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The Tide Is in for Ocean GeodesignSeaSketch Makes Marine Spatial Planning Easier and More CollaborativeBy Will McClintock and Evan Paul, Marine Science Institute, McClintock Laboratory, University of California, Santa BarbaraTechnology enables planners to conduct rapid and iterative analysisof the impacts of a potential initiative or project. This feedback ondesigns using geospatial technologies is called geodesign, and it hascome to play a large role in diverse fields of planning. By using geode-sign techniques and technologies to create plans, scientists and othersare better able to balance competing interests among the policymakers, resource managers, environmentalists, and stakeholders whomanage the earth’s resources.for OceansEsri NewsFall 2012 Geodesign is beginning to be used in planning for the oceans.Recently, Esri launched its Oceans GIS initiative, which includes im-proving the global Ocean Basemap, developing better oceanographiccharting capabilities, and creating a bathymetric data managementsolution. Another part of this initiative is Esri’s support of SeaSketch, anapplication that will be used in marine spatial planning efforts aroundthe world. SeaSketch is a Software as a Service (SaaS) solution that SeaSketch can be used to reroute shipping lanes so ships will avoid the feeding grounds and migratory routes of endangered whales.continued on page 3
Chief Scientist AnnouncesEsri Ocean GIS InitiativeGIS technology, which has long provided effective solutions for theintegration, visualization, and analysis of information about land, is nowbeing similarly applied to oceans. Our ability to measure change inthe oceans (including open ocean, nearshore, and coast) is increasingnot only because of improved measuring devices and scientifictechniques but also because new GIS technology is aiding us in betterunderstanding this dynamic environment. The domain has progressedfrom applications that merely collect and display data to complexsimulation and modeling and the development of new researchmethods and concepts. Esri chief scientist Dawn Wright announced Esri’s Ocean GISInitiative at the 2012 Esri International User Conference. “The teamsupporting this initiative is composed of professional services staff, GISsoftware engineers, project managers, instructors, Esri partners, andmany others,” said Wright. For several years, Esri has provided GIS nautical chart productiontools and applications for commercial shipping and maritime defense/intelligence. With the Ocean GIS Initiative, Esri will develop technologyuseful for offshore energy (e.g., oil and gas, wind energy), ocean science,and resource management. Esri is pursuing a greater engagementwith the ocean science community, as complex questions and data areincreasingly used to inform the responsible use and governance of theoceans as well as effective management and conservation. Many of thefollowing ocean initiative activities are under way:•• Growing the Ocean Basemap•• Building a more integrated elevation service•• Providing intelligent bathymetry in the cloud•• Establishing ArcGIS Resource Center for oceans and maritime•• Convening an Oceans Summit to build consensus on GIS needs•• Updating and supporting the Arc Marine Data Model•• Developing vertical, time-dependent data transformations•• Improving support for multidimensional data analyses•• Supporting ocean numerical modelsFor more information aboutEsri’s Ocean GIS Initiative, download thee-book at esri.com/oceangis.“Esri has recently launcheda major Ocean GIS Initiative acrossthe entire company.”Dawn Wright, Esri Chief ScientistÔ Dawn Wright announced the Esri Ocean GIS Initiative at the EsriInternational User Conference.
