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Transforming District Resources to Improve Teaching and Learning: State Options & Priorities

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CCSSO Moving Forward: State Resource Allocation Workshop

CCSSO Moving Forward: State Resource Allocation Workshop

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  • 1. Transforming District Resources to Improve Teaching and Learning: State Options & Priorities CCSSO Moving Forward: State Resource Allocation WorkshopRethinking Resourcesfor Student Success November 16, 2011
  • 2. Agenda Why it’s a historic moment for states Defining priorities for states in restructuring resources to improve teaching effectiveness Defining a state approach Break-out session to identify and prioritize state actionEducation Resource Strategies 2
  • 3. Overall the number of teachers has increased, but thebasic structure of schooling has remained the sameSource: Digest of Education Statistics 2007: Tables 61, 64, and 66Education Resource Strategies 3
  • 4. We’ve bought more staff, instead of investingin knowledge, skills and support 100% 90% All other non-staff 80% 70% Increase in Benefits Rate 60% Increase in SPED staff 50% 40% Increase in number of Non-Teachers 30% (excl. SPED) 20% Increase in Number of 10% Teachers (excl. SPED) 0% Growth in Per Pupil Expenditure (1970 to 2005)Source: The Parthenon Group, 2007 from NCES; Educational Research Service; Parthenon AnalysisEducation Resource Strategies 4
  • 5. If teacher-student ratios had stayed at 1970 levels… The nation would need 1 million fewer teachers Professional Growth spending could be focused on fewer, abler teachers Average teacher salaries could be $80,000 per yearSource: Federick M Hess , “Rethinking the Teacher Quality Challenge, 2011 PIE Network Summit Policy BriefEducation Resource Strategies 5
  • 6. Budget gaps are systemic due to a fundamental coststructure that continues to rise regardless of revenue • Longevity based teaching salaries grow at ~2-4% annually • Benefits growing at ~10+% annually • SPED spending continues to grow • Pre-set COLA increases • Tax revenue falling • Enrollment declining • Sudden drop in Federal FundsEducation Resource Strategies 6
  • 7. Meanwhile the context demands state action..• 21st century labor force demanding new approaches to compensation, work place organization and job design• The launching of Common Core learning standards• Emphasis on revamping Teacher Evaluation raises profile of and need for systemic and coordinated effort• New technologies and understanding learning require different models of instructional deliveryEducation Resource Strategies 7
  • 8. This summer we talked about “Tough TimesRestructuring Priorities” for school districts Revise funding systems to ensure equitable, transparent and flexible funding. Restructure compensation to link to individual and team contribution. Rethink standardized class size models to target individual attention. Use existing time better and extend time in critical areas to meet student needs. Redirect Special Education spending to early intervention and targeted individual attention in general education settings. Develop leadership capacity by redirecting spending from compliance and monitoring to support and training. Leverage technology & community partners.Education Resource Strategies 8
  • 9. …and the tough choices and trade-offsdistricts must make to move towardtransformed practice For the same cost a typical 25,000 student urban district can: Pay the top contributing Reduce class sizes grades 4-12 by 2 OR 15% of teachers 10K more Add 60 minutes of Allow benefits spending school day in the 25% OR lowest performing to increase by 10% schools Eliminate automatic Implement new teacher COLA and modify based evaluation system & add on actual costs and OR 60 minutes of revenue increase Collaborative TimeERS’ District Reallocation Modeler (DREAM)Education Resource Strategies 9
  • 10. Education Resource Strategies 10
  • 11. Education Resource Strategies 11
  • 12. Objectives and Agenda Why it’s a historic moment for states Defining priorities for states in restructuring resources to improve teaching effectiveness Defining a state approach Break-out session to identify and prioritize state actionEducation Resource Strategies 12
  • 13. The state can have a huge impact by promoting atransformational approach to improving teachingeffectiveness by….. “Tough Time Restructuring Priorities” Revise funding systems to ensure equitable, transparent and flexible funding Restructure compensation to link to individual and team contribution. …supporting districts to Rethink standardized class size models to target create a comprehensive individual attention. talent management system Use existing time better and extend time in critical areas to meet student needs. that focuses on continuous improvement Redirect Special Education spending to early of teaching effectiveness intervention and targeted individual attention in and not just hiring and general education settings. firing Develop leadership capacity by redirecting spending from compliance and monitoring to support and training. Leverage technology & community partners.Education Resource Strategies 13
