stretching from the northern end of lake albert to the southern end of lake Tanganyika and spanning portions of The acquisition and exchange of this important Uganda, Rwanda, Tanzania, burundi, and the Democratic conservation data, in turn, are intended to improve natural Republic of Congo, the albertine Rift is one of africa’s most resource management, distribute spatial information to important—and most threatened—sites for the conservation support conservation policy analysis, encourage a dialog of biodiversity. formed over the course of millions of years, across a broad user community, and provide technical the albertine Rift is the result of two tectonic plates that training to support the long-term use of spatial data and collided and are now slowly pulling apart. analysis tools. Three years ago, Woods Hole Research Center (WHRC) To better accomplish these goals, WHRC identified the of falmouth, Massachusetts, began working in the region need to provide data via a Web interface. It teamed with to promote the development and use of remote sensing the Institute for the application of Geospatial Technology as a tool for conservation, with the principal goal being (IaGT) of auburn, new York, which had experience building to better facilitate the exchange of information between mapping applications, to develop a customized Web GIs collaborative members of the conservation communities, application. arcGIs server was implemented, which allows users to do more than merely display and navigate maps. as users interact with the mapping application, geoprocessing routines run on the fly, such as extracting shapefiles and converting features to graphics (and vice versa). several custom tools were created to make the custom Web GIs application a more interactive and useful tool. Data for five protected areas throughout Uganda (budongo/bugoma forest Reserve, Kibale national Park, Murchison falls Conservation area, Queen elizabeth national Park, and semuliki national Park) is currently available through one access point. The data displayed is a compilation of various remote-sensing-derived products (e.g., land cover, base imagery) and vector information collected by UWa rangers. These vector layers include general spatial information related to each of the protected areas (e.g., encroachment, poaching) and wildlife sightings that have been collected during UWa ranger patrols (1985–present, depending on the protected area). Map of the albertine Rift Region 26
    • Five Regional Remote Sensing Centres Will ImplementArcGIS Server and the ArcGIS Server Image ExtensionIndian Space Research OrganizationHighlights of users. The centers selected esri’s proven technology• Centers allow government agencies throughout India to and superior solutions after several rounds of technical share satellite and other imagery. presentations, demonstrations, and discussions. The RRssCs and esri India have concluded a comprehensive• Projects with national significance are being training session, and RRssC users have started developing implemented. the solution.• The system is scalable to meet the needs of new users over time. arcGIs server helps users connect people with the information they need via Web mapping applicationsThe Indian space Research organization (IsRo) has and GIs services. It is built on a modern service-orientedreached an agreement with nIIT GIs limited (esri India), architecture. The arcGIs server Image extension makesesri’s distributor in India, to equip its five Regional Remote it possible to take raw or preprocessed imagery andsensing service Centres (RRssCs) with arcGIs server and immediately deliver it as a Web service. It enables IsRo tothe arcGIs server Image extension. The centers in Jodhpur, exploit the rich information content available in imageryDehradun, Kharagpur, nagpur, and bangalore use Indian and quickly access large volumes of imagery. This is farRemote sensing (IRs) satellite and other imagery to create superior to traditional options that required significantthematic maps and GIs databases that provide valuable effort by users to locate and make file-based imagerysocietal applications to various government agencies available. esri India envisions that this new softwarethroughout India. deployment and implementation will serve as a keyWith India’s success in remote-sensing technology through reference within all Indian government agencies, especiallythe IRs constellation, several new imagery-based and those that disseminate and/or consume imagery andGIs-centric projects of national relevance are gaining imagery-related data.visibility and importance. IsRo is presently implementingmajor programs related to natural resources, disastermanagement, environmental oversight, and groundwaterand watershed management.The remote-sensing centersare establishing a distributedarchitecture of server-based solutionsdesigned to be the foundation forpublishing, hosting, and servingimages and data. over time, theRRssCs have collected large volumesof map data and integrated themwith attribute data. The centersplan to combine and assimilate allthe data with new-generation IRshigh-resolution images and serve thedata and application sets across thegovernment sector.The RRssCs needed a GIs solutionthat met their needs and was scalableto meet growing demands forservices and a variety of advancedapplications from a large number satellite Image of India and Himalayan Mountains 27
    • Nautical28
