REPORT Infojobs ESADE: State of the Labour Market in Spain 2013


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Infojobs and ESADE present this study with the objective of providing useful knowledge on the Spanish labour market in Spain, documenting the different trends, features and opportunities present.

24% of young people in Spain are considering starting a business, either by themselves or in partnership with other professionals, as an alternative to employment According to the InfoJobs-ESADE Report on the State of the Spanish Labour Market.

Other highlights:
.10% more job openings posted on InfoJobs than in 2012. 
. 68% of these vacancies corresponded to the categories of business and sales, customer service, computer science and telecommunications.
. Salaries, management, engineering and dental health were the three categories with better wages in 2013.
. Leading employment niches: mobile telecommunications, big data and cloud computing
. 10 times more openings for freelancers
.Top alternatives for workers over age 45: training, changing sectors and starting businesses

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REPORT Infojobs ESADE: State of the Labour Market in Spain 2013

  1. 1. ESADE InfoJobs Report 2013 · State of the labour market in Spain · Principal Conclusions 1 ESADE InfoJobs Report State of the labour market in Spain May 2014 Principal conclusions MercadoLaboral in @InfoJobs #
  2. 2. 43 ESADE InfoJobs Report 2013 · State of the labour market in Spain · Principal Conclusions Presentation of the report InfoJobs and ESADE present this study with the objective of providing useful knowledge on the Spanish labour market, documenting the different trends, features and opportunities present. The analysis focuses mainly on the activity on the site during 2013. To understand the evolution of the different trends, the data obtained is compared with 2008 and 2012. External data has also been used for certain sections of the study. The main official sources are the statistics agency of the European Union (Eurostat), the National Institute of Statistics (INE) and the Public Service of State Employment (SPEE). Through this study we would like to share information that InfoJobs collects as a leading job portal and as a privileged intermediary in selection processes. At the same time, we aim to give a voice to the users of the portal to allow readers to better understand the employment situation that we are currently experiencing in our country. Introduction
  3. 3. ESADE InfoJobs Report 2013 · State of the labour market in Spain · Principal Conclusions 65 The year ended with 5.9 million unemployed in Spain, ac- cording to the INE survey of active population, which also cites unemployment of 26.03%, one of the worst in the EU and surpassed only by Greece. Unemployment remains the prima- ry concern of Spaniards, as the CIS barometer reminds us. In the last quarter of 2013 the economy showed signs of recovery, coming out of recession with the 0.1% upturn in GDP. This growth was not noticed in the real economy: most activity indicators showed that 2013 was another negative year, since neither consumption nor industrial activity offered signs of recovery. Forecasts for 2014 are not very positive. The principal agen- cies and institutions indicate that growth will be modest (between 0.5% and 1% of GDP) and may not generate the employment that Spain needs. In 2013 a total of 973,033 job vacancies were published on InfoJobs, 10% more than in 2012, which in absolute terms means a total of 85,637 additional vacancies. 68% of the 2013 total number of vacancies corresponds to the categories of business and sales, customer service and computer science and telecommunications. The “real economy” has scarcely improved Employment vacancies grew by 10% in 2013 Category % of vacancies 2013 Commerce and sales 40% IT and telecommunications 17% Customer service 11% Professions, crafts and trades 4% Engineers and technicians 4% Hospitality and tourism 4% Business administration 3% Retail 2% Education and training 2% Health and sanitation 2% Purchasing, logistics and warehousing 2% Marketing and communication 2% Quality, production and R&D 1% Banking & finance 1% Human resources 1% Real estate and construction 1% Design and graphic arts 0.4% Legal 0.3% unemployed in Spain in 2013 5.9M employment vacancies in InfoJobs 973,033 40% 17% Commerce and Sales IT and telecommunications Customer service % of vacancies by professional category 11%
  4. 4. ESADE InfoJobs Report 2013 · State of the labour market in Spain · Principal Conclusions 87 In 2013 a total of 406,262 contracts were concluded through InfoJobs, 5% more than in 2012. For 68% of the candidates, the employment secured was a professional advancement. 56% of the candidates accepted the job because it really interested them (44 per cent because they had no alternative and needed work). Of the candidates who found a job in 2013, 77% were unem- ployed before finding work and 23% were in employment. Candidates choose to register as self-employed as an alter- native in response to the decrease of employee contracts and the increase in vacancies for freelancers. Freelance vacancies continue to grow, specifically a 10% increase on last year. Additionally, in relation to 2008, the volume of vacancies has grown tenfold. 406,262 contracts concluded through InfoJobs Vacancies for freelancers increased tenfold more contracts concluded than in 2012 5% 406,262 contracts Vacancies for self-employed grew by 10% x10 ÷