  • 14. A comprehensive Talent Management System:  Defines, measures and reports teaching effectiveness to inform hiring, retention, placement, professional growth opportunities, and compensation  Structures compensation to attract and retain the highest quality teaching force  Offers career paths that attract, grow and leverage talent and expertise  Hires and assigns talented individuals to work in teams that match expertise to needs of the job  Provides job-embedded opportunities for professional growth through teaming and collaborative planning time.  Improves individual capacity by providing differentiated professional growth opportunities linked to needs as identified through evaluation Today’s FocusEducation Resource Strategies 14
  • 15. To understand how States can support districtstake a transformational approach to improvingteaching effectiveness they need to understand... The obstacles in the way Where school Where school districts are districts must now beEducation Resource Strategies 15
  • 16. What should it look like? Structures compensation to attract and retain the highest quality teaching forceAttract a high Competitive compensationperforming teaching package at entry BY PROVIDINGforceRetain a high performing Competitive compensationteaching force BY PROVIDING package for effective performers over timeMotivate a high Differentiated compensationperforming teaching BY PROVIDING that provides incentives forforce contributionAlign a high performing Differentiated compensationteaching force with BY PROVIDING reflecting the challenge ofdistrict performance the assignmentgoals Education Resource Strategies 16
  • 17. What does it currently look like? Compensation Starting teacher salaries not competitive with comparable Attract NO professional opportunities or differentiated for high value expertise Single salary schedule pays all teachers the same regardless of performance. Retain NO Pension structure encourages low performers to stay. Motivate NO Lane structure provides permanent increases for one-time learning. Inconsistent or Insufficient incentives for Align NO taking on greater challenges or playing leadership rolesEducation Resource Strategies 17
  • 18. The teaching profession is attracting lower quality candidates; while compensation structure is not the only reason, it is a major factor PERCENTAGE OF 1992-93 BACHELOR DEGREE PERCENTAGE OF FEMALES FROM THE TOP OFRECIPIENTS WHO WERE CURRENT OR FORMER TEACHERS THEIR HIGH SCHOOL CLASS WHO ENTER BY COLLEGE ENTRANCE EXAM SCORE, 2003 TEACHING, 1965-1992Percentage of Bachelor Degree Recipients 30% 20% 20% 26% 25% 15% Percent of Females 20% 20% 15% 15% 10% 10% 5% 4% 5% 0% Lowest Quarter Middle Quarters Highest Quarter 0% 1965 1992 Implied 62% 50% 40% Retention Rate Note: Females in the “top of their high school class” refer to those females whose high school test scores ranked in the top decile Sources: The Parthenon Group, 2007 from NCES; Hoxby and Leigh (2003); Corcoran, Schwab, Evans (2002) Education Resource Strategies 18
  • 19. It takes teachers almost a decade longer to reachpeak earnings than it does for other professionalsEducation Resource Strategies 19
  • 20. Even though salary components are the same, the details differ significantly across districts…creating different incentives TOTAL POSSIBLE RAISES OVER TEACHER’S CAREER 100% Performance Pay 90% National Board 80% Certification 70% Leadership 60% Roles 50% Education 40% 30% Experience 20% 10% 0% TotalPossible $47k $54k $42k $61k $55k $60K $48k $47k $56k $42k $50k $49k $50k Raise % Over 124% 156% 92% 142% 122% 135% 113% 115% 131% 117% 111% 134% 128% BaseSource: Salary Schedules and Teacher Contracts. Education Resource Strategies 20
  • 21. This typical district devotes less than 2% of allteacher compensation spending to reward increasedteacher contribution or performance $500 Million 100% 24% Benefits 80% >1% Responsibility & Results 27% 60% Longevity 7% Education 40% Base 20% 42% 0% District with Senior Teacher ForceSource: ERS AnalysisEducation Resource Strategies 21
  • 22. A single salary structure with automatic lane and step increases, combined with COLA, forces the district to invest significantly in characteristics that research shows do not impact student achievement.District A’s Projected Teacher Across all the teachers in the Compensation Costs district, this adds up to an $298- additional $7-9 million next year or $350 $266- $309m $40-50 million by FY15 just to pay $258m $268m $300 the salary and benefit increases $250 of the existing workforce Benefits $200 Other pay $150 Longevity $7m = laying off 88 teachers at avg. $100 Education compensation OR 127 first year teachers Base $50 $- $40m= laying off 416 teachers at avg. compensation OR 657 first year teachers FY10 FY11 FY15 Assumptions: •Base salary, education and step all increase by 2.1% COLA •Same size teacher workforce & no attrition savings •Benefits pegged at 34% of salary Education Resource Strategies 22