    • Modernizing Nautical Chart Production: Next-GenerationCharting System Based on Commercial Off-the-Shelf SolutionThe Marine Chart Division at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric AdministrationHighlights through several production lines to either an enC or a• GIs minimizes redundant application of source data. paper chart, which was a major factor in the amount of time, effort, and quality control needed for updates.• Cartographic consistency across products has been improved. MCD has used GIs for many years to improve workflows• one production system uses a comprehensive database and data management but wanted a CoTs-based, system with a single front end. enterprise-wide system for nCs II to gain efficiencies and streamline data management and product generation.The Marine Chart Division (MCD) at national oceanic and MCD contracted with fairfax, Virginia-based ManTechatmospheric administration (noaa) has gone through International Corporation, a leading provider of U.s.system acceptance using GIs technology as core to government technology and solutions for mission-criticalthe management of hydrographic information and the national security programs. after a rigorous selectionproduction of digital and hard-copy nautical charts. This process, ManTech selected esri as a subcontractor on thesystem will be used to create the next generation of the project due to esri’s expertise and experience working onnautical Chart system (nCs II), expanding the use of GIs GIs projects. In particular, the team wanted to leveragethroughout the whole organization. esri nautical solution, which provides production-orientedMCD is a division of the office of Coast survey (oCs), applications and end-to-end workflows tailored specificallywhich is part of the national ocean service (nos), one of to the needs of hydrographic offices. noaa reached afive noaa line offices. nos works to observe, understand, milestone by accepting the new system.and manage U.s. coastal and marine resources, including “The needs of the global navigation community arenavigation safety. oCs specifically oversees the Marine constantly changing, and our charts must adapt to thoseTransportation system. needs,” says Captain steven barnum, office of CoastnCs II will help MCD meet its critical challenge of providing survey director. “The system we developed with ManTechnavigation products that cover approximately 11 million and esri allows noaa to continue being the provider ofsquare kilometers of coastal waters, including the Great choice for accurate and timely navigation data.”lakes (areas collectively called the United states exclusive With system acceptance complete, MCD expects to realizeeconomic Zone). ninety-five percent of U.s. commerce, significant gains in productivity, data management capability,by weight, travels through these waters alongside 110,000 and flexibility. With this move to a next-generation GIs-commercial and recreational fishing vessels. based system, noaa MCD will continue to be the worldTo produce these complicated products from nCs II, MCD leader in hydrographic information management.uses source data including hydrographic survey data,hazard updates, and navigation aid information. from thisdata, MCD maintains a suite of more than 1,000 papernautical charts and is in the process of providing completecoverage in electronic navigational Chart (enC) formatbased on the International Hydrographic organizations-57 transfer standard. Data is obtained from more than50 entities, including the army Corps of engineers, noaasurvey ships, and the U.s. Coast Guard.Previously, critical updates for paper and electronic chartswere published weekly. However, the noncritical updatecycle for paper charts ranged from every six months forareas of high commercial traffic to as infrequently as every12 years for remote areas. The average revision interval per a suite of more than 1,000 paper nautical charts is maintained as wellnautical chart was about 2 years. Data had to be applied as complete coverage in electronic navigational Chart format basedmultiple times, stored in many applications, and processed on the International Hydrographic organization s-57 transfer standard. 29
    • A Geospatial Foundation: Public, Private, and Military Applications Flow from SDI Portuguese Instituto Hidrografico Highlights such as physical oceanography, hydrography, marineNAuTICAL • sDI supports data and products and answering ad hoc geology, chemical oceanography, and navigation safety. requests for information. for the last several years, IHPT has been developing an sDI • fully integrated data transfer and online access to sDI are called IDaMaR (an acronym in Portuguese for spatial data available. infrastructure for the marine environment) to support the • sDI supports maritime safety; police investigations; navy production of technical and scientific data and information activities; and many areas of public, commercial, and product management. It began as a departmental environmental protection service. GIs named sIGaMaR, but the scope of the GIs was subsequently broadened, and the IDaMaR sDI now also The marine spatial data infrastructure (sDI) developed provides the institute with the ability to respond to ad hoc by Portuguese Instituto Hidrografico (IHPT) provides requests for information from decision makers. information to decision makers as well as information products for environmental protection activities, research To conform