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  1. 1. HURRICANES The History, Structure, Development, and Destruction Source:
  2. 2. What is a hurricane? <ul><li>Violent cyclonic storm that develops in the tropical region </li></ul><ul><li>Wind speeds are > 74 mph </li></ul>Source: Newsroom/NewImages/images.php3?img_id=680
  3. 3. Rotation and Pressure <ul><li>In which direction does a hurricane rotate? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>COUNTERCLOCKWISE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is the barometric pressure inside the hurricane high or low? </li></ul><ul><li>LOW </li></ul>
  4. 4. When is Hurricane Season? <ul><li>June 1 st </li></ul><ul><li>through </li></ul><ul><li>November </li></ul><ul><li>31st </li></ul>
  5. 5. Watch vs. Warning <ul><li>What is the difference between a Hurricane Watch and a Hurricane Warning? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Watch – Tropical storm poses a threat to coastal areas with 36 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warning - Tropical storm conditions are expected in a coastal area within 24 hours </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. What conditions must be present for a hurricane to develop? <ul><li>Warm ocean temperatures (>80˚ F) up to 60m deep </li></ul><ul><li>Little to no wind shear </li></ul><ul><li>Low pressure system at least 5˚ North or South of Equator </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation caused by winds </li></ul>Source: http://lwf.ncdc.noaa. gov/oa/reports/fran/fran.html
  7. 7. What is the major source of energy fueling a hurricane? <ul><li>Heat Energy evaporating from the ocean surface </li></ul>Source:
  8. 8. Hurricane Anatomy Source:
  9. 9. Another look at the Structure Source:
  10. 10. Compare the Following Source:
  11. 11. Comparison of Terms <ul><li>Tropical Storm </li></ul><ul><li>Shower and thunderstorm moves over closed circulation, winds greater than 39 mph </li></ul><ul><li> Hurricane </li></ul><ul><li>Eye is developed, winds > 74 mph </li></ul>
  12. 12. By what two factors is hurricane strength measured? <ul><li>Wind Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Barometric Pressure </li></ul>
  13. 13. What is the Scale Used to Categorize Hurricanes? <ul><li>Saffir-Simpson Scale </li></ul>Source: Category Max Wind Speed (mph) Min. Surface Pressure (mb) Storm Surge m (ft) 1 74-96 > 980 1-1.7 (3-5) 2 97-111 979-965 1.8-2.6 (6-8) 3 112-131 964-945 2.7-3.8 (9-12) 4 132-155 944-920 3.9-5.6 (13-18) 5 > 155 < 920 > 5.7 (>19)
  14. 14. What causes the damage in a hurricane? <ul><li>Winds </li></ul><ul><li>Flooding </li></ul><ul><li>Storm Surge </li></ul>
  15. 15. What is a storm surge? <ul><li>Large wall or dome of water that rushes into the coastline as a result of a hurricane making landfall </li></ul><ul><li>To the right are the areas affected by high storm surges </li></ul>Souce:
  16. 16. What destroys a hurricane? <ul><li>Strong vertical winds </li></ul><ul><li>Cold water </li></ul><ul><li>Movement over land </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Friction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of moisture </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. What are the five costliest hurricanes in the United States? <ul><li>Hurricane Andrew – 1992 </li></ul><ul><li>Hurricane Hugo – 1989 </li></ul><ul><li>Hurricane Fran – 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Hurricane Opal – 1995 </li></ul><ul><li>Hurricane Frederic - 1979 </li></ul>
  18. 18. Explain why the majority of the costliest storms are relatively recent <ul><li>Damage is a result of development </li></ul><ul><li>There are more developed areas and possessions than in the past </li></ul>Source:
  19. 19. What are the five deadliest hurricanes in the United States? <ul><li>Galveston – 1900 </li></ul><ul><li>Southeast Florida – 1928 </li></ul><ul><li>Florida Keys – 1919 </li></ul><ul><li>New England – 1938 </li></ul><ul><li>Florida Keys – 1935 </li></ul>
  20. 20. Explain why the deadliest storms were longer ago. <ul><li>Lack of instrumentation to predict and track storms </li></ul><ul><li>People were not warned of the incoming danger </li></ul>Source: Results of the Galveston Hurricane
  21. 21. How has a hurricane affected you personally? <ul><li>Damage to your house from wind? </li></ul><ul><li>Damage from flooding? </li></ul><ul><li>Destroyed vacation house? </li></ul><ul><li>Damage to family members’/friends homes? </li></ul>
  22. 22. http:// Final Water Level Flooding of Tar River in Greenville, NC as result of Hurricanes Dennis and Floyd Dockside Tar River Estates
  23. 23. Damage to Greenville <ul><li>Extensive Flooding </li></ul><ul><li>Extended Power outages </li></ul><ul><li>Flood Related Deaths </li></ul><ul><li>Property Damage </li></ul>US 264 Bridge Source: /hazard/event/floyd/ncflood/ mediums/img022.jpg
  24. 24. Damage to Greenville Source:
  25. 25. Protection <ul><li>Listen to warnings </li></ul><ul><li>Take all warnings seriously </li></ul><ul><li>Follow evacuations </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare Food and Water for extensive power outages </li></ul>
  26. 26. Source: THE END