How States Can Support Transformation in Tough Times

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CCSSO Moving Forward Conference
Given January 13, 2011

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  • Source: ERS Library SlidesJDAUG08Location: \\\\Minerva\\ers_data\\Internal ERS\\Slide Library Documents\\1-ERS Slides
  • File: BPS09 ES Contract Analysis.xls (sheet = Avg by Grade)
  • Excludes Alternative and SWD school types.Actual and target class sizes are based on a weighted average.
  • Source file: BPS budget; tab=Weights FA
  • Source file: Summary sheet $per pupilBoston charter schools: average an 8.2 hr day according to the tBF report on charters, p.25.
  • Add data table underneath showing size, demographics
  • Leadership Roles corrects for the fact that some leadership stipends are not additive. For example, you wouldn’t receive money for being a department head and for being a lead teacher.Leadership roles included…Department chairBuilding leadership teamCurriculum DevelopmentLead TeacherMentoring New Teachers
  • How States Can Support Transformation in Tough Times

    1. 1. How States Can Support Transformation in Tough Times<br />Moving Forward Conference January 13<br />
    2. 2. ERS is a non-profit consulting firm, head-quartered in Boston<br />We work with leaders of public school systems to rethink the use of district and school-level resources<br />We analyze district spending, human resources, school organization and performance data to generate insight around resource strategies <br />We leverage this insight to design new ways to allocate and organize resources at the district and school level <br />Our work is grounded in over a decade of experience, working with school districts across the country <br />Education Resource Strategies, Inc.<br />2<br />Education Resource Strategies<br />
    3. 3. <ul><li>Real spending doubled from $3,800 to $8,700 per pupil
    4. 4. 80% of increase went toward adding staff positions and increasing benefits while educator salaries remained flat in real dollars*
    5. 5. Spending on special education programs has gone from 4 to 21% of district budgets while regular education spending has dropped from 80% to 55%**</li></ul>Despite increased spending achievement gaps persist<br />From<br />to<br />:<br />1970<br />2005<br />* Parthenon group analysis, 2008<br />**Richard Rothstein, Where has the money gone? 2009<br />Education Resource Strategies, Inc.<br />
    6. 6. Source: Digest of Education Statistics 2007: Tables 61, 64, and 66 <br />Overall class sizes have decreased, but basic structure of schooling has remained the same<br />4<br />Education Resource Strategies, Inc.<br />
    7. 7. 5<br />Education Resource Strategies, Inc.<br />Budget Gaps are systemic due to a fundamental cost structure that continues to rise regardless of revenue<br /><ul><li>Teaching salaries growingat ~2-4% annually
    8. 8. Benefits growingat ~10+% annually
    9. 9. Expensive class size mandates
    10. 10. SPED spending continues to grow
    11. 11. Tax revenue falling
    12. 12. Enrollment declining
    13. 13. Sudden drop in Federal Funds</li></li></ul><li>The districts we have are not the systems we need<br />WE HAVE <br />WE NEED <br /><ul><li>Schools and students with same needs receiving different levels of resources
    14. 14. Rigidly defined budgets that don’t enable principals to match needs</li></ul>Equitable, transparent, and flexible funding across schools <br />Effective teaching for all students<br /><ul><li>Salary and job structures that do not encourage effectiveness , contribution or collaboration</li></ul>School designs that maximize teaching effectiveness, academic time and individual attention <br /><ul><li>Antiquated schedules and school organizations that do not match time and individual attention to priority needs</li></ul>6<br />Education Resource Strategies, Inc.<br />
    15. 15. The districts we have are not the systems we need<br />WE HAVE <br />WE NEED <br />Aligned curriculum, Instruction, assessment, PD<br /><ul><li>Underinvestment in formative assessments and fragmented professional development</li></ul>Strong school and district leaders<br /><ul><li>Underinvestment to build and reward leadership effectiveness</li></ul>Central services that foster empowerment, accountability and efficiency<br /><ul><li>Central office services that are not designed to improve productivity or customize support to school needs</li></ul>Partnership with families, communities and outside experts <br /><ul><li>Districts that pay too much for social services and non-core instruction that could be provided through outside partners</li></ul>7<br />Education Resource Strategies, Inc.<br />