to military communications security rules, the and development, private industry, military activities, and IDaMaR sDI is actually composed of two similar systems: the public. one connected to the Internet and one connected to a private military network. The public portion, available to Information products are publicly disseminated and all users, includes communications networks, databases, available from the public Web site at hidrografico.pt. metadata, software, hardware, specialized human IHPT is the naval organization responsible for producing resources, outreach and support, data policy, internal official nautical paper and electronic charts as well as data management processes, distributable information conducting studies and research in marine-related disciplines products, and online services. Data is stored using either DbMs- or file- based systems. The choice of system is based on the type of data stored and how that data could be most efficiently used. Data models for DbMs storage were internally developed for information processes except for chemical lab analysis data. a commercial laboratory information management solution, Thermo nautilus lIMs, was acquired and extended so that chemical data could be easily integrated with the entire system. Internally developed data models (when applicable) follow the s-57 standard for hydrographic data transfer. (s-57 is a digital data format standard.) The most relevant developed data model supports the hydrographic data warehouse (HDW). This database stores bathymetric soundings acquired by IHPT and represents a major improvement in the cartographic production process because it reduces production time, eliminates procedures susceptible to human error, and improves the quality of the final product. Data stored includes data about the sea Information products are publicly disseminated and available from the state (e.g., wave height, period, and direction public Web site at hidrografico.pt. 30
    • and sea temperature) fromocean buoys, tide predictionsand observations, horizontalcontrol points, nautical chartand cell coverage, chemicalanalysis of seawater and seabottom sediments, bathymetricnavigation warnings, andmedium-resolution satelliteimagery. not all data wassupplied by IHPT—some isrelated to activities of thePortuguese navy.a data policy document The enC World Catalogue is one of the most relevant data catalogs available.sets out rules that governdata management and access in the IDaMaR sDI. This Portuguese coastline is available from a customized arcGIsdocument stipulates policies for data classification, data server Web site. This site provides links to photographs ofaccess (both format and eligibility), and the associated coastline landmarks that help inexperienced sailors learn tocosts. some datasets are freely available to the public: recognize coast features.near real-time sea state data; water temperature; seastate predictions for locations in the atlantic and near Mission impact diagrams, which display anticipatedPortugal; tide predictions for all principal and secondary environmental impacts by military activities, are importantports in Portugal as well as locations such as angola, Cape to mission planning. assessing impacts by using only aVerde, Guinea-bissau, and Mozambique; some maritime table was time consuming and could be confusing. sinceadministrative limits; small-scale bathymetric lines; and 2006, IHPT has been supporting the navy and nationala small-scale converted electronic navigation Chart cell military joint staff with geospatially based, color-codedfor continental Portugal and the Madeira and azores mission impact diagrams. This product, which is used on aarchipelagos. daily basis, provides an exhaustive and efficient interface that shows factors relevant for a specific point of interest.several data catalogs allow users to explore data inIDaMaR sDI databases. Geographic interfaces assist supporting marine research and development is anotherin visualizing data such as horizontal control points, major objective for the IDaMaR sDI. several informationchart folios coverage, hydrographic surveys coverage, products have been developed that help scientists performhydrographic soundings, sea bottom sediment samples, integrated analyses for a variety of marine disciplines,chemical analysis for water and sea bottom samples, tide plan fieldwork, and communicate research results to theobservations, and sea state buoy observations. public. The Hotspot ecosystem Research on the Margins of european seas (HeRMes) project is a perfect exampleThe enC World Catalogue is one of the most relevant of this type of support. More than 50 european partnerscatalogs available. although not entirely related to IHPT are working on this project in seven different areas of the(because its geographic extent is the world), this catalog european shelf. a project GIs has been set up for each regionhelps sea navigators identify the available cells relevant to share data, coordinate fieldwork, and present results.to their routes. The coverage data, collected by theInternational Centre for enCs (IC-enC), is available at websig The IDaMaR sDI is a valuable asset that supports its main.hidrografico.pt/website/icenc and is updated monthly. mission objectives: ensuring safe sea navigation, supporting the navy’s activities, protecting the environment, andInformation on the appearance of the coastline as it contributing to knowledge of the ocean.appears from the sea is very useful for sea navigation.a compilation of visual aids to the navigation of the 31
