Tennessee School Design Class

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Karen Hawley Miles showed this slideshow as part of her presentation to the school finance class of the University of Tennessee.

Karen Hawley Miles showed this slideshow as part of her presentation to the school finance class of the University of Tennessee.

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  • File: BPS09 ES Contract Analysis.xls (sheet = Avg by Grade)
  • Excludes Alternative and SWD school types.Actual and target class sizes are based on a weighted average.
  • Source file: BPS budget; tab=Weights FA
  • Source file: Summary sheet $per pupilBoston charter schools: average an 8.2 hr day according to the tBF report on charters, p.25.

Transcript

  • 1. New Paradigms for High-Performing Schools: Choices and Trade-offs Tennessee McIntyre ClassRethinking Resourcesfor Student Success May 11, 2012
  • 2. High-performing schools shift the industrial age school paradigm in 4 ways To teaching teams with combined From teachers as widgets expertise and differentiated responsibilities and rewardsFrom small one-size-fits-all class size To targeted individual attention to models match student need From standard time blocks for all To varied time matching student students and subjects and teacher needs From school employees as sole Leveraging outside experts and provider community resources Source: ERS Education Resource Strategies Tennessee School Design Class 2
  • 3. High-performing schools are about team, not justindividual performance Deliberate assignments to teaching team Each school’s specific School-based Collaborative curricular, planning time expert support faculty, and student needs Formative assessmentsSource: ERS Education Resource Strategies Tennessee School Design Class 3
  • 4. Most districts spend little to reward increased teacher responsibility and contribution TOTAL DOLLARS PER TEACHER $90,000 $88,052 $80,000 $78,232 Benefits 24% $70,000 25% 0% Responsibility & Results $ per teacher $60,000 2% 27% Longevity $50,000 20% $40,000 3% 7% Education $30,000 $20,000 51% Base 42% $10,000 $- District A Rochester District B Northeast District A Balanced work-force Senior work-forceCompensation cost adjusted to District A areaSource: ERS District Aspen District Analysis FY 2009 Education Resource Strategies Tennessee School Design Class 4
  • 5. High-performing schools maximize human resourcesthrough hiring and assignment Hiring staff to fit school needs in terms of expertise, philosophy and schedule Organizing teachers to grades and subjects—matching expert teachers to high need areas Creating teacher teams that balance experience, training, and expertise to build internal capacity Using all human resources flexibly and creatively to improve student achievementSource: ERS Education Resource Strategies Tennessee School Design Class 5
  • 6. How does the mix of teachers’ experience and training match against the hiring needs of the school? What type of teacher should the school hire?Source: ERS Analysis Education Resource Strategies Tennessee School Design Class 6
  • 7. High-performing schools maximize human resourceswithin their buildings Hiring staff to fit school needs in terms of expertise, philosophy and schedule Organizing teachers to grades and subjects—matching expert teachers to high need areas Creating teacher teams that balance experience, training, and expertise to build internal capacity Using all human resources in school flexibly and creatively to improve student achievementSource: ERS Education Resource Strategies Tennessee School Design Class 7
  • 8. Where are the high need areas in the school? ELA MATH % Proficient Level of Teacher % Proficient & Level of TeacherGrades & above expertise above in math expertise 9 40% Low 44% Medium 10 46% Medium 42% Low 11 59% High 56% Medium 12 63% High 60% High How should expert teachers be matched to high-need areas?Source: ERS Analysis Education Resource Strategies Tennessee School Design Class 8