    16. 16. CompensationReducing compensation spending by managing teaching work-force mix and differentiating instructional roles<br />Class size models to target individual attentionStrategically raising class sizes and rethinking one-size-fits-all class size models for providing individual attention<br />Special EducationRedirecting special education spending to early intervention and targeted individual attention for all students<br />TimeStrategically using existing time and extending where needed to meet student learning needs <br />8<br />Four of the biggest areas of “misalignment” that states influence include:<br />Education Resource Strategies, Inc.<br />
    17. 17. Build understanding of the needed changes<br />Create the right incentives<br />Remove barriers<br />Support and invest in new strategies and structures<br />Change legislation<br />Provide political cover <br />9<br />How can states support transformation at the district level?<br />
    18. 18. Education Resource Strategies, Inc.<br />10<br />High-performing schools are about team, not just individual performance<br />Deliberate assignments to teaching team<br />Each school’s specificcurricular,faculty, andstudent needs<br />School-based expert support<br />Collaborative planning time<br />Formative assessments<br />
    19. 19. Education Resource Strategies, Inc.<br />11<br />Most districts spend little to reward increased teacher responsibility and contribution<br />$88,052<br />$78,232<br />Benefits<br />Responsibility & Results<br />Longevity<br />Education<br />Base<br />District ABalanced work-force<br />District BSenior work-force<br />Compensation cost adjusted to District A area<br />Source: ERS District Aspen District Analysis FY 2009<br />
    20. 20. Stop or reduce increases for steps and credits to redirect compensation spending toward increased responsibilities and contribution<br />Aggressively manage low performers out of the system<br />Revise compensation structures to link pay to increases in responsibility and contribution as well as individual results<br />Revise work rules to insure flexibility in teacher assignment to match team and school needs<br />12<br />What can be done to optimize compensation spending?<br />Start Now<br />Build Toward<br />Education Resource Strategies, Inc.<br />
    21. 21. Education Resource Strategies<br />13<br />Class Size Models<br />Special Education<br />Source: Elementary Grades Homeroom file Oct 2009; Includes elementary schools and K-8 schools (grades K0-5); excludes classes that are special ed 60%+, ELL 60%+; includes Advanced Work classes; excludes schools with Two-Way bilingual program; excludes classes with “mixed” grade (mainly due to teacher data NA)<br />Most districts have opportunities to strategically raise class size…<br />
    22. 22. Education Resource Strategies<br />14<br />*Core class defined as ELA, Math, Science, Social Studies; Non-core defined as Art, Computer Literacy, Vocational, Foreign Language<br />Source: District A and B 9th and 12th grade course data (internal – Resource Mapping presentation)<br />…and to target class sizes to priority subjects and students<br />Class Size Models<br />Special Education<br />In these districts class sizes for core subjects are higher than non-core<br />
    23. 23. Education Resource Strategies, Inc.<br />15<br />Districts have more teaching staff, but use those FTEs for specialist positions outside of the core classroom<br />Class Size Models<br />Special Education<br />
    24. 24. Education Resource Strategies<br />16<br />A cycle of isolation and specialization pulls students with additional needs out of regular education classrooms<br />Class Size Models<br />Special Education<br />Large, diverse classes<br />Overextended teachers<br />Remove “problem” student fromclassroom<br />Current<br />Structure of <br />SWD & ELL <br />services<br />Provide additional support:<br />- Social services<br />- Pull-out instruction<br />Administration to coordinate, monitor special services<br />Resources and responsibility move outside regular classroom<br />
    25. 25. Education Resource Strategies<br />17<br />Moving students into rigidly defined programs diverts dollars from early intervention and targeted small groups for all students<br />Class Size Models<br />Special Education<br />Poverty<br />Increment <br />Note: Excluded are all district Alternative/Adult schools. Sources: SY10 October enrollment, district budget as of 10/09. Excludes students who did not report; ELL includes those currently in programs, excludes students who opted-out<br />