    • Keeping Nature and Man in Balance with a GIS Data Portal New York Ocean and Great Lakes Ecosystem Council Highlights esri partner stone environmental, Inc., based inNAuTICAL • Geoportal makes more than 200 datasets Montpelier, Vermont, helped create the atlas. first searchable. launched in July 2008, the atlas comprised a Web-based mapping application and more than 200 datasets. Users • search results can be saved in many ways. could view the datasets, download metadata and spatial • Having a hosted site means data from smaller data in multiple formats, and view attributes of the data. organizations is now available. While the council technically met its mandate through this The state of new York created The New York Ocean launch, it was clear from the start that an online catalog and Great Lakes Atlas (nyoglatlas.org) and geoportal would be necessary to help navigate the sheer volume of (portalnyoglecc.nyoglatlas.org), which are used by the datasets available. general public, as well as local, regional, and state decision The portal provides a robust way for users to search all the makers, to view and explore more than 400 datasets about data holdings in the atlas. Users of the portal can perform the region. navigating the vast catalog of data through the metadata searches by keywords, data type, data category, geoportal is made possible with esri’s GIs Portal Toolkit, date modified, and geographic location. Information for now known as the arcGIs server Geoportal extension. specific areas of interest can be easily found and compared The atlas was developed by the new York ocean and Great in this manner. once found, the search results can be saved lakes ecosystem Council. The council, created in 2006, is in multiple ways: in a user profile; to a GeoRss feed; or as chartered with protecting, restoring, and enhancing new HTMl or an HTMl fragment, which allow users to embed a York’s ocean and Great lakes ecosystems while taking defined block of HTMl inside documents at key locations. into account sustainable economic development and Data can also be downloaded in various GIs formats, job creation. The council is chaired by the commissioner including esri shapefile format, via an fTP link. of environmental conservation and is composed of Data includes administrative boundaries; marine data commissioners from many industries including agriculture such as fish distribution and habitat and invasive species; and markets, economic development, and transportation, as elevations and cadastre; environmental and geoscientific well as the secretary of state, the president of the new York information such as geology, groundwater, and soils; and state energy Research and Development authority, and the societal information including historic sites and settlement interim chancellor of the state University of new York. information. Many datasets are from organizations that had never widely distributed geospatial data before. an example is the facility limit Measurement Violation data from the new York Department of environmental Conservation (nYDeC)—Water Division. This data provides information necessary for the Clean Water act national Pollutant Discharge elimination system Program and had been identified as a priority through a data needs workshop. The agency had resource and technical constraints with sharing the data through its own organization. by providing the data via the atlas without having to host the data, the agency could share this important dataset. Data providers have several avenues through which to easily publish data using the portal. Records can be published by uploading metadata that has been created by a metadata editor based on federal Geographic Data Committee The Montauk Point lighthouse is the oldest lighthouse in new York state, authorized under President George Washington in 1792. The historic landmark has been part of the land and seascape for more than 200 years and still serves as an active aid to navigation. 32
    • and International organization for standardization (Iso)standards, such as that included within the Geoportalextension. Metadata can also be created using a Webform. Data providers can also establish a data harvestingrelationship with the data portal through a subportal orWeb-accessible folder. This allows the data portal to collectdesired Web pages and extract necessary data.another option is setting up a subportal. The Tug HillCommission GIs Data Portal ( The New York Ocean and Great Lakes Atlas and geoportal allow/main/home.page) is an example of this. Tug Hill is a agencies and the general public to use ecosystem-based management2,100-square-mile remote rural region of new York located for the shorelines in the state.between lake ontario and the adirondacks mountainrange. several geospatial datasets were developed as partof an ecosystem-based management (ebM) demonstration was developed so the Tug Hill Commission could manageproject in the sandy Creeks watersheds on the eastern its own geospatial data holdings but still make the datashore of lake ontario. a separate data portal, the subportal, available to New York Ocean and Great Lakes Atlas users.Wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems in the world,comparable to rain forests and coral reefs. These wetlands locatedin Wilson, New York, on Lake Ontario are an example of one of the“biological supermarkets” that can be managed using The New YorkOcean and Great Lakes Atlas. 33