  5. 5. ESADE InfoJobs Report 2013 · State of the labour market in Spain · Principal Conclusions 109 Category Applicants per vacancy 2008 Applicants per vacancy 2012 Applicants per vacancy 2013 IT and telecommunications 6 18 24 Commercial and sales 25 35 28 Banking & finance 25 66 63 Education and training 16 59 68 Professions, crafts and trades 21 69 75 Health and sanitation 25 77 82 Customer service 24 74 92 Engineers and technicians 30 97 117 Marketing and communication 50 135 124 Quality, production and R&D 54 99 139 Hospitality and tourism 31 104 139 Design and graphic arts 79 141 161 Legal 56 109 183 Real estate and construction 50 173 185 Purchasing, logistics and warehousing 52 183 235 Human resources 70 209 235 Business administration 70 249 298 Retail 49 276 323 General total 28 72 74 In 2013, the number of job seekers who applied for vacancies through InfoJobs decreased 5% on 2012, and totalled 2.3 million. 13% more registrations than in 2012. Despite the increase in vacancies (10%), competition for jobs increased slightly, rising from 72 to 74 applicants per vacancy. The mismatch regarding training between supply and de- mand of employment continues. 45% of jobseekers have university-level education and only 21% of the vacancies requested these studies Mobile applications programmer, the most in-demand emerging post. The growing need for energy technicians is also confirmed. HTLM5 technology continues to generate vacancies and more specializations. The emergence of Cloud Computing, which requires programmers, systems administrators, analysts and engineers. Big Data bursts onto the scene. Its demand has grown exponentially, requiring analysts, programmers, architects and consultants 2.3 million jobseekers Information technologies create new opportunities 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 419 208 400 1.266 2.045 2.360 101 44 67 44 4 130 89 42 9 496 124 168 917 632 601 259 Programmer of mobile applications Energy technician Big Data HTML5 Programmer Cloud Computing Vacancies 74 208 208208208 Jobseekers intensify their activity. Cloud Computing and Big Data generate new jobs.
  6. 6. ESADE InfoJobs Report 2013 · State of the labour market in Spain · Principal Conclusions 1211 The average salary offered is of 23,650€ gross. In 2008 28% of candidates indicated a willingness to change residence for reasons of work. In 2013 33% of candidates expressed this predisposition. The reality of the portal indicates that 29% of candidates apply for vacancies that are outside their autonomous community. The mobility rate has grown in recent years, taking into account that in 2011 the rate was 20%. Increases in the intention and the real rate of mobility The trend of wage moderation continues The average salary offered by companies in their vacancies published in InfoJobs was 23,650 Euros per annum gross in 2013. This grew by barely 0.2% in 2013, the same as inflation. Jobs requiring university studies are still the best paid with an average salary of 28,263 Euros gross per year, and the difference (which is now more than €8,000) has increased between those with basic studies or high school baccalaureate. Candidates that have been longer-term unemployed accept remuneration below their expectations in order to return to the world of work. The mismatch between supply and demand remains as far as wages are concerned. Category Annual gross salary 2013* Engineers and technicians €29,165 Banking & finance €27,245 Real estate and construction €26,983 Education and training €26,922 IT and telecommunications €26,621 Quality, production and R&D €25,390 Legal €25,086 Health and sanitation €24,747 Marketing and communication €24,306 Commerce and sales €24,247 Business administration €22,499 Design and graphic arts €21,740 Purchasing, logistics and warehousing €21,483 Human resources €21,253 Hospitality and tourism €18,293 Professions, crafts and trades €18,098 Customer service €16,030 Retail €15,794 Salaries above overall average Salaries below overall average *Average maximum salary offered
  7. 7. ESADE InfoJobs Report 2013 · State of the labour market in Spain · Principal Conclusions 1413 Management, engineering and dental health, categories with better wages Job Applicants per vacancy Annual gross salary* Engineering Projects Manager 107 €62,250 General Manager** 206 €55,800 IT Manager 129 €55,545 Orthodontist / Implantologist 16 €54,101 Industrial Manager 120 €51,974 Consultant banking 32 €48,610 Odontologist 37 €47,988 Financial agent 23 €46,626 Commercial Director 87 €44,411 Financial Director 334 €44,387 Foreign trade 159 €39,660 Vacancies for Management and Engineers are those that recorded better salaries in 2013. These salaries have greater variability, depending on the company hiring and the sector. The phenomenon of dental franchises linked to insurance companies has generated a growing demand for specialists in dental health, especially of odontologists and implan- tologists, who also enjoy good salaries. * Average maximum salary offered ** Position with a high salary fluctuation Young people and over-45s, vulnerable groups 59% of the unemployed - 3.4 million people - are either young or older than 45 years. The figures speak for themselves and put the focus on these two groups, which, in some cases, are found in the same family. 25% of these unemployed people, a total of 856,713, sought employment through InfoJobs in 2013. We have asked 21,394 over-45s and 11,426 16-29 year olds about their experience of this situation. At the same time we asked 290 companies to relate their vision and behaviour regarding these two groups. 31% 1.8 million Over 45 years 28% 1.6 million Between 16 and 29 years Unemployed by age according to EPA (INE) 41% 2.4 million Others
  8. 8. ESADE InfoJobs Report 2013 · State of the labour market in Spain · Principal Conclusions 1615 One of every four young people is considering undertaking a new business venture Training, changing sectors and undertaking new ventures, main alternatives at age 45 24% of young people are thinking on undertaking a new business venture, either on their own or by partnering with other professionals. The majority (56%) indicate that they are training and recycling their skills in order to get a job and 27% are considering changing sector. Their intention is to relocate: 7 of every 10 young people would change residence for a job. Half of the companies acknowledge that they have not given an indefinite contract to any of the young people who have completed their placement contract Almost 6 in 10 say that they are training and recycling their skills. At the same time, 15% are considering a change of sector. Training is a key to change to a sector that offers them more likelihood of being employable. Given the difficulty of finding a job, 12% of them are con- sidering a new venture, either individually or together with other professionals. 8% 8% 2% 10% 12% 17% 15% 24% 27% 46% 56% 59% What do you do to improve your employability? What do you do to improve your employability? Training/Recycling Training/Recycling Specific training: languages Change of sector Undertake a new venture on my own or with others Emigrate, widen horizons Change of sector/sector where more employable Voluntary work New venture on my own or with others Others Specific training: languages Emigrate: search outside the country (n=11,426) (n=21,394) 2% 1% Take official examinations Voluntary work
  9. 9. ESADE InfoJobs Report 2013 · State of the labour market in Spain · Principal Conclusions 1817 The companies, a little more optimistic about the future Experience, knowledge and stability, the characteristics most valued by companies The employment situation at national level will hold steady in the short term, in the opinion of nearly half of the companies. In the long term, 76% of companies believe that the situa- tion will improve. For next year, 55% of firms expected to maintain current staff. For the next two years, half now expect to increase their workforce. Will the national employment situation improve in the future? In 4years In 2years In 1year It will improve It will be worse It will remain the same In 4years In 2years In 1year What is the forecast regarding recruitment in your company for the next few years? 47.93%75.86% 7.59%5.17% 44.48%44.48% 20.34%30.00% 49.66% 34.00%11.00% 55.00% 50.00%4.00% 45.00% 57.00%5.00% 38.00% Experience, knowledge and work and personal stability are the aspects most valued by the candidates and companies alike, though each assigns different weights. Acquired habits, deficiencies in language and technology are the principal inhibitors for companies in contracting the over-45s. For candidates, the most important disad- vantages are their lacking language skills, less willingness to travel and acquired habits. 73% of the companies surveyed admit that they have not hired any over-45s in the last year. 96% of over-45 candidates affirm that companies are reluctant to contract from this group. 26% of the can- didates reveal that the company, at the end of the process, informed them that it ruled them out in favour of a younger candidate, although they conformed to the profile required. Advantages of contracting over-45s Experience Knowledge Employment stability Personal stability Network of contacts They know what they want... Tax They handle pressure better Training They are more motivated Mentoring Ability to relativize Other Acquired habits Technological gap (recycling) Languages gap (recycling) Fear of and/or resistance to change Less flexibility Less willingness to travel Health-related risks They are less motivated Others Early retirement 86% 92% 54% 75% 43% 67% 67% 41% 38% 33% 33% 60% 20% 35% 20% 56% 18% 43% 15% 42% 13% 34% 13% 39% 2% 5% Companies (n=290) Companies (n=290) Candidates (n=21,394) Candidates (n=21,394) 35% 43% 34% 21% 30% 14% 16% 34% 15% 22% 11% 5% 8% 10% 8% 25% 67% 25% 42% 24% Disadvantages of contracting over-45s
  10. 10. Press Contact InfoJobs Mar Llanas T +34 93 552 22 43 Report produced by InfoJobs and ESADE InfoJobs Business Analysis Supervision: Laura Lara Team: Neus Margalló, Pedro J. Mellinas, David Rojo ESADE Business School Carlos Obeso MercadoLaboral @InfoJobs #