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Transformation or Decline: How can states promote restructuring in tough times?

Transformation or Decline: How can states promote restructuring in tough times?



This presentation was given by Karen Hawley Miles to The Council of Chief State School Officers.

This presentation was given by Karen Hawley Miles to The Council of Chief State School Officers.



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Transformation or Decline: How can states promote restructuring in tough times? Transformation or Decline: How can states promote restructuring in tough times? Presentation Transcript

  • Transformation or Decline
    How can states promote restructuring in tough times?
    CCSSO Institute, July 18th, 2011
  • We are a non-profit firm dedicated to helping school systems spend and organize time, talent and technology to create great schools at scale
    We partner with system leaders to analyze spending, human resource, organization and student data to better align with high performance strategies
    We leverage insight from this work to provide lessons and tools for school leaders and those who support them
    Our work is grounded in over a decade of experience working with school districts across the country
    Education Resource Strategies
  • Restructuring Priorities 25 Minutes
    School Budget Hold ‘em Game 40 Minutes
    “Aha”s & Implications for Action 30 Minutes
    Mitchell Chester, MA
    Robert Hammond, CO
    Lillian Lowery, DE
    From Game to Reality 20 Minutes
    Discussion with Tom Luna, ID
    Agenda: An Interactive Exploration
  • 4
    We know what it takes to create high performing schools
    Strategic School Design
    • Effective Teaching Teams
    • Targeted Individual Attention
    • Maximized, Flexible Academic Time
    Aligned Standards, Curriculum, & Assessments
  • 5
    FUNDINGinequitable, unintelligible, rigid
    But the school systems we have …
    & JOB STRUCTURE discourage effectiveness
    SCHOOL DESIGNantiquated schedules and staffing
    A Few
    High Fliers
    LEADERSHIPunsupported, underinvested
    CENTRAL OFFICE SERVICESinefficient, unresponsive
    PARTNERS & TECHNOLOGYunderleveraged
  • 6
    FUNDINGequitable, transparent, and flexible
    Are not the school systems we need
    TEACHER COMPENSATION & JOB STRUCTURElinked to contribution
    SCHOOL DESIGNschedules and staffing match needs
    INSTRUCTIONAL SUPPORTstrategically aligned
    Schools at Scale
    LEADERSHIPsupported and rewarded
    CENTRAL OFFICE SERVICESaccountable, efficient
  • Restructure one-size fits all teacher compensation and job structureby linking increases to greater results and contribution including breadth of expertise, responsibilities and leadership
    Rethink standardized class size model to target individual attention by strategically raising class sizes and rethinking one-size-fits-all class size models for providing individual attention
    Shift special education spending toward early intervention and targeted individual attention in general education settings where possible
    Optimize existing time to meet student and teacher needs and extend where needed
    Four of the highest priorities for restructuring that states influence include:
  • 8
    High-performing schools are about team, not just individual performance
    Deliberate assignments to teaching team
    Each school’s specificcurricular,faculty, andstudent needs
    School-based expert support
    Collaborative planning time
    Formative assessments
  • 9
    Maximum Teacher Salary Components
    ERS Analysis of partner and Aspen district salary structures
    Typical District
    Maximum Teacher Salary =$90,000
  • Most districts devote less than 2% of all teacher compensation spending to reward increased teacher contribution or performance
    $500 million
    $350 million
    Senior Teacher Force
    More balanced Teacher Force
  • Stop or reduce increases for steps and credits to redirect compensation spending toward increased responsibilities and contribution
    Actively manage low performers out of the system using existing evaluation tools
    Revise compensation structures to link pay to increases in responsibility and contribution as well as individual results
    Revise work rules to insure flexibility in teacher assignment to match team and school needs
    What can be done to optimize compensation spending?
    Start Now
    Build Toward
  • 12
    Most districts have opportunities to strategically raise class size in upper grades
    Source: Elementary Grades Homeroom file Oct 2009; Includes elementary schools and K-8 schools (grades K0-5); excludes classes that are special ed 60%+, ELL 60%+; includes Advanced Work classes; excludes schools with Two-Way bilingual program; excludes classes with “mixed” grade (mainly due to teacher data NA)
  • 13
    …and to target class sizes to priority subjects and students
    In these districts class sizes for core subjects are higher than non-core
    *Core class defined as ELA, Math, Science, Social Studies; Non-core defined as Art, Computer Literacy, Vocational, Foreign Language
    Source: District A and B 9th and 12th grade course data (internal – Resource Mapping presentation)
  • Districts have more teaching staff, but use them for specialist positions outside of the core classroom and planning during the day
    General Education Class Size versus Student-Teacher Ratio
  • 15