    • Aeronautical34
    • Modernizing Nautical Chart Production: Next-GenerationCharting System Based on Commercial Off-the-Shelf SolutionInternational Civil Aviation OrganizationHighlights The ICao electronic air navigation Planning (eanP) GIs• Implemented GIs portal hosting global data for local portal is a gateway combining a database and Internet- ICao users based GIs technology allowing authorized users to submit, store, update, manipulate, analyze, and chart global air• Developed processes to support coordination between navigation planning data from a centralized ICao server. state and international organizations• Increased frequency of data updates Phase one of eanP was deployed in fall 2008 and makes the ICao Global air navigation Plan (GanP) database• Improved daily organization of work available to many users: states, the ICao Council, ICaoInternational Civil aviation organization (ICao) is a staff at headquarters and in the field, regional planningspecialized agency of the United nations. It serves as a and implementation groups, aviation partners, other Unglobal forum for member states to work together toward the agencies, civil aviation entities, and the public. Users accesssafe, secure, and sustainable development of civil aviation. the GIs portal via the Internet to browse data directly using a variety of clients depending on the use of the application,ICao works in close cooperation with other members of including Microsoft Internet explorer ®, esri arcGIs explorer,the Un, including the World Meteorological organization, or arcGIs desktop clients.the International Telecommunications Union, the UniversalPostal Union, World Health organization, and the essentially, eanP displays dynamic, interactive charts.International Maritime organization. nongovernmental Users are now able to perform many different functionsorganizations also participate with ICao and include the besides viewing the data. They can create and view what-ifInternational air Transport association, airports Council scenarios of new routes, chart traffic flow information withInternational, the International federation of air line Pilots’ other user-selected criteria, and update the data. Users canassociations, and the International Council of aircraft “fly” 3D electronic Terrain and obstacle Databases (eToD)owner and Pilot associations. in arcGIs explorer.Visualizing aviation data, such as major air traffic flows, Global air navigation plans available in the GIs portal includeregional air navigation plans, and other regional data, is air traffic safety (aTsanp) charts, flight Information Regionimportant to ICao staff to ensure safe air travel. ICao staff (fIRanp) charts, air Traffic Management (aTM) charts,members did not have an efficient way to see this data, aerodome operational Planning (aoP) satellite images,relying on unsophisticated methods to organize their work regional charts, and many other thematic maps. The GIsand visualize data, which meant that information was not portal can be accessed online at in a timely fashion. ICao recognized the need for The GIs portal’s interactive maps are gradually replacinga better process that would allow data to be updated more the air navigation plans that are now delivered on paper.frequently and efficiently, ensuring quality control of the This is beneficial to ICao, as the data accessed via eanP isdata and, ultimately, the safety of lives and property. up to date and accurate, making it a more reliable meansIn 2003, the eleventh air navigation Conference of navigation. Through eanP, air navigation systems(an-Conf/11) recommended that ICao develop a database are being implemented more efficiently at the national,containing all tabular material from ICao regional air regional, interregional, and global levels. eanP is beneficialnavigation plans together with major traffic flows and other for planning and analysis of planned facilities, includingregional data to achieve this goal. The database, along with status and services that need to be included in regional airall associated charts, would be made available through navigation plans. Planning and implementation groups arethe Web. To meet these objectives, the organization had able to take the information and expedite plans accordingto make management of updates easier and allow more to ICao priorities. Having this information availablestaff members within the ICao community to access data. online greatly facilitates updating and accessing the latestesri’s arcGIs server, a server-based GIs solution with client information for states, ICao regional offices, and other users.access via the Web, was chosen to meet ICao’s needs. 35