    26. 26. Education Resource Strategies<br />18<br />*Rochester SWD enrollment includes all students with a designated category of disability.<br />Source: ERS Benchmark Database, National data from U.S. DOE Programs, SDP Special Ed student data (PIMS); Self contained typically defined as 60% or more time in special education setting. <br />Districts vary widely in how many students they place in special education settings<br />Class Size Models<br />Special Education<br />FY06: National ID rate: 9%<br />
    27. 27. EDUCATION RESOURCE STRATEGIES, INC.<br />19<br />Dollars to redirect come from the combination of fewer referrals and more cost-effective practice<br /><ul><li> Special Education diagnosis rates by disability type
    28. 28. ELL enrollment trends
    29. 29. Staffing models
    30. 30. Inclusion models
    31. 31. Out of district policies
    32. 32. Program placement
    33. 33. Student assignment</li></li></ul><li>20<br />Note: For the average district this translates into a savings of almost 7% of total budget<br />The opportunity to redirect dollars can come from meeting student needs in different ways and using cost-effective practice<br />Education Resource Strategies, Inc.<br />Class Size Models<br />Special Education<br />Percent of Enrollment<br />
    34. 34. Highlight the class size vs. teacher quality trade-off<br />Strategically raise class sizes in non-core classes and later grades<br />Review special education spending to reduce compliance spending and unplanned extra spending on subscale programs<br />Encourage movement away from class size mandates in state regulations and contracts<br />Clarify rules on maintenance of effort spending<br />Champion revisions to special education funding that create incentives for more integrated services<br />Explore improved ways to measure special education outcomes<br />21<br />What can be done to rethink one-size-fits-all class size model and redirect special education spending to targeted individual attention for all students?<br />Education Resource Strategies, Inc.<br />Start Now<br />Build Toward<br />
    35. 35. 22<br />Sources: District figures are from Time and Attention in Urban High Schools: Lessons for School Systems (Frank, 2010) and from ERS analyses for the Aspen CFO network. Leading Edge school figures are from Shields, R. A., and K. H. Miles. 2008. Strategic Designs: Lessons from Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools. Watertown, MA: Education Resource Strategies. Charter school figures are from The Boston Foundation report (May 2010) “Out of the Debate and Into the Schools.”<br />Many districts have an opportunity to increase instructional time by increasing the school day <br />National Avg. = 1170<br />Education Resource Strategies, Inc.<br />3. Making every minute count<br />
    36. 36. 23<br />….by varying time by grade and subject<br />3. Making every minute count<br />Typical District Percent of Student Time <br />By Grade & Subject <br />100%<br />PE<br />80%<br />Electives<br />Foreign Language<br />60%<br />Science<br />Social Studies<br />40%<br />Math<br />20%<br />ELA<br />0%<br />ES<br />7-9th<br />10-12th<br />Education Resource Strategies, Inc.<br />
    37. 37. CompensationReducing compensation spending by managing teaching work-force mix and differentiating instructional roles<br />Class size models to target individual attentionStrategically raising class sizes and rethinking one-size-fits-all class size models for providing individual attention<br />Special EducationRedirecting special education spending to early intervention and targeted individual attention for all students<br />TimeStrategically using existing time and extending where needed to meet student learning needs <br />24<br />Four of the biggest areas of “misalignment” that states influence include:<br />Education Resource Strategies, Inc.<br />
    38. 38. CompensationReducing compensation spending by managing teaching work-force mix and differentiating instructional roles<br />Class size models to target individual attentionStrategically raising class sizes and rethinking one-size-fits-all class size models for providing individual attention<br />Special EducationRedirecting special education spending to early intervention and targeted individual attention for all students<br />TimeStrategically using existing time and extending where needed to meet student learning needs <br />25<br />Four of the biggest areas of “misalignment” that states influence include:<br />Education Resource Strategies, Inc.<br />
    39. 39. Build understanding of the needed changes<br />Create the right incentives<br />Remove barriers<br />Support and invest in new strategies and structures<br />Change legislation<br />Provide political cover <br />26<br />How can states support transformation at the district level?<br />