  • 23. This is not to suggest district should invest less inteaching effectiveness, just that they should changethe nature of their investment Educational Attainment Contribution Experience PerformanceEducation Resource Strategies 23
  • 24. If slicing the current pie is not sufficient to meetcompensation goals, then districts need to findways to reallocate resources to make a bigger pieSmall reductions in class size make little difference in studentperformance unless class sizes are reduced to 13-17 student or lower;and can even work against teaching quality efforts Need for $ for MORE additional high PD quality teachers Class size reductionEducation Resource Strategies 24
  • 25. What should it look like? Provides job-embeddedopportunities for professional growth throughteaming and collaborative planning time.Education Resource Strategies 25
  • 26. What does it look like? Providing real-time job-embedded professional growth opportunities through teaming and collaborative planning time. Depends on principal capacity to recognizeDeliberate VARIABLE teaching expertise because Information onassignment to teaching effectiveness not systematicallyteaching teams collected or made accessible to principals.Collaborative VARIABLE Depends on leaders to design and implementPlanning Time complex schedules and limited by contracts Most districts adopting formative assessments.Formative YES Budget constraints limit purchase of technologyassessments to enable real-time data Coaching and release time cut with budgetSchool-based N0 declines; teacher assignment practices result inexpert support schools with inappropriate mix of master and novice teachers Education Resource Strategies 26
  • 27. While some districts have significant teacher time without students…. Difference Between Annual Teacher and Student Hours (MS/HS 2010-2011) 300 281 283 268 244 250 233 195 200Hours per Year 150 116 105 100 81 49 50 41 - Source: ERS district database, TR3 Database, DCPS teacher contract and school schedules Education Resource Strategies 27
  • 28. Most extra teacher time is “unspecified”, with little structure over how that time is usedSource: The New Teacher Project, “The Widget Effect” 2009Education Resource Strategies 28
  • 29. What should it look like? Improves individual capacity by providingdifferentiated professional growth opportunities linked to needs asidentified through evaluation Organizational School-Based Individual Growth Improvement Support Opportunities Professional Professional development in the Job-embedded development in the context of Opportunities through of the individual organizational teaming and needs of a teacher, priorities (ex collaborative particularly at career curriculum adoption) planning junctures Offered by school Tightly linked to Offered by or thru evaluations and with structures the District office career path facilitated by District Investment in Professional Growth should be balanced across the district, school and individual needs, depending on available resources, district priorities, and teacher capacityEducation Resource Strategies 29
  • 30. What does it currently look like? Differentiated Professional Growth for Individuals •Workshop based with little on-site follow-upOrganizational •One size fits allImprovement •Fragmented across departments and purposes •Schools not supported in implementation •Teacher assignment practices result in schoolsSchool-Based that do not have an appropriate mix ofSupport teachers •Principals don’t have scheduling capacity. •At the direction of individual teachers with littleIndividual connection to district or school priorities orgrowth teacher evaluation results.opportunities • Largest expenditure is compensation lanes. Education Resource Strategies 30
  • 31. The largest component of spending on teacher professionalgrowth is often considered an entitlement rather than anavailable resource for improving effectivenessThis district spends $63 million annually in teacher salaries foreducational attainment, $28 million to teachers who have morethan a master’s degree TOTAL SPENDING ON PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT (SY 07-08) Estimated Salary Contracted PD Initiatives Increments for PD Days $57.9M Coursework $40.6M $63.4M 36% 25% 39% District Z: Total spending on Professional Development (SY07-08)Education Resource Strategies 31
  • 32. Districts we have studied spend between 1.6% and 5% of operating budget on Professional Growth initiatives 09-10 Professional Development Spending as Percent of Operating Expenditures 6% 5.0% 5% 4.5%% of Operating Budget 3.9% 4% 3.6% 3.2% 3% 2.8% 2.1% 2% 1.6% 1% 0% District B District P District H District C District D District E District R District A Education Resource Strategies 32
  • 33. Due to recent budget constraints, manydistricts are funding PD primarily fromdirected federal and state sources PD Funding Sources 100% 9% 29% 80% 28% 60% 7% 29% PRIVATE LOCAL 40% STATE 56% FEDERAL 20% 42% 0% Denver (3.25% of Op. Budget) Duval (3.92% of Op. Budget) Denver $5,914 per teacher Duval $4,582 per teacherEducation Resource Strategies 33