    • ArcGIS Provides Foundation for National Aeronautical Information Management System in France French Aeronautical Information ServiceAEroNAuTICAL Highlights • GIs provides aeronautical data production, management, The nouvel outil de Production de l’Information and visualization. aeronautique (noPIa) system provides a complete and • automation, quality assurance, and the task assistant for integrated solution for the management of aeronautical workflow management create efficient and accurate data data and the creation of aeronautical charts including the production. national aeronautical Information Publication (aIP) as well • Data interoperability meets International Civil aviation as all aeronautical products available in hard-copy and organization standards. electronic formats. The french aeronautical Information service (sIa) is This solution is designed to meet the standards of the the national aeronautical services provider in france, International Civil aviation organization in terms of data responsible for providing aeronautical information services integrity, consistency, and availability. It will efficiently necessary for safety, regulation, and management of support the french aeronautical Information service’s both national and international air navigation of flights operators in their critical mission to manage and deliver originating or terminating in france. sIa provides many timely quality information. noPIa will also ensure full resources such as the preparation and sale of charts interoperability with the european environment by for flight, including radio navigation charts at a scale procuring the appropriate format of exchange with the of 1:1,000,000 and regional charts at 1:250,000. sIa european aeronautical Database (eaD). headquarters is located in the bordeaux-Mérignac airport. CGx aeRo in sys and Thales are providing a sIa has awarded a contract for the supply of a fully comprehensive software solution from esRI france, safe integrated GIs-based aeronautical information management (aIM) system. The system will be installed by a consortium consisting of Thales air systems, esRI france, and CGx aeRo in sys at sIa headquarters and will be the first fully integrated european aIM system. The use of arcGIs will ensure that quality and timely aeronautical data will be delivered to airspace users. sIa uses GIs to help provide accurate data for their aIs. arcGIs provides location-based data for french airspace users. 36
    • software, and CGx. esri aeronautical solution will allow comprising eTl tools for spatial data. CGx’s ai-sky DatasIa to efficiently manage its aeronautical information and framework will serve as a data gateway for aeronauticalproduce high-quality charts. another arcGIs extension, and geographic data. Thales air systems will assist frencharcGIs Workflow Manager, will provide the workflow sIa in migrating chart production to the new system asmanagement needed to improve the efficiency of this well as migrating data needed for WGs84, a commonlyproject by defining, organizing, and standardizing the used geodetic system that aeronautical charts areindividual tasks within the workflow. safe software projected onto for cartography, geodesy, and navigationis providing fMe for Geographical eTl, a solution to represent the earth.GIs provides a foundation for sharing data throughout sIa. 37
    • Organization Modernizes Data Production by Enhancing Safety, Security, and Efficiency with GIS Romanian Civil Aeronautical AuthorityAEroNAuTICAL Highlights and aeronautical Information system Department, RCaa. • Charts and maps are created from one database. RCaa uses arcGIs for data management as well as • Workflow has been streamlined. mapping and viewing spatial data. “We saw the benefits of • Data can be shared more easily. centrally managing our aeronautical data with GIs once we started using the software,” explains necula. “Upgrading as with other aviation authorities, the Romanian Civil our implementation means we will be further integrated aeronautical authority (RCaa) is faced with doing into our aIs and capable of doing more spatial data viewing more with less, including the limited funds of a public and analysis including creating 3D representations, which is organization. Historically using computer-aided design very important when managing airspace.” and drafting software for creating maps and charts, RCaa began looking three years ago for a solution that RCaa upgraded its current arcGIs solution to include the would allow it to efficiently create the products required specialized extensions arcGIs Data Interoperability, esri to do its job, as well as share data with ICao in the best aeronautical solution, and 3D analyst. The arcGIs Data way possible. after looking at many solutions, RCaa Interoperability software extension makes importing data chose esri’s arcGIs because the software provides a easier for RCaa by eliminating barriers to data sharing standards-based platform for the spatial analysis, data through state-of-the-art direct data access, complex data management, and mapping the organization was required transformation, and import/export capabilities. The RCaa to perform. “RCaa now has the ability to efficiently create production lines also utilized esri partner safe software’s and edit cartographic products that support our aviation fMe 2008, which extends the data translation and operations,” says Mihai necula, head of the air navigation integration of arcGIs. The Romanian Civil aeronautical authority uses GIs for data management, creating and editing cartographic products, and viewing spatial data. 38