  • 9. High-performing schools maximize human resourceswithin their buildings Hiring staff to fit school needs in terms of expertise, philosophy and schedule Organizing teachers to grades and subjects—matching expert teachers to high need areas Creating teacher teams that balance experience, training, and expertise to build internal capacity Using all human resources in school flexibly and creatively to improve student achievementSource: ERS Education Resource Strategies Tennessee School Design Class 9
  • 10. Which team of teachers has the greatest capacity? Grade Teacher Yrs. Experience Level of implementation Evaluation rating level A 2 Low Satisfactory B 23 Medium Satisfactory 1 C 1 Low Unsatisfactory D 8 High Satisfactory E 4 High Satisfactory 2 F 13 High Satisfactory G 25 Medium Satisfactory H 32 Low Unsatisfactory 3 I 1 Low Not yet rated How should teachers be teamed to build internal capacity?Source: ERS Education Resource Strategies Tennessee School Design Class 10
  • 11. High-performing schools maximize human resourceswithin their buildings Hiring staff to fit school needs in terms of expertise, philosophy and schedule Organizing teachers to grades and subjects—matching expert teachers to high need areas Creating teacher teams that balance experience, training, and expertise to build internal capacity Using all human resources in school flexibly and creatively to improve student achievementSource: ERS Education Resource Strategies Tennessee School Design Class 11
  • 12. High-performing schools shift the industrial age school paradigm in 4 ways To teaching teams with combined From teachers as widgets expertise and differentiated responsibilities and rewardsFrom small one-size-fits-all class size To targeted individual attention to models match student need From standard time blocks for all To varied time matching student students and subjects and teacher needs From school employees as sole Leveraging outside experts and provider community resources Source: ERS Education Resource Strategies Tennessee School Design Class 12
  • 13. Most districts have opportunities to strategically raiseclass size… IN THIS DISTRICT CLASS SIZES ARE FAR FROM MAXIMUM AND DO NOT VARY BY GRADE 31 Average class size Contract max 28 25 22 22 22 22 21 Grades K-2 Grades 3-5 Grades 6-8 Grades 9-12Source: Elementary Grades Homeroom file Oct 2009; Includes elementary schools and K-8 schools (grades K0-5); excludes classes that arespecial ed 60%+, ELL 60%+; includes Advanced Work classes; excludes schools with Two-Way bilingual program; excludes classes with“mixed” grade (mainly due to teacher data NA). ERS Analysis. Education Resource Strategies Tennessee School Design Class 13
  • 14. …and to target class sizes to priority subjects and students Average GenEd Class Sizes by Subject G6-8 G9-12 35 30 29 26 27 27 28 26 26 26 26 26 25Class Size 24 25 24 24 25 24 22 19 20 15 10 5 - Core Classes Noncore ClassesSource: ERS Education Resource Strategies Tennessee School Design Class 14
  • 15. Districts have more teaching staff, but use those FTEs for specialist positions outside of the core classroom GENERAL EDUCATION CLASS SIZE VERSUS STUDENT-TEACHER RATIO ERS Estimated Average General Ed Class Size Average Total Student-to-Teacher Ratio 29 29 25 26 22 22 22 20 17 18 16 16 15 14 14 14 13 12 District S District M District E District B District A District C District P District R District GSource: ERS Analysis Education Resource Strategies Tennessee School Design Class 15
  • 16. A cycle of isolation and specialization pulls students withadditional needs out of regular education classrooms Large, diverse classes Overextended teachers Provide additional Current Remove “problem” support: Structure of student from - Social services SWD & ELL classroom - Pull-out instruction services Administration to coordinate, monitor special services Resources and responsibility move outside regular classroomSource: ERS Education Resource Strategies Tennessee School Design Class 16
  • 17. Moving students into rigidly defined programs diverts dollars from early intervention and targeted small groups for all students DISTRICT SPENDING BY STUDENT TYPE $45 2009-2010 $40Fully Allocated $ Per Pupil $35 Poverty $30 Increment (Thousands) $25 $20 $42.6 $15 $10 $19.9 $15.2 $5 $11.7 $0 General Ed LEP ELL SWD Resource SWD Sub Sep Enrollment: 37.8K 6.6K 5.4K 5.5K Weight: 1.0 1.2 1.7 3.5 Note: Excluded are all district Alternative/Adult schools. Sources: SY10 October enrollment, district budget as of 10/09. Excludes students who did not report; ELL includes those currently in programs, excludes students who opted-out. ERS Analysis. Education Resource Strategies Tennessee School Design Class 17
