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A  Curriculum Model to Underpin Education for Sustainable Development
 

A Curriculum Model to Underpin Education for Sustainable Development

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This is an enquiry-based model that addresses the cognitive, affective and action domains. It is illustrated by children in a Devon primary school who “identified a real issue that concerned ...

This is an enquiry-based model that addresses the cognitive, affective and action domains. It is illustrated by children in a Devon primary school who “identified a real issue that concerned them”.

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    A  Curriculum Model to Underpin Education for Sustainable Development A Curriculum Model to Underpin Education for Sustainable Development Presentation Transcript

    • A Curriculum Model to Underpin Education for Sustainable Development © Steve Pratchett 2010 Senior Lecturer in Geography & Art & Design 1985-2009 University College Plymouth, St Mark & St John
    • Towards a definition of ….. … . Education for Sustainable Development
    • “ Sustainable development provides a framework for redefining progress and redirecting our economies to enable all people to meet their basic needs and improve their quality of life, while ensuring that the natural systems, resources and diversity upon which they depend are maintained and enhanced for their benefit and that of future generations.” UN Sustainable Development Commission “ Education for sustainable development enables people to develop the knowledge, values and skills to participate in decisions about the ways we do things, individually and collectively, both locally and globally, that will improve the quality of life now without damaging the planet for the future.” UN Sustainable Development Education Panel Source: Teacher Training Rersource Bank (TTRB) http:// www.ttrb.ac.uk/ViewArticle.aspx?contentId =11695 Towards a definition………
    • Education for sustainable development is not confined to environmental issues As part of the UN 2005-2015 Decade for Sustainable Development, UNESCO Draft Framework 2003 identifies 10 key themes for ESD
      • Overcoming poverty
      • Gender equality
      • Health promotion
      • Environmental protection & conservation
      • Rural transformation
      • Human rights
      • Intercultural understanding & peace
      • Sustainable production & consumption
      • Cultural diversity
      • Information & communication technologies
      The overall goal of ESD is “ to develop the capacities of individuals and societies to work for sustainable futures. It is aimed at making people more knowledgeable, better informed, ethical, responsible, critical and willing to act for a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature.” United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) (2005)
    • Key Concepts for Education for Sustainable Development Inman, S. & Rogers, M. (2006) Building a Sustainable Future: Challenges for Initial Teacher Training p. 37 London & Surrey: CCI & WWF-UK
    • “ Education is critical for achieving environmental and ethical awareness, values and attitudes and behaviour consistent with sustainable development and for effective public participation in decision-making.” (UN 1992 Rio Summit Agenda 21 Chp. 36)
    • “ The creativity, ideals and courage of the youth of the world should be mobilised to forge a global partnership in order to achieve sustainable development and ensure a better future for all.” Rio Declaration on the Environment & Development updated 12/8/99 http://www.un.org/documents/ga/conf151/aconf15126-1annex1.htm Education for Sustainable Development?
      • We should be helping children to:
      • develop the knowledge , understandings and skills that they will need to address the challenges of caring for, managing and sustaining the Earth’s resources and environments?
      • develop value frameworks and emotional relationships with the planet that will motivate their concern for and participation in addressing these challenges?
    • Q2: Demonstrate the positive values, attitudes and behaviour they expect from children and young people TDA Guidance to accompany QTS (2007): “ Trainees are expected to understand and demonstrate the values and attitudes they want learners to develop. Such values will include, for example: respect for other people, a positive attitude towards learning and teaching, care for the environment and social responsibility . Trainee teachers should put these values into practice in the classroom and in the wider teaching context.” QTS Standards Q15: Know and understand the relevant statutory and non-statutory curricula, frameworks ……… and other relevant initiatives. See The Statement of Values in N.C. Handbook particularly p. 149 – ‘The Environment’
    • Education for Sustainability: A National Curriculum imperative Aim 2 of the National Curriculum includes this statement: “ It (the National Curriculum) should develop (pupils’) awareness and understanding of and respect for, the environments in which they live, and secure their commitment to sustainable development at a personal, local, national and global level. It should also equip pupils as consumers to make informed judgements and independent decisions and to understand their responsibilities and rights.” DfES, (1999) The National Curriculum Handbook
    • Lack of explixit mention of ESD in the N.C. Programmes of study, e.g. Design Technology Programme of Study - only one explicit mention of ESD KS2 3c: “ Recognise that the quality of a product depends on how well it is made and how well it meets its intended purpose (e.g. How well products meet social, economic and environmental considerations ) What criteria would you encourage children to use in designing and evaluating a ‘Fruit Smoothie’ in a food technology session?