    • once data is imported, esri aeronautical solution allowsRCaa to efficiently manage its aeronautical informationand produce high-quality charts. “Using esri aeronauticalsolution gives us a robust editing environment in amap-based visual editing workspace,” says Iuliana Radu,aeronautical inspector, RCaa. “This gives me precise controlof feature parameters, one-touch data maintenance, and theability to make a change to a feature once in the databasethat is reflected on all related products automatically.The software is very efficient and allows me to produce RCaa uses GIs to safely fly Romania’s mountainous region.data and chart products faster and with better quality.”arcGIs 3D analyst allows RCaa to effectively visualize and “We are very pleased that RCaa continues to rely on esrianalyze surface data from many viewpoints, query a surface, to assist it in meeting its organization’s objectives,” saysand determine what is visible from various locations—all bogdan Cheversan, project manager, esRI Romania s.R.l.important tasks when working with aviation data. “It is a forward-thinking organization and a great example for other aviation authorities.” RCAA continues to be innovative in its use of technology. 39
    • Cartography40
    • ArcGIS Server Creates Fully Automated and ConnectedMapping SystemDepartment of Sustainability and Environment, Victoria, AustraliaHighlights Victoria’s Topographic Hardcopy Mapping program ran• Quick revision and update cycle for maps from 1976 to the early 1990s but was not fully completed and covered only 80 percent of the state. several map• one source for data, with many outputs sheets were produced after that using digital data but with• Current topographic maps now available to everyone no consistent symbology or specifications. by 2003, the who needs them combination of aging topographic maps and an obsoleteVicmap Topographic 1:30,000 online is an initiative of datum raised concerns on emerging government liabilities.the Department of sustainability and environment (Dse) The state of Victoria did not have the budget, personnel,of the Victorian state government in australia. It is a fully or time to update these maps using traditional manualautomated topographic mapping system that dynamically methods. an innovative approach was required to createproduces topographic mapping from Victoria’s spatial and maintain a topographic mapping product.framework datasets. The mapping system has been developed using arcMap,Users can log on to land.vic.gov.au and select from over both straight out of the box and with customizations by6,000 a4 or 3,000 a3 pregenerated standard topographic cartographers, to ensure high-end cartographic products.maps (available as PDfs) showing any area in Victoria. These The mapping system is dynamically connected to themaps depict standard topographic features such as roads, Victorian framework database and fully automated so that allrivers, contours, public land, and tree cover. The maps are digital updates will be automatically reflected in the outputs.updated every 12 to 18 months, ensuring that users access There are no manual overrides. The mapping system isthe most current information available. flexible in the type of map outputs it delivers. sizes can vary from a4 to a0; outputs can be digital or hard copy; and digital files include PDf, JPeG, or PnG. also, both the data and the mapping system are multiscalable, enabling outputs ranging from large-scale to small-scale mapping. The benefits of Vicmap Topographic 1:30,000 online include • Quick revision/update cycle for mapping • flexibility of outputs—“one source, many outputs” • full automation of system • Current topographic mapping now available to the general public, whole government, and emergency services organizations • Continuous improvement in data, symbology, and cartographic presentation • access to maintained Victorian framework datasets from this system, several other mapping products have been delivered including a 1:25,000/1:50,000-scale statewide georeferenced image and a large-format, hard- copy mapping program.Department of sustainability and environment of the Victorian stategovernment in australia creates Vicmap Topographic 1:30,000 onlineusing arcGIs. 41
    • Producing Maps for the Holy Land Good Shepherd Engineering and ComputingCArToGrAPhY Highlights land, Palestine, and Israel are very complex and contain • Complex maps can be produced. a variety of components. Gse is the first Palestinian map production company creating maps of Palestine, including • Different maps can be created from one dataset. street maps of major cities and towns, that are available • Complete production in one system, from data entry to throughout the world. publication, is possible. Gse has been using esri GIs software since 1999 for its map Good shepherd engineering and Computing (Gse), located production, starting with arcView. at first, Gse exported in the West bank, Palestine, is esri’s Palestinian authorized maps to an external publishing software but found it could dealer and subdistributor for the West bank and Gaza. The not keep the same colors when changing from one software engineering company produces the Palestine Holy land to another. Today, Gse uses arcGIs for the complete Tourist Map as well as maps of Palestine at street-level creation of production-quality maps, from data entry to scale and survey maps of all kinds. all maps are distributed press. Map production is kept in one environment, so the worldwide, both in arabic and english. Maps of the Holy maps do not lose integrity or quality. The first basemap with basic features was created using arcView and arcInfo for data entry. The basemap is updated annually using high- resolution aerial photos and data collected from the ground on-site within the country. Cartography is created using standard coloring and symbology for all maps. Maps are checked by hand using hard copies before creating the final products, which are exported