Esri Ocean GIS InitiativeEsri OceansSummit Guides GISDevelopmentThe Esri Oceans Summit is the first GIS event dedicated to oceans.Esri invited members of the international ocean science communityto Esri headquarters in Redlands, California, on November 7–8, 2012,to define and prioritize technology gaps in ocean science GIS andaddress data and method standards. Their input will help Esri bettersupport ocean data integration and develop analytical tools thatimprove standardization, workflows, and collaborative platforms forthe ocean science community.Esri JoinsWorld Ocean CouncilEsri has joined the ocean business alliance World Ocean Council(WOC) and will support its international initiatives for sustainable de-velopment and conservation of the ocean. Esri’s chief scientist DawnWright will share her geospatial expertise with WOC’s working groupsCoastal and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP) and Ocean Science. WOC develops and implements programs that improve the sci-ence, data, and maps needed to address the challenges of sustain-able ocean use. For example, WOC helps ocean organizations un-derstand and participate in geospatial activities that support robustocean use maps. In addition, WOC has launched the Smart Ocean/Smart Industries program, which will increase the number and typesof industry vessels and ocean platforms that collect georeferencedocean, climate, and weather data. “Esri’s alliance with the World Ocean Council and participationin its working groups will help us advance our Ocean GIS Initiative,”said Wright. “The success of the council’s programs and objectivesrequires spatial thinking, spatial data, and spatial methods. GIS willplay a key role in meeting sustainability objectives and developinginternational ocean policy.“ArcGIS ResourceCenter Offers OceanGIS ServicesEsri’s ArcGIS Resource Center helps you stay up-to-date with what’strending with GIS. Access the community resource pages Ocean UsePlanning (resources) and ArcGIS for Maritime (charting). This portalputs web mapping data services, basemaps, and templates at yourfingertips. Join a forum discussion, share ideas, link to ocean agencyGIS sites, watch videos, stroll through the ocean map gallery, andfollow social media. We have put it all together for you in one place.Connect to anArcGIS Resource community atresources.arcgis.com/en/communities. Stay current with ocean technology at the ArcGIS Resource Center.5Fall 2012 esri.com/oceans
Create Charts and Manage Bathymetric Dataon the PlatformArcGIS for Maritime is a comprehensive geospatial platform for chartproduction and nautical and bathymetric data management. The plat-form helps users manage maritime information systems and efficientlygenerate a variety of navigational and nonnavigational products incompliance with industry and organizational standards and require-ments. This platform supports a wide variety of users in port manage-ment, maritime transport, coastal management, offshore activities,nautical chart production, and maritime defense. Use the ArcGIS for Maritime platform to build, maintain, and createstandard nautical charts. Manage, visualize, and share bathymetric dataas measurements and surfaces. The platform provides multiuser searchtools to access massive collections of nautical information. ArcGIS forMaritime supports two products, ArcGIS for Maritime: Charting, whichhelps in creating map products, and ArcGIS for Maritime: Bathymetry,which helps in managing data. ArcGIS for Maritime: Charting makes it easier for users to create,edit, manage, and distribute nautical products. Useful for nationalhydrographic offices, charting agencies, and subcontractors, it sig-nificantly increases the speed and flexibility of production operations.It is interoperable and improves, standardizes, and expedites dataand workflow management from data acquisition to product creation.Users can produce charts in days, not weeks, and share data acrossthe organization and with other agencies. With ArcGIS for Maritime:Charting, users can do the following:•• Generate high-quality electronic, hard-copy, and raster prod-ucts directly from the database that comply with InternationalHydrographic Organization(IHO) M4 and S-57 standardsfor navigational products•• Allow the widest possible useof data by storing, managing,and sharing it efficiently andflexibly without the need toexport to a separate product•• Combine data for myriad uses,from real-time emergencyplanning to protected areaanalysis, using dynamic datasources that were previouslytrapped in static products•• Ensure the quality and timeli-ness of data by tracking whoupdated the data, what theupdates were, and why andwhen the updates were made•• Interact with other ArcGISproducts to enhance thevisualization and reportingexperience ArcGIS for Maritime: Bathymetry allows scientific, government, andcommercial organizations to simplify and unify management of theirbathymetric data. This makes it easier to use the same data for variouscommon bathymetric purposes. Use ArcGIS for Maritime: Bathymetryfor these tasks:•• Create a single bathymetric surface on the fly to visualize multiplesurfaces in one frame of reference.•• Control hydrographic survey footprints to identify data holdings andquickly see data gaps.•• Combine it with other extraction capabilities and geoprocessingtools for spatial analysis of bathymetric data.•• Work directly with ArcGIS for Maritime: Charting for a continuousand seamless workflow on the same platform.Learn how the ArcGIS for Maritimegeospatial platform can helporganizations significantly improve dataand chart workflow efficiency. Visit esri.com/maritime. ArcGIS for Maritime provides tools for creating, publishing, and distributing nautical charts.6 Esri News for Oceans Fall 2012