      • flavour
      • texture
      • appearance
      • healthy eating
      • cost
      • food miles?
      • carbon footprint?
      • Fairtrade ?
      • organic v non-organic?
      • packaging (recycling or biodegradability)?
    • http://publications.teachernet.gov.uk/eOrderingDownload/DFES-00333-2007.pdf DfES Action Plan 2007 : Sustainable Schools for Pupils, Communities and the Environment “ Sustainable development will not just be a subject in the classroom: it will be in its bricks and mortar and the way the school uses or even generates its own power. Our students won’t just be told about sustainable development; they will see and work within it: a living, learning place in which to explore what a sustainable lifestyle means.” Tony Blair 2004 cited on p. 51
    • The DfES National Framework for Sustainable Schools: ‘The Eight Doorways’ by 2020 http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/sustainableschools/framework/framework_detail.cfm?id =1
    • A curriculum model …… … . to underpin education for sustainable development? © Steve Pratchett (2007)
    • "Education about sustainability is most effectively delivered through enquiry-based learning - the hallmark of good, effective geography teaching. Pupils can be encouraged to take responsibility for their learning by identifying real issues that concern them such as litter, disability access, energy supplies in their immediate environment. They can investigate the issue with hands on practical data collection and use the results to take action and see the effectiveness of their actions, so developing education for sustainability." (Morris & Willy 2007:34)   Morris, G. & Willy, T. (2007) Eight Doorways to Sustainability in Primary Geographer No. 64, p.34, Sheffield: GA.
    • Awareness What? Where? When? Who? Participation ( avoids disempowerment , helplessness, “Nothing we can do” ) Evaluation What ought/should? (feelings, attitudes, values) Analysis How? Why? (cause/effect ) Cognitive domain (Knowledge and understanding) Action domain (Skills, decisions, participation) Affective domain (Attitudes, values, feelings) Butterfly Conservation Society http://www.butterfly-conservation.org/index.php Fox, R., Adams, J., Bereton, T., Roy, D. & Warren, M. (2006) ‘The State of Butterflies in Britain & Ireland’ Which butterflies are declining, which are thriving, and why.? © Pratchett (1984, 2004, 2006) Butterflies are disappearing from the UK & our school grounds
    • ‘ The State of Butterflies in Britain & Ireland’ Which butterflies are declining, which are thriving, and why? Based on 10.5 million recordings. 'Better Butterflies' is a high quality film containing stunning footage that highlights the charity's work in saving threatened species across the country. Butterfly Conservation website: News extracts: Press Information 24th July 2006 “ Butterflies are becoming extinct county by county ………… Hertfordshire has suffered the extinction of more butterfly species than any other county in the UK. It has lost 17 species over the past 100 years. There are only 56 butterfly species resident in Britain.”
    • In the curriculum model ESD is fundamentally about values Should this be made more explicit in the QTS Professional Values & Practice Standard Q2? Q 2: ‘Demonstrate the positive values, attitudes and behaviour they expect from children and young people’ “ ESD is fundamentally about values, with respect at the centre: respect for others, including those of present and future generations, for difference and diversity, for the environment, for resources of the planet we inhabit.” UN (2005) Guidelines and Recommendations for Reorientating Education to Address Sustainability, United Nations.