to a print file. The print file is sent to adobe® Distiller ® to produce a press document for printing. Up to 5,000 copies of the tourist map are printed annually. street maps can be plotted individually as requested. The maps are also available on the Web at palmap.org. Using GIs for the complete life cycle of map production saves time and effort and ensures that data and map cartography are not lost, which happened in the past when migrating to third-party products. The geodatabase stores data in both english and arabic (which reads right to left) in the same document, which is of particular importance for this above is a tourist map of the Holy land. The occupied West bank and Gaza are under the Israeli occupation; this image shows the a, b, and C zones according to the oslo II agreements. Zone market. a is the Palestinian Civil and security administration, Zone b is the Palestinian Civil and Israel security and Military administration, and Zone C is the Israeli Military and Civil administration. The separation Wall is inserted and shown clearly as one of the landmarks of Palestine. 42
    • ArcGIS Helps Create the Ultimate Road AtlasMapping Specialists, Ltd.Highlights was necessary to ensure there were no conflicts to edited• arcGIs was used to create entire print atlas. features and the versions used were the most accurate and up to date at all times. Working from the seamless• The geodatabase allows a feature to be edited once with geodatabase meant all data was available and could be changes reflected on all pages where that used for multiple pages. Using this software cut down on feature is located. both data errors and file size.• Training on arcGIs was straightforward and fast. a senior cartographer guided each group as the data wasestablished in 1984, Mapping specialists, ltd., began readied for placement on the map pages. Most editorsas an offshoot of the cartography lab at the University had arcGIs experience, but for those who didn’t, trainingof Wisconsin, Madison. since that time, the private was straightforward and quick. label placement was thecompany’s cartographers have provided quality maps for largest effort. Mapping specialists created custom symbolsencyclopedias, street mapping companies, and educational for different feature classifications. Roads alone had sixpublishers for textbook maps and a wide array of materials different classifications for how they were symbolizedfor preschool through college. The company also assists on the maps. esri’s Maplex software was employed formany federal, state, and local governments in producing placement, but most text still needed to be touched by anquality publications for their agencies. editor. Mapping specialists gained many efficiencies witharcGIs software was used from data collection to book arcGIs on such a large project.creation on a large project, a 224-page atlas designed for editors maintain they couldn’t have completed the projecttourists and travelers as they explore the United states’ vast without GIs to handle the many page spreads and features.highways. The Ultimate United States Road Atlas presents Having a complete geodatabase of features will make newcomplete, updated road information as well as thousands of editions of the atlas an easier task to manage. Much of thepoints of interest. It includes a 24-page traveler’s guide with unique symbology created can be licensed to or used byinformation and maps of national parks as well as top picks other agencies for map production, from small publishersfor outdoor adventures, natural wonders, entertainment, to national mapping organizations in need of creating aculture, discovery, and unique examples of americana—all national atlas.highlighted on the atlas pages. Unique among americanroad atlases, the top of each map page describes severaleasy-to-find points of interest. The Ultimate United StatesRoad Atlas contains details such as a shaded relief map forthe entire country; city inset maps; and a comprehensive,small-scale map of the northeast Corridor of the Unitedstates. This gives a complete picture of roadways andtourist sites in the country. each page features completelatitude and longitude, making it the perfect complementto a personal navigation device.arcGIs with a Microsoft sQl server ® database was usedto store and edit data for the atlas. Teams varying in sizefrom 4 to 12 people created and edited more than300 cartographic layers with the solution. Data collectionand editing took 18 months, with the first year focusingon collection. The data was largely created by Mappingspecialists staff using available data from esri and state andlocal governments as reference. Place points are located Mapping specialists’ road atlason the map page by GPs coordinates down to the second. contains 224 pages of road information and thousands ofsince many features are maintained in multiple datasets points of interest.for different scales of mapping, the arcGIs geodatabase 43
    • Copyright © 2011 esri. all rights reserved. esri, the esri globe logo, arcGIs, arcMap, arcView, arcInfo, arcPad, Modelbuilder, arcToolbox, arceditor, arcsDe, arcobjects, 3D analyst, Maplex, esri.com, and @esri.com are trademarks, registered trademarks, or service marks of esri in121867 the United states, the european Community, or certain other jurisdictions. other companies and products mentioned herein may be trademarks???1.5M6/11ed or registered trademarks of their respective trademark owners.