    40. 40. Revise funding systems to promote equity and flexibility<br />Revamp teacher compensation, including benefits and pensions, to increase compensation for teachers who have the best results and contribute the most to improving student performance<br />Overhaul regulations that strictly define specific staff positions and use of school time<br />Rethink graduation requirements that are linked to taking specific courses rather than demonstrating skills and knowledge<br />EDUCATION RESOURCE STRATEGIES, INC.<br />27<br />Top 10 things states can do in “tough times” to focus resources to their most productive uses …<br />
    41. 41. Create new models of accountability and support for special education and English language learners that redirect resources to more integrated settings<br />Insist on turnaround strategies that restructure existing resources and consider district-wide impact, including the challenge of displaced teachers<br />Invest in statewide leadership development and succession planning, including providing information tools<br />EDUCATION RESOURCE STRATEGIES, INC.<br />28<br />Top 10 things states can do…<br />
    42. 42. Remove barriers to creative provision of education and support services by untraditional providers <br />Promote the use of technology as a productivity improvement tool in education and school support services<br />Report useful comparative data on school and district resource use that includes information on spending by student as well as on the use and organization of resources<br />EDUCATION RESOURCE STRATEGIES, INC.<br />29<br />Top 10 things states can do…<br />
    43. 43. 30<br />Back up<br />
    44. 44. 31<br />The Baltimore City Schools Transformation Strategy—a three-year journey<br />Under new teacher contract, decisions about trade-offs to pay higher salaryfor teaching quality will be made at school level<br />Education Resource Strategies, Inc.<br />Transformation<br />Restructuring<br />Decentralization<br />Consolidation<br />
    45. 45. Real per pupil spending varies widely across districts, but spending patterns similar<br />Note: Dollar amounts are adjusted for inflation (using BLS inflation adjusters) and for cost of living (NCES-CWI); all dollars from K-12 operating budgets.<br />Uncoded dollars in Philadelphia are dollars spent on alternative schools and additional EMO payments<br />Source: RCSD 2009-2010 budget data; RCSD BEDS enrollment; Oakland Unified School District annual report 2008; ERS Benchmark database<br />32<br />Education Resource Strategies, Inc.<br />
    46. 46. Assumptions:Net step increase of 3.5% (4% average discounted for staff turnover)Lane increase of 2.5% Benefits increase 7.5% annually<br />One district example: If the district must pay COLA at 3.5%, this number nearly doubles to equivalent of 360 average cost teachers next year or 600+ first year teachers by 2015<br />33<br />Education Resource Strategies, Inc.<br />
    47. 47. Education Resource Strategies, Inc.<br />34<br />The way districts reward salary increase over a teaching career varies; merit pay is rare, primary increase is for leadership roles and NBPT<br />Total Possible Raises Over Teacher’s Career<br />Methodology: Experience and Education derived from salary schedules. Stipends aggregated from contracts – leadership roles conservative avg of multiple stipends (e.g. dept head, lead tchr, curricdevel)<br />Source: Salary Schedules and Teacher Contracts.<br />
    48. 48. 35<br />Transformation: In year 2, BCPSS redesigned the remaining Central Office support staff to create a “network” structure to provide more direct support to schools<br />School<br />School<br />Moving From a compliance focused organization …<br />Fragmented, often reactive support, far away from the work of schools<br />School<br />Budget<br />HR<br />Finance<br />School<br />School<br />Attend.<br />PD<br />Ac. Achieve.<br />Sc. Sch. Office<br />Ele. Sch. Office<br />Title I<br />Etc…<br />School<br />School<br />School<br />School<br />…to a performance-driven organization that supports school-based decision-making:<br />Problem solving focused teams closer to schools; flexible design to meet the individual needs of schools <br />Etc.<br />Network #1<br />Network #2<br />Network Team Members :<br /><ul><li>Network Leader
    49. 49. Instructional Support
    50. 50. Finance & Ops
    51. 51. Special Pops
    52. 52. Human Resources</li></ul>10-15 Schools<br />10-15 Schools<br />Education Resource Strategies, Inc.<br />

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