    • The Earth Charter “ We urgently need a shared vision of basic values to provide an ethical foundation for the emerging world community.” The Earth Charter is a synthesis of values, principles, aspirations begun at the Rio Summit in 1992 and developed through extensive international consultation over many years. Visit the website to help you formulate your ethical and value framework for ESD? www.earthcharter.org “ Rather than viewing sustainability as a policy designed to achieve a state of affairs, we should conceive of sustainability as a frame of mind or way of relating to nature guided by such values and principles outlined in the Earth Charter.” (Teacher Training Resource Bank ESD Briefing Document Chp. 2 http:// www.ttrb.ac.uk/viewarticle.aspx?contentId =12789 )
    • Statement of values by the National Forum for Values in Education and the Community DfEE (1999) The National Curriculum Handbook for Primary Teachers in England pp.149 London: DfEE & QCA
      • The environment
      • We value the environment, both natural and shaped by humanity, as the basis of life and a source of wonder and inspiration.
          • On the basis of these values, we should:
      • accept our responsibility to maintain a sustainable environment for future generations
      • understand the place of human beings within nature
      • Understand our responsibilities for other species
      • Ensure that development can be justified
      • Preserve balance and diversity in nature wherever possible
      • Preserve areas of beauty and interest for future generations
      • Repair, wherever possible, habitats damaged by human development & other means
    • “ The term ecological understanding has been used for years, but it is also ecological feeling that we seek. If ecology is the study of an organism’s relations with its surroundings then for us a significant part of that relationship must include the affective dimension .” (Van Matre 1990:93) “ Love for the planet and its richness of life probably represents our best hope. Why love? Because when you love something you will give things up for it and that is what we must do for the earth. .... Why love? Because people are more likely to make rapid and lasting changes for emotional reasons than rational ones. Why love? Because people fight for what they love much faster and much harder than for what they merely know.” (Van Matre 1990:129) Feelings as well as values: a form of emotional literacy
    • “ Teaching for the future requires exploration of their own and others’ hopes and fears for the future and the action required to create a more just and ecologically sustainable future. It empowers children to feel they can work towards their chosen future.” (Hicks & Holden 1995:10) Empowerment Dartmoor National Park Authority’s acclaimed exhibition : ‘ Climate Change – I can change the future’
    • C H A N G E Awareness ( What? Where? When? Who? ) Participation ( avoids disempowerment, helplessness, “Nothing we can do” ) Evaluation What ought/should? (feelings, attitudes, Values) Analysis How? Why? (cause/effect ) Cognitive domain (Knowledge and understanding) Action domain (Skills, decisions, participation) Affective domain (Attitudes, values, feelings) http:// www.treeaid.org.uk / http:// www.rainforestconcern.org / © Pratchett (1984, 2004, 2006) The Amazon Rainforest ….. … . is disappearing
    • http:// www.treeaid.org.uk / http:// www.rainforestconcern.org / http://www.woodland-trust.org.uk / Action & Participation in caring for trees?
    • “ Poverty leads to conflict and unrest, to unsustainable environmental practices, to a downward spiral in terms of education and opportunity, to marginalisation and to increased poverty. Only through education can we start to bring about the huge mind-shift necessary to make poverty, rationally and morally unacceptable to people across the globe. We believe that education that education for global citizenship can enable young people to take the first steps to understanding this, and then having the capacity to move from understanding to action.” Allen, I & Gunsell, A. (2001) The Development Education Journal Vol. 8 No. 1 Become aware Get informed Develop understanding Develop views Do something Steps from Awareness to Action Allen & Gunsell (2001)
    • The curriculum model …… … . as seen in practice
    • Awareness What? Where? When? Who? Participation ( avoids disempowerment, helplessness, “Nothing we can do” ) Evaluation What ought/should? (feelings, attitudes, values) Analysis How? Why? (cause/effect ) Cognitive domain (Knowledge and understanding) Action domain (Skills, decisions, participation ) Affective domain (Attitudes, values, feelings) © Pratchett (1984, 2004, 2006) Women who stitch footballs ….. … are becoming poorer Teachers TV: http://www.teachers.tv/video/20582 Education for sustainable development is not just confined to environmental issues . UNESCO Draft Framework 2003 identifies 10 key themes for ESD, one is ‘Overcoming poverty’
    • Part 2: Running time: 16min Start from 10.50 Fair Play Football (Teachers TV 2007) Teachers TV: http://www.teachers.tv/video/20582