    A cycle of isolation and specialization pulls students with additional needs out of regular education classrooms
    Large, diverse classes
    Overextended teachers
    Remove “problem” student fromclassroom
    Structure of
    SWD & ELL
    Provide additional support:
    - Social services
    - Pull-out instruction
    Administration to coordinate, monitor special services
    Resources and responsibility move outside regular classroom
  • 16
    Moving students into rigidly defined programs diverts dollars from early intervention and targeted small groups for all students
    Note: Excluded are all district Alternative/Adult schools. Sources: SY10 October enrollment, district budget as of 10/09. Excludes students who did not report; ELL includes those currently in programs, excludes students who opted-out
  • 17
    Districts vary widely in how many students they place in special education settings
    FY06: National ID rate: 9%
    *Rochester SWD enrollment includes all students with a designated category of disability.
    Source: ERS Benchmark Database, National data from U.S. DOE Programs, SDP Special Ed student data (PIMS); Self contained typically defined as 60% or more time in special education setting.
  • 18
    What can be done to rethink one-size-fits-all class size model and redirect special education spending to targeted individual attention for all students?
    Highlight the class size vs. teacher quality trade-off
    Strategically raise class sizes in non-core classes and later grades
    Review special education spending to reduce compliance spending and unplanned extra spending on subscale programs
    Encourage movement away from class size mandates in state regulations and contracts
    Clarify rules on maintenance of effort spending
    Champion revisions to special education funding that create incentives for more integrated services
    Explore improved ways to measure special education outcomes
    Start Now
    Build Toward
  • 19
    Many districts have an opportunity to optimize instructional time by lengthening the school day
    Sources: District figures are from Time and Attention in Urban High Schools: Lessons for School Systems (Frank, 2010) and from ERS analyses for the Aspen CFO network. Leading Edge school figures are from Shields, R. A., and K. H. Miles. 2008. Strategic Designs: Lessons from Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools. Watertown, MA: Education Resource Strategies. Charter school figures are from The Boston Foundation report (May 2010) “Out of the Debate and Into the Schools.”
    National Avg. = 1170
  • 20
    ….and by varying time by grade and subject
    Typical District Percent of Student Time
    By Grade & Subject
    Foreign Language
    Social Studies
  • 21
    By taking on tough choices, schools can move toward transformed practice
    For the same cost a typical 25,000 student urban district can:
    Reduce K-6 class size by 2
    Add 90 minutes of collaborative planning time for all teachers
    Increase % SPED in HS by 2 percentage points
    Invest in 1 RTI Specialist for every 160 K-2 students
    Double the salary of the top 5% of teachers
    Give all teachers a 5% raise
    ERS’ District Reallocation Modeler (DREAM)
  • Restructure compensation to link to individual and team contribution.
    Rethink standardized class size models to target individual attention.
    Use existing time better and extend time in critical areas to meet student needs.
    Redirect Special Education spending to early intervention and targeted individual attention in general education settings.
    Maximize use of buildings and facilities.
    Develop leadership capacity by redirecting spending from compliance and monitoring to support and training.
    Leverage technology & community partners.
    Seven Tough Times Restructuring Priorities
  • The Object of the Game:
    Use the Hold’em cards provided to create a “hand” of investment and savings options to create a budget that moves toward improved district performance while still meeting a budget reduction target of 8%
    Step 1: Assign Roles and Review Rules 5 minutes
    Step 2: Read and Respond 10 minutes
    Step 3: Review priorities & select investments 10 minutes
    Step 4: Select savings to finalize hand 5 minutes
    Step 5: Discussion Questions: 15 minutes
    Time to Play the Game
  • Select cards carefully—not all the choices are strategic
    Consider inter-relationships – Not all choices are independent of each other. Some choices may reduce the value of other choices – you can choose one or the other or make a rough estimate of additional changes.
    Accept approximation—The budget percentages are estimates built from averages and including high-level assumptions. They are meant should be directionally correct, but actual district results could vary widely.
    Budget cutting in education means cutting staff positions- there will be pain, the question is whether there are ways to leverage it to accelerate the freeing of resources from unproductive structures
    Things to consider
  • What were the biggest insights and/or surprises regarding opportunities for district transformation during budget-cutting times and what are the implications for how the state implements and support district budgeting ?
    Are there particular “restructuring priorities” that appear to have the most leverage?
    What can states do to help districts understand and help implement these actions?
    Create incentives?
    Get out of the way?
    Discussion Questions