Esri Ocean GIS InitiativeOcean Basemap Is on ArcGIS OnlineThe Ocean Basemap is a global GIS map thatshows the seafloor of the oceans, along withboth surface and subsurface feature names.Esri developed the map service and hosts iton ArcGIS Online (ArcGIS.com) so that peopleinterested in bathymetry, marine science andresource conservation, and oceanic mappingin general have a superior cartographic refer-ence map of the ocean. The Ocean Basemap contains moreinformation about the ocean than any exist-ing terrestrial basemap service. It includesbathymetric portrayal, marine water bodynames, undersea feature names, and deriveddepth values in meters. The information inthe Ocean Basemap is a cached cartographicrepresentation of the seabed to be used asa basemap. Think of the Ocean Basemap asthe basement of the ocean. It shows coastalregions and ocean seafloor rather than dryland masses. The Ocean Basemap includes higher-res-olution bathymetric and altimetric data fromcoastal areas, which are the most surveyedparts of the ocean. Data tends to be plentifulalong the shore and becomes sparser awayfrom the coastline toward deeper seas. The Ocean Basemap currently providescoverage for the world with resolution downto a scale of around 1:577,000. Additional datacoverage for United States waters improvesresolution down to 1:72,000. A few data pro-viders have added bathymetry data at an evenhigher resolution of 1:9,000. This demonstrateshow the Ocean Basemap will be extendedwith higher-resolution bathymetric data.Information SourcesThe Ocean Basemap blends publicly available,authoritative ocean data sources into one car-tographically uniform basemap. Some OceanBasemap data contributors are the NationalOceanic and Atmospheric Administration(NOAA), National Geographic, DeLorme, andNAVTEQ. Worldwide coverage is sourcedfrom the General Bathymetric Chart of theOceans GEBCO_08 Grid version 20100927,International Hydrographic Organization—Intergovernmental OceanographicCommission (IHO-IOC) GEBCO Gazetteer ofUndersea Feature Names (August 2010 ver-sion), and Esri topographic content.to underlie their research and create maps.ArcGIS users can access the basemap throughArcGIS for Desktop or any of the ArcGIS ap-plications for smartphones and tablets (iOS,Android, and Windows Mobile). Users haveaccess to the same basemap anywhere, attheir desk or on the go. To make maps using the Ocean Basemap,go to ArcGIS.com and access the web service.To bring map service data into an ArcGIS 10.1for Desktop project, choose File > Add Data >Add Basemap (in version 9.3, choose File >Add Data From ArcGIS Online) and selectOcean Basemap. You can also add a layerpackage (LPK file) into your ArcGIS forDesktop map or globe. The LPK file combinesthe Ocean Basemap map service and theWorld Physical map service and its associatedreference layers.Find helpful hints andparticipate in Esri’socean GIS community atresources.arcgis.com/en /communities/oceans. Agencies, commercial concerns, academicinstitutions, and nongovernmental organiza-tions can contribute their authoritative datato the Ocean Basemap through Esri’sCommunity Maps Program. Esri makes suredata contributions are of high quality andthe datasets have permissions in place forpublic use. On the production side, Esri’scartographers build the map by integratingnewly contributed data with the existingproduct. They then publish it to ArcGIS Onlineas a map service. For example, the CanadianHydrographic Service (CHS) contributed addi-tional marine data of its vast coastline via EsriCanada Limited through the Community MapsProgram. Esri Canada updated the basemapwith CHS coastal area data at a resolutionbetween 1:500 meters and 1:1,000 meters.How to Use the Ocean BasemapThe Ocean Basemap was created with uniformcartography for consistency and a mutedcolor palette, which makes it ideal whenoverlaying additional user-specific contentor content from ArcGIS Online. Maritimeprofessionals, such as ocean scientists, portmanagers, and ocean use planners, now havea consolidated, uniform cartographic source The Ocean Basemap is part of Esri’s Community Maps Program. This map showing the AleutianTrench in the Bering Sea was built using data provided by Esri; GEBCO; NOAA; California StateUniversity, Monterey Bay (CSUMB); National Geographic; DeLorme; and NAVTEQ.7Fall 2012 esri.com/oceans
Digital Maps Improve Polar Ice NavigationBy Barbara Shields, EsriThe Arctic polar ice cap is thinning and shrink-ing. This creates longer navigation seasons,which opens routes for commerce; makesnatural resources more accessible for drilling;and provides opportunities for shorter, moreefficient voyage routing, all of which lead toincreased ship traffic in icy arctic waters. Shipcommanders operating near, through, andbeneath sea ice rely on ice data supplied bythe National Ice Center (NIC). NIC is a cooperative partnership be-tween the US Navy, the US Coast Guard,and the National Oceanic and AtmosphericAdministration (NOAA). Residing in theNOAA Satellite Operations Facility inSuitland, Maryland, NIC is tucked into a cornerof a striking postmodern structure bedeckedwith satellite dishes. In an operations room,a staff of 15–18 ice analysts (most of whomhave a background in meteorology) study andinterpret ice images. They are supported bysmall teams of cryogenics scientists and GIS/IT technicians using ArcGIS from Esri. NIC experts analyze data from satellite im-agery and other sources to assess, on a daily, Each GeoPDF provides a quick visual display of the nutrient spreading restrictions currently in place. Determinations are based on slope, bodiesof water, infrastructure, and many other factors.weekly, and biweekly basis, sea ice conditionsin the Arctic, the Antarctic, the Great Lakes,and Chesapeake Bay. They decipher the typesof ice at the poles based primarily on imagesfrom a diverse number of satellite missionssuch as SCA, RADARSAT-1 and 2, ESA Envisat,and NASA Terra and Aqua. Making sense of ice data is very differentfrom deciphering land use. Images of sea icedo not have many traditionally recognizablefeatures, so interpretation requires differ-ent skills. Rather than vegetation, rivers, andhuman development, the ice analyst looksfor visual clues indicating characteristics suchas ice concentration, stage of development(age), and ice form (floe size). More than 95 percent of the data used insea ice analyses is derived from polar orbitingsatellites. Every day, the center receives ap-proximately 6,000 images, or roughly160 gigabytes of data, which automatedroutines migrate into GIS-ready files. Theseimages are cataloged and made availableto the individual analysts through a customimagery browser application. They load their“ArcGIS is providing uswith wonderful datamanagement, imageanalysis, output, anddissemination capabilities.”Semeon Sertsu, Director of InformationTechnology, NICÔ The National Ice Center is located inthe NOAA Satellite Operations Facility inSuitland, Maryland.