  • 18. High-performing schools shift the industrial age school paradigm in 4 ways To teaching teams with combined From teachers as widgets expertise and differentiated responsibilities and rewardsFrom small one-size-fits-all class size To targeted individual attention to models match student need From standard time blocks for all To varied time matching student students and subjects and teacher needs From school employees as sole Leveraging outside experts and provider community resources Source: ERS Education Resource Strategies Tennessee School Design Class 18
  • 19. Many districts have an opportunity to increaseinstructional time by increasing the school day STUDENT HOURS PER YEAR National Avg. = 1170 Boston Charters 1476Leading Edge schools 1276 Atlanta 1260 Philadelphia 1250 Pittsburgh 1250 Baltimore 1210 Denver 1200 Rochester 1180 DC 1170 Milwaukee 1160 St Paul 1138 Seattle 1125 Boston 1120 LA 1110 PG County 1080 Chicago 963Sources: District figures are from Time and Attention in Urban High Schools: Lessons for School Systems (Frank, 2010) and from ERSanalyses for the Aspen CFO network. Leading Edge school figures are from Shields, R. A., and K. H. Miles. 2008. Strategic Designs:Lessons from Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools. Watertown, MA: Education Resource Strategies. Charter school figures are fromThe Boston Foundation report (May 2010) “Out of the Debate and Into the Schools.” ERS Analysis. Education Resource Strategies Tennessee School Design Class 19
  • 20. But there is huge opportunity to make better use of existing time…by reducing unassigned or non- instructional time 12TH GRADE STUDENTS: RANGE IN UNASSIGNED TIME (As % of Total School Day)40% 1/3 of 12th graders 1/3 of 12th graders 1/3 of 12th graders35% have <6% of their have 6-17% of have 17-40% of school day their school day their school day30% unassigned unassigned unassigned25%20%15% Average = 12%10% 5% 0% -5%-10% Source: ERS Analysis of district course file Education Resource Strategies Tennessee School Design Class 20
  • 21. …by varying time by grade and subject TYPICAL DISTRICT PERCENT OF STUDENT TIME BY GRADE & SUBJECT100% PE 90% 80% Electives 70% Foreign Language 60% 50% Science 40% Social Studies 30% Math 20% 10% ELA 0% ES 7-9 10-12Source: ERS Analysis Education Resource Strategies Tennessee School Design Class 21
  • 22. …by matching instruction to student needs so that course time isn’t wastedBecause student B repeated the same course, this district invested 400% more per distinct math class in Student B, AND achieved a significantly worse outcome STUDENT A STUDENT BProficiency at end of 8th Below proficient Below proficientgradeSemester-long math • Algebra 1A • Introductory Mathclasses in grades 9-10 • Algebra 1B • Introductory Math • Technical Math 1 • Introductory Math • GeometryCumulative investment $1,362 $1,341Average investment perdistinct class $341 $1,341Status in grade 11 On track/college ready Dropped outSource: ERS analysis of district data Education Resource Strategies Tennessee School Design Class 22
  • 23. By taking on tough choices, schools canmove toward transformed practice For the same cost, a typical 25,000-student urban district can: Pay the top contributing Reduce class sizes grades 4-12 by 2 OR 15% of teachers 10K more Add 60 minutes of Allow benefits spending school day in the 25% OR lowest performing to increase by 10% schools Provide half-day pre-K Give all teachers annual step increase OR for 50% of Kindergarden studentsERS’ District Reallocation Modeler (DREAM)Education Resource Strategies 23 Tennessee School Design Class 23
  • 24. Lessons Learned Educational vision and design come first “All money is green” Find your friends Not all budget decisions are democratic “Just say no” We can do anything we want, Just not everythingSource: ERS Education Resource Strategies Tennessee School Design Class 24