    • Which of these 10 themes are addressed in the teachers ‘Fairplay Football project? As part of the UN 2005-2015 Decade for Sustainable Development, UNESCO Draft Framework 2003 identifies 10 key themes for ESD
      • Overcoming poverty
      • Gender equality
      • Health promotion
      • Environmental protection & conservation
      • Rural transformation
      • Human rights
      • Intercultural understanding & peace
      • Sustainable production & consumption
      • Cultural diversity
      • Information & communication technologies
      The overall goal of ESD is “ to develop the capacities of individuals and societies to work for sustainable futures. It is aimed at making people more knowledgeable, better informed, ethical, responsible, critical and willing to act for a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature.” United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) (2005)
    • Recommended Reading
    • Recommended reading Sterling, S. (2001) Sustainable Education: Re-visioning Learning & Change Totnes: Green Books for The Schumacher Society Contents: Towards Sustainable Education Education Learning & Change Towards an Ecological Paradigm for Education Re-making Education & Learning Reorientating Education: Designing for Change “ Helps us address the most important educational need of our age: how to reorient our education system so that they guide us towards a sustainable future. A reading list must for everyone involved in education – from Ministers right up through the system to teachers and parents.” John Fein, Director, Griiffith Univ. Ecocentre, Australia
    • Recommended reading Gray-Donald, J & Selby, D. (Eds) (2008) Green Frontiers: Environmental Educators Dancing Away from Mechanism. Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense Publishers. This book showcases the work & thinking of leading environmental educators, their challenge to the mechanism that permeates education and their call for fundamental changes needed in education to realise the goals of environmental education and to address the ecological crisis.
    • Recommended reading Stibbe, A. (Ed.) (2009) The Handbook of Sustainability Literacy Skills for a Changing World . Totnes: Green Books This important new education resource takes a sharp look at the skills, attributes and competencies that learners will need for surviving and thriving in the 21st century. The handbook is critical of some mainstream skills agendas which focus narrowly on skills for industrialisation and economic expansion at all costs, and instead promotes a more open-ended approach including abilities such as values reflection, ecological intelligence, and critical awareness of the social structures that underpin unsustainable societies. The authors include leading sustainability educators as well as specialists from a wide range of disciplines from engineering to art, and the resource will be useful for lecturers, teachers and students across all study areas.
    • Recommended Reading: The ‘Education for Sustainable Development Briefing Document’ This document can be found on the Teacher Training Resource Bank (TTRB) website http:// www.ttrb.ac.uk/viewarticle.aspx?contentId =12789
      • Examines learning through key concepts
      • of:
      • Citizenship & stewardship
      • Sustainability & change
      • Needs & rights of future generations
      • Interdependence
      • Diversity
      • Uncertainty & precaution
      • Quality of life, equity & justice
      • Strategies for raising the profile of
      • education for sustainable development
      • A checklist for school self-evaluation
      Good practice in education for sustainable development? http:// www.ofsted.gov.uk / HMI 1658
    • The DfES National Framework for Sustainable Schools: ‘The Eight Doorways’ by 2020 http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/sustainableschools/framework/framework_detail.cfm?id =1
    • http://publications.teachernet.gov.uk/eOrderingDownload/DFES-00333-2007.pdf DfES Action Plan 2007 : Sustainable Schools for Pupils, Communities and the Environment “ Sustainable development will not just be a subject in the classroom: it will be in its bricks and mortar and the way the school uses or even generates its own power. Our students won’t just be told about sustainable development; they will see and work within it: a living, learning place in which to explore what a sustainable lifestyle means.” Tony Blair 2004 cited on p. 51
    • “ Be futures orientated and deal with big issues in young people’s lives” QCA (2005:6) “ The characteristics of a future curriculum should allow learners to look ahead and make predictions, taking responsibility for themselves , others and the environment. It should address social and cultural change, globalisation, sustainability and survival of the planet ….. … .It should build on learners’ lives and experiences and communities, stimulating their interest and motivation and encouraging active participation.” (QCA 2005:6) http://www.qca.org.uk/15001.html
    • UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Report 2 nd February 2007 Global climate change is “unequivocal” That human beings are responsible for it is “at least a 9 out of 10 chance” “ Best guesses” are that global temperature will rise by “ 1.8 ° C to 4 ° C ” during this century The Independent 03.01.07 No. 6,334 p.1 Available online at: http:// www.ipcc.ch / Awarded the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize
    • UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Report 2 nd February 2007 Worst case scenario is that with high fossil fuel use and strong economic growth, the rise could be 6.4 °C with higher rises near the poles. Stabilising CO 2 levels at 550ppm – which some experts think the world should aim at – would itself probably mean a rise of 3 °C , possibly 4°C . The Independent 03.01.07 No. 6,334 p.1 Available online: http:// www.ipcc.ch /
    • How will each 1 °C rise affect us? Lynas, M. (2007) SIX DEGREES Our Future on a Hotter Planet. London: Fourth Estate (4 copies in Library) Scientists predict that global temperatures will rise by between one and six degrees over the next century. But what will these temperature rises actually mean? For the first time, Mark Lynas brings together the major scientific projections, degree by degree, showing how life will change on a hotter planet. He reveals why western US, southern Europe and Australia will become uninhabitable. He shows the chaos and destruction that will result unless urgent action is taken to cut back greenhouse gas emissions and he explains how we can avoid the worst impacts. It makes sobering reading. But forewarned is forearmed.”
    • Key concepts in education for sustainable development?
      • Citizenship and stewardship: recognising that we have rights and responsibilities to participate in decision making and that everyone should have a say in what happens in the future.
      • Interdependence: understanding the connections and links between all aspects of our lives and those of other people and places at local and global level, and that decisions taken in one place will affect what happens elsewhere.
      • Sustainable change: understanding that there is a limit to the way in which the world, particularly the richer countries, can develop and that the consequences of unmanaged and unsustainable growth are increased poverty and hardship and the degradation of the environment, to the disadvantage of us all.
      • (Key concepts of sustainable development, Source: CEE, 1998 and QCA, 2002)
        • Council for Environmental Education (1998) Education for Sustainable Development in the Schools Sector: a report for DfEE/QCA from the Panel for Education for Sustainable Development . Reading: CEE.
    • Key concepts in education for sustainable development?
      • Needs and rights of future generations: learning how we can lead lives that consider the rights and needs of others, and that what we do now has implications for what life will be like in the future.
      • Quality of life: recognising that for any development to be sustainable it must benefit people in an equitable way; it is about improving everybody’s lives.
      • Diversity: understanding the importance and value of diversity in our lives – culturally, socially, economically and biologically – and that our lives are impoverished without it.
      • Uncertainty and precaution: realising that as we are learning all the time and our actions may have unforeseen consequences, we should adopt a cautious approach to the welfare of the planet.
      • (Key concepts of sustainable development, Source: CEE, 1998 and QCA, 2002)
        • Council for Environmental Education (1998) Education for Sustainable Development in the Schools Sector: a report for DfEE/QCA from the Panel for Education for Sustainable Development . Reading: CEE.
    • " Active citizenship can be summarised as: Claire, H. (2001) NOT Aliens primary school children and the Citizenship/PSHE curriculum , p. 1-2. Stoke-on Trent: Trentham Books EMPOWERMENT Having the confidence and personal ability to take an active participant role - having a 'voice' and being heard EMPATHY Being able to understand one's own and other people's feelings, empathise when necessary and see other people's point of view IDENTITY Seeing where you fit in personally, having and gaining a sense of identity as a member of a local, national, and international community, and a strong sense that your own issues can be, and are, addressed DIVERSITY Knowing about the diversity of issues that affect citizens, from the very local to the global, even if these issues are not personal to you ETHICS Having an ethical framework for deciding between conflicting interests, in order to make sound, just judgements ACTION Having the opportunity to learn about citizenship and democracy through 'doing it' in real live projects VISION Having a sense of what a better community or world would look like and having the opportunity to debate this and try to implement change in appropriate settings.“