imagery selections into an ArcGIS extensioncalled the Satellite Image Processing andAnalysis System (SIPAS). The majority of theanalysts’ work takes place in this environment. This extension makes the workflow moreefficient. The analyst opens SIPAS, zoomsto a polar sector, selects imagery from theImage Browser, and sets to work. The analystexamines and compares images and thenselects the most appropriate source fordetermining the significant characteristics ofthe ice for that particular location. Next, theanalyst carefully digitizes the edges of thevarious ice types (defined by thickness; floesize; and age—first year, second year, or older)to delineate each from different types of icenearby and from the open sea. Features suchas fractures, leads, and polynyas (FLAP) arealso captured. A fracture is a break or rupturein close-packed ice, a lead is a fracture or pas-sageway through sea ice that is navigable bysurface vessels, and a polynya is a nonlineararea of open water enclosed by ice. All thesedescriptors characterize the ice and surround-ing waters. With this information, the ship’smaster knows about conditions and risks thatCase Studylie ahead and can make informed decisionsabout how, or if, to proceed. SIPAS is designed to allow analysts to focuson the critical and difficult task of understand-ing the ice conditions they see by freeingthem from other concerns. For example,preconfigured constraints built into the at-tribute coding tools help ensure quality of thedata. Map topology rules are in place so thatsplinters or overlapping polygons aren’t cre-ated. Additional quality checks verify that anarea’s regional boundary edges and attributesmatch polygons already created in neighbor-ing regions. Digitized polygons are directlyinput to NIC’s enterprise geodatabase. “A great majority of NIC ice informationproducts are created using the ArcGIS SIPASeditor,” explained Mark Denil, GIS analyst, NIC.“This editing environment handles most of thedata shuffling, processing, and housekeepingoperations for ice analysts, allowing experts toconcentrate on interpreting ice conditions.” In addition to mapping sea ice, NIC alsonames, tracks, and reports weekly on largeicebergs in the Southern Hemisphere. Aniceberg must be at least 10 nautical milesacross to receive this attention, so these aremore ice islands than bergs. Still, NIC tracked41 of these through 2011 and has tracked 223since 1973. Iceberg tracking is one of the fewNIC analysis activities not handled throughSIPAS; it has its own ArcGIS software-baseddata creation and mapping tool. NIC usually generates between 70 and 80 standard output products each week thatare used by the US Navy as well as by organi-zations interested in cargo shipment, oil andgas exploration, fishing access, and scientificstudy. Almost all these products are madeavailable to the public via the NIC website. Inaddition to these automated products, NICalso creates ice analysis maps and reportson request in support of a variety of specialoperations. Special support products are made avail-able directly to the requesting customerthrough a variety of avenues. A consumervisiting the NIC website can, with a few clicks,access maps and data through interactivemap interfaces and/or download data informats such as a shapefile, geodatabaseÑ Using the ImageBrowser utility, theanalyst searches by area,date, and sensor to seeavailable images.9Fall 2012 esri.com/oceanscontinued on page 10
feature class, raster layer, PDF, KML, andmovie loop. Since many NIC data consum-ers operate in remote regions with very lowbandwidth capabilities, the website providesoptions for selecting high- or low-bandwidthinterfaces. With either option, the user cansearch and query the data by date and areaof interest. A calendar tool facilitates accessto historical data so users can see how the icehas changed during the last 40 years. The sitealso has interactive user help and allows theuser to provide feedback. Because NIC has been keeping track ofpolar ice since 1972, it has built a baselinefor evaluating change. In the early days, NICproduced all its global ice condition chartsusing hard-copy cartography techniquesfor dissemination by fax. Starting in 1996,however, NIC began making its historical datamore useful for environmental research andstudying ice-related climatology by digitiz-ing the archive of older paper-based charts,reconfiguring its data so it could be used fordigital analysis. In 1999, Semeon Sertsu, the center’s directorof information