  • 34. Investment in Professional Growth is often spread across many initiatives and purposes, resulting in fragmentation $13.7 M $9.6 M 49.4 M Principal Dev. TDE daysAcad Intst. Materials, Vendors, Conferences HS Educ. Educ. Tech. Induction Schultz Initiatives Teacher Coach Compensation Chf. Off. Science Leadership Title I Largest investments in time Special TDE days and expert support, Populations consistent with characteristics of quality TDE days professional development set out in district’s PD plan Teacher Professional Contract Professional Comp for Development Development Time Lanes Office District initiatives Individual School-based support Growth $10K/teacher spread across many initiatives & purposes, creating risk of fragmentation Source: Duval 09-10 expenditure file, Duval teacher contract Note: TDE days include substitute and teacher salary costs; total in file split across 3 categories of PD Education Resource Strategies 34
  • 35. This fragmentation is driven by:• Priorities determined by grants• Spending controlled by union contractual provisions• Too many “priorities” resulting from a lack of understanding of need• Budgeting practices that award all departments and schools a pot of money for PD• Continuing to honor the scared cowsEducation Resource Strategies 35
  • 36. Objectives and Agenda Why it’s a historic moment for states Defining priorities for states in restructuring resources to improve teaching effectiveness Defining a state approach Break-out session to identify and prioritize state actionEducation Resource Strategies 36
  • 37. What is the state role in promoting teachingeffectiveness?It is the joint responsibility of: Dept of Ed Union State Commissioner Cadre of Highly Legislature Administration Effective Teachers School Board Higher School EducationAnd these actors do not always have a coordinated approach…Education Resource Strategies 37
  • 38. This is generally accomplished by dictating inputs throughlaws, regulations, administrative policies, contracts, etc Federal DOE State Higher Dept of Ed State Legislature Courts Commissioner ed School Administration District Union Board Resulting in instructional School And these are just the formaldecisions being made further actors! Implied inputs are imposed and further away from the by parents, community, classroom Teacher Other? Education Resource Strategies 38
  • 39. The input approach often has the side effect of tying up scarce district resources that could be redirect to increasing teaching effectiveness Mandated new teacher mentor programsIntended Purpose To ensure that school districts provide sufficient support for teachers new to the profession in order to reduce new teacher turnoverControlling Provisions State Law; State Regulations, Union Contracts, Administrative provisionsMisaligned Resources Overinvestment in new teacher district mentors, required external PD and days, administrative costs and compliance costsUnintended Results •Underinvestment in school-based job-embedded supports •Often supports not integrated into school instructional model, support fragmented and often not aligned with new teacher needsEducation Resource Strategies 39
  • 40. We need to flip the paradigm…… The System we have: Dictate Inputs Measure Outcomes The System we want: Measure Inputs Dictate OutcomesEducation Resource Strategies 40
  • 41. We are beginning to see this paradigmshift with Teacher evaluations Measure Inputs Dictate Outcomes Characteristics of Effective Student Outcomes Teaching (ex: Value Added (ex: Rubric based on Measures) Charlotte Danielson)Education Resource Strategies 41
  • 42. We need to be careful that theparadigm flip is not 360 degrees Dictating Outcomes too narrowly or outside the context of new instructional delivery models may result in solidifying structures we know are not optimal Will tying student outcomes to individual teachers exclude the movement to new instructional delivery models, including teaming, that move us away from the traditional one teacher – one classroom model?Education Resource Strategies 42
  • 43. In this paradigm the State plays a numberof different roles to influence behavior The State removes internal regulations and rules that Barrier constrain district flexibility and/or force investment Breaker misalignments The State builds the capacity of districts to improve Capacity teaching effectiveness thru PD, tools, access to data, Builder models of best practice The State identifies providers of services that meet high Service standards and structures access and networks Broker The State establishes structures, including innovation Incentivize grants, that encourage certain behaviors or practices Provider The State works with other stakeholders (unions, Influencer legislature) to increase understanding of barriers to improving teaching effectiveness Mandate The State mandates certain practices, processes or Maker investments that have a compelling State priorityEducation Resource Strategies 43
  • 44. Objectives and Agenda Why it’s a historic moment for states Defining priorities for states in restructuring resources to improve teaching effectiveness Defining a state approach Break-out session to identify and prioritize state actionEducation Resource Strategies 44