Why do we fall ill


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Why do we fall ill

  1. 1. Why do we fall ill?
  2. 2. What will happen if kidney stops filtration of blood?
  3. 3. Grandmother’s health is not good not filling well well-being poor health healthy attitude exercise social environment garbage cleanliness drains graceful positions breathing capacity flexibility of body disease uncomfortable suffering
  4. 4. • ‘Health’ is therefore a state of being well enough to function well physically, mentally and socially.
  5. 5. • Disease – Any disturbance in the structure and /or function of any organ or part of body.
  6. 6. TYPES OF DISEASES • Acute disease – Some diseases last for only very short periods of time, and these are called acute diseases. E.g. common cold
  7. 7. • Other ailments can last for a long time, even as much as a lifetime, and are called chronic diseases. E.g. elephantiasis, tuberculosis
  8. 8. • Congenital disease – Are present since birth. Caused due to genetic abnormalities / due to metabolic disorder / malfunctioning of organ. Permanent, generally not easily curable & may be inherited to children
  9. 9. • Acquired diseases – Which develop after birth
  10. 10. Acquired diseases – Which develop after birth • Infectious disease – Communicated from diseased person to healthy person. Caused by some biological agents / pathogens like – Viruses, bacteria, protozoan, nematodes, fungi • Non-infectious disease – Restricted only to those persons who are suffering. Diseases that are not caused by infectious agents.
  11. 11. Comparison of damages to health by acute & chronic diseases • Common cold • Tuberculosis
  12. 12. Get better & become well within a week or so - short of breath - lose weight - feel tired all the time
  13. 13. • Prolonged general poor health if we have a chronic disease
  14. 14. INFECTIOUS DISEASES • Infectious agents • Means of spread • Organ specific & tissue specific manifestation • Principles of treatment • Principles of prevention
  15. 15. Infectious agents - Organisms that can cause disease are found in a wide range of such categories of classification.
  16. 16. • Some of them are viruses, some are bacteria, some are fungi, some are single- celled animals or protozoans. Some diseases are also caused by multicellular organisms, such as worms of different kinds.
  17. 17. Infectious agent Disease Virus Common cold, influenza, dengue fever, AIDS Bacteria Typhoid fever, cholera, tuberculosis, anthrax Fungi Many common infectious disease Protozoan Malaria, kala azar Worms worm infections, elephantiasis
  18. 18. Why is it important that we think of these categories of infectious agents? • These categories are important factors in deciding what kind of treatment to use. Members of each one of these groups – viruses, bacteria, and so on – have many biological characteristics in common. • All viruses, for example, live inside host cells, whereas bacteria very rarely do. • Viruses ,bacteria and fungi multiply very quickly, while worms multiply very slowly in comparison. • Taxonomically, all bacteria are closely related to each other than to viruses and vice versa.
  19. 19. • This means that many important life processes are similar in the bacteria group but are not shared with the virus group. As a result, drugs that block one of these life processes in one member of the group is likely to be effective against many other members of the group. But the same drug will not work • against a microbe belonging to a different group.
  20. 20. As an example, let us take antibiotics. • They commonly block biochemical pathways important for bacteria. Many bacteria, For example, make a cell-wall to protect themselves. The antibiotic penicillin blocks the bacterial processes that build the cell wall. As a result, the growing bacteria become unable to make cell-walls, and die easily.
  21. 21. • Human cells don’t make a cell-wall any way, so penicillin cannot have such an effect on us. Penicillin will have this effect on any bacteria that use such processes for making cell- walls. Similarly, many antibiotics work against many species of bacteria rather than simply working against one.
  22. 22. • But viruses do not use these pathways at all, and that is the reason why antibiotics do not work against viral infections. If we have a common cold, taking antibiotics does not reduce the severity or the duration of the disease. However, if we also get a bacterial infection along with the viral cold, taking antibiotics will help. Even then, the antibiotic will work only against the bacterial part of the infection, not the viral infection.
  23. 23. Means of spread of infectious disease 1. Air born diseases Common cold, pneumonia, tuberculosis 2. Water born diseases Cholera, amoeboisis 3. Sexually transmitted diseases Syphilis, AIDS 4. Through vectors Anopheles mosquitoes – vector of malaria
  24. 24. Organ specific & tissue specific Manifestations After entry of microbes in our body where do they go?
  25. 25. Answer depends on Point of entry : • e.g. tuberculosis - caused by bacteria - entry point through Nose to lungs
  26. 26. • e.g. typhoid – caused by bacteria through - Mouth to Guts
  27. 27. • e.g. jaundice – caused by viruses – through mouth to liver
  28. 28. • Sex organs – lymph nodes – e.g. virus – AIDS
  29. 29. • e.g. Japanese encephalitis (brain fever) – virus- enter through a mosquito bite infect the brain.