technology, committed NIC tousing GIS because it had the greatest capacityto meet the center’s needs. “It was worth theeffort, because today ArcGIS is providing uswith wonderful data management, imageanalysis, output, and dissemination capabili-ties,” said Sertsu. “For instance, we have a GIStool that can perform a routine in about 30 seconds that once took us a week to do.” The analyst team includes US Navy civilianemployees and enlisted men and women.Most come to NIC with no previous GIS expe-rience, but they find they can easily step up tothe workflow requirements, because imageryhandling and data generation are integratedin a unified and accessible ArcGIS softwareenvironment. This means users no longerneed to learn to manipulate and integratemultiple types of imagery viewing and datageneration software and tools. Professionals, such as ice analyst BrianJackson, are assigned to analyze a specificarea. Using the graphic, menu-driven ImageBrowser, Jackson selects the best satelliteimagery and brings it into the SIPAS workenvironment. He then manually analyzes theimages using heads-up digitizing to drawboundaries of specific ice types. He doesnot have to transfer data between systems.He draws a line in ArcGIS and shares it in theexact same file so there is no loss of clarity. “One aspect of the software that I par-ticularly find amazing is that I can be workingon an Arctic polar section, click an icon, andwithin 20 seconds access Antarctic real-timesatellite data, within the same desktop envi-ronment,” Jackson said. Although Jackson sees polar regionschanging, he will not venture an opinion asto whether this is caused by climate change,nor will anyone else at NIC. They leave this tothe scientific community. However, they didcomment that there are notable changes inthe northern sea route (along the Asian coastnorth of Siberia), which in 2011 was open forfour weeks—the longest period in NIC’s40 years of analysis. This creates opportunityfor surrounding nations to develop shipping,fishing, and natural resource enterprises. Sertsu has been working with a collabora-tive committee to get nations located aroundthe poles to share their polar data for collabo-ration. “Nobody knows their own backyardbetter,” he said. “If nations agree to this idea,they will have a comprehensive polar map.Working together on such a map may welllead them to work together as a global com-munity to address polar ice cap concerns.”Digital Maps Improve Polar Ice Navigation continued from page 9 A SIPAS interface makes it possible for the user to load a moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) image into GIS andedit this region for the Chukchi Sea. An ice analyst draws a polygon on the MODIS ice image and usesa SIPAS attributing tool to create an egg diagram that describes iceconcentration and type.10 Esri News for Oceans Fall 2012
Geodesign SummitJanuary 24–25, 2013Redlands, California, USAgeodesignsummit.comEsri Federal GIS ConferenceFebruary 25–27, 2013Washington, DC, USAesri.com/fedconEsri Developer SummitMarch 25–28, 2013Palm Springs, California, USAEsri Homeland Security SummitJuly 2013 date to be announcedSan Diego, California, USAesri.com/homelandEsri International User ConferenceJuly 8–12, 2013San Diego, California, USAesri.com.user-conferenceEsri on the Road11Fall 2012 esri.com/oceansGIS for the Oceans IsMore Than a Sea TaleDownload the free e-book at esri.com/library/ebooks/oceans.Consultant/Project Manager—Natural Resources/Environmental(Redlands, CA)—Use your consulting and project managementexperience in the natural resources and environmental markets tosupport our users with the implementation of solutions throughout theentire life cycle—from requirements to rollout. Our projects range fromsmall, focused technology transfer to large enterprise implementationsof mission-critical systems.Environmental Industry Solutions Manager (Redlands, CA)—Useyour years of industry experience and knowledge to assess and identifypractical applications of GIS in the environmental field. Lead andmanage Esri’s strategic marketing and community outreach efforts asthey relate to the development and use of GIS within the environmentalmarket globally.Learn more about a career on ournatural resources team and apply online atesri.com/careers/enviro.Esri CareerOpportunitiesEsri News Esri’s e-book GIS for the Oceans is an anthology of stories aboutpeople using GIS for exploration, ecosystems, energy, and climatechange in the unique environment of the ocean.