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American Psychological Association (APA)

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  • 1. American Psychological Association (APA) Tips SUNY Empire State College Nursing Program
  • 2. Getting Started with APA This presentation contains a brief overview of APA style. Please consult your 6th edition of the APA manual for detailed descriptions and examples of proper citations, including those for special circumstances. This is not intended to be an all inclusive review. APA style, like other citation and format styles, provides a set of standards and guidelines for writing scholarly papers. 2
  • 3. The Title Page• You will need the following information: – Title of Paper (no more than 12 words), your name, and institutional affiliation – Running head: This is an abbreviated title all in capital letters. The title is to be no more than 50 characters (this includes spacing). – Page number: Starts at page 1 and is located in the header. – See chapter 2.01 in the APA manual for further explanation Example on Next Slide 3
  • 4. The Title Page (continued) 2. Page Number 1. Running head: Title of paper capitalized and no 3. Title is centered, more than 50 characters located towards the (this includes spacing) top of paper, and no more than 12 words 4. Your name and institutional affiliation 4
  • 5. In-Text Citation• You will need at least the following information: – Author’s last name – Publication year – Page number for direct quotes – See table 6.1 in the APA manual for further examples Example of One Author: 1. This is used 2. This is used when there is no (Jones, 2011) OR Jones (2011) when there is no when the reference to the authors name is reference to the author in the Example of Two Authors: author in the part of the narrative. narrative narrative. narrative (Jones & Smith, 2010) OR Jones and Smith (2010) 5
  • 6. Direct Quote Less than 40 Words• Direct quote less than 40 words: – Quote marks around quote (“) and lead-in phrase before direct quote OR – In-text citation after end of quote but before the punctuation mark – Include author, date of publication, and page number – See chapter 6.03 in the APA manual for further explanation 2. Citation after 1. Author’s quote and a Example: last name period at the end and date of of the sentence publication Jones (2011) states that “times are changing rapidly” (p. 5). 3. Lead in phrase OR before quote Although “times are changing rapidly” (Jones, 2011, p. 5), some issues remain static. 6
  • 7. Direct Quote More than 40 Words • Direct quote is more than 40 words: – Indent content – No quotation marks (“) – Lead in phrase before direct quote; maintain double spacing throughout – After period, place In-text citation at end of quote – See chapter 6.03 in the APA manual for further explanation Example A: 1. Lead in phrase This is made up content: before quote starts Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Donec cursus congue2. Indented massa nec venenatis. Phasellus vulputate laoreet odio non aliquam. Fusce consequat molestie dui sed malesuada.Donec convallis malesuada metus sed semper. Aliquam non tortor ligula Fusce pharetra felis id tortor. (Jones, 2011, p. 5) 7
  • 8. Direct Quote More than 40 Words (continued) 1. Lead in phrase before quote. If more Example B: than one author, separate with “and” Jones (2011) states Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Donec cursus congue massa nec venenatis. Phasellus vulputate laoreet odio non aliquam. Fusce consequat molestie dui sed malesuada.Donec convallis malesuada metus sed semper. Aliquam non tortor ligula Fusce pharetra felis id tortor faucibus ac commodo ipsum tincidunt. (p. 5) 2. Page number after period 8
  • 9. Reference List• Placed as last page of document• Start references on a separate page• Page number continues onto reference page(s)• Use heading labeled “References” and centered on page• Entries are listed in alphabetical order by author’s last name (or by title when no author is listed)• Hanging indentation is used when citation is longer than one line (first line is left justified and subsequent lines are indented one half inch) • Example: Blais, K. K., & Hayes, J. S. (2011). Professional nursing practice: Concepts and perspectives (6th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.• See chapter 6.22 in the APA manual for further explanation 9
  • 10. Books• See chapter 7.02 in the APA manual for further examples 2. Title is in italics. First word and first word after1. If more than colon is always capitalized one author,separate with “&” Image from flickr.com by c.a. muller Citation Layout:Author’s Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Date of Publication). Title in italics (xx ed.). Location: Name of Publisher. Example:Blais, K. K., & Hayes, J. S. (2011). Professional nursing practice: Concepts and perspectives (6th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc. 10
  • 11. Periodicals With Digital Object Identifier (DOI) • See chapter 7.01 in the APA manual for further examples 2. The journal name and volume 1. If more than one author, are both in italics separate with “&” Image from Photos.com Periodical Layout: Author’s Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Date of Publication). Title. Journal in Italics, Volume(Issue), page range. Doi: then add the number 3. Need doi information Example: Kulhanek, B. (2001). EMR development…Always be prepared. Nursing Management, (42)12, 24-27. doi:10.1097/01.NUMA.0000407575.88737.e8 11
  • 12. Periodicals Without Digital Object Identifier (DOI) • See chapter 7.01 in the APA manual for further examples 2. The journal name and 1. If more than one author, volume are separate with “&” both in italics Periodical Layout: Image from Photos.com Author’s Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Date of Publication). Title. Journal in Italics, Volume(Issue), page range. Retrieved from http://web site address 3. Need to put “Retrieved from http://” and then the Example: web site address Marano, H. (2011). The scoop on chocolate: Is chocolate really healthy? Psychology Today, 44(2), 44-45. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.library.esc.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=1b54a10e- e082-48c4-986e-e8b8d79f1f14%40sessionmgr13&vid=6&hid=10 12
  • 13. Nonperiodical Web Document• See chapter 7.11 in the APA manual for further examples Layout:Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year, Month Day of Publication). Title of document. Retrieved from http://web site address Example:Boisvert, J. E., & Smith, T. A. (2011, May 1). This is a pretend example. Retrieved from http://www.boisvertandsmith.com 13
  • 14. Internet Videos• See chapter 7.11 in the APA manual for further examples Layout: Image from flickr.com by Movieing MemoriesAuthor’s Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Year, Month Day of Publication). Title [Video file]. Retrieved from http://web site address 1. Put video file in brackets Example:HealthLiteracy. (2009, March 18). Helen Osborne speaks at UIC [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pgIhCBSoe9o&feature=player_embedded 2. In this case, it is just a username 14
  • 15. Citation Generators• Citation generators assist you in generating references. You will need all of the necessary information (title, year of publication, authors’ names, etc.) from the resource.• Please keep in mind, you still have to double-check the reference as the citation generator might not be up-to-date.• Empire State College’s List of Citation Tools: – http://subjectguides.esc.edu/content.php?pid=51434&sid=576198 15
  • 16. Other Tips• If no date of publication use (n.d.)• When more than two authors, use a comma between authors to separate• Be sure your work is your own; if you borrow others’ information, make sure you properly cite. See the college policy on academic integrity and plagiarism.• Font is double spaced and 12 point, Times New Roman• If using numbers in your paper: – Numbers 1 to 10 express in words (example: one) Image from Microsoft Clip Art 2010 – Any numbers over 10 express in numerals (example: 40)• Helpful pages in APA Manual (6th ed.) – Pages 41-59 – Pages 169-192 – Page 177 – Pages 193-224 16
  • 17. APA Resources• Empire State College’s Web Site on Citations – http://subjectguides.esc.edu/content.php?pid=51434&sid=576198• APA Style, 6th edition – http://www.apastyle.org/• Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) – http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01• University at Albany, Citation Fox – http://library.albany.edu/cfox 17