Natural resources


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Natural resources

  1. 1. Biosphere All living thing on earth together with • ATMOSPHERE • HYDROSPHERE • LITHOSPHERE
  2. 2. ATMOSPHERE • Multilayered gaseous envelop surrounding the earth. • No atmosphere no life - e.g. other planets Venus, Mars
  3. 3. ROLE OF THE ATMOSPHERE IN CLIMATE CONTROL • Air is a bad conductor of heat - keeps the average temperature of the Earth fairly steady during the day and even during the course of the whole year. • Prevents the sudden increase in temperature during the daylight hours. And during the night, it slows down the escape of heat into outer space. • Think of the moon - about the same distance from the Sun - no atmosphere - the temperature ranges from –190º C to 110º C.
  4. 4. Layers f Atmosphere (image) • Troposphere • Stratosphere • Mesosphere • Ionosphere • Exosphere
  6. 6. AIR POLLUTION • An increase in the content of harmful substances (pollutants) in air is called air pollution. (image) • Pollutants – e.g. CO, CO2, SO2, H2S, Oxides of nitrogen, dust particles, lead, asbestos etc.
  7. 7. Air pollution can cause : • In humans – respiratory & renal problems, high blood pressure, problems of nervous system, eye irritation, cancer • In plants – reduced growth, degeneration of chlorophyll, mottling (patches/ spots of color) of leaves etc • Acid rain • Green house effect • Holes in ozone layers
  8. 8. • CO2 keeps the earth warm much like glass which keeps the green house warm. • Increase in CO2 – intensified green house effect – leads to global warming – increase in average temperature of the earth – may lead to melting of polar caps and ultimate rise in sea level – submerging number of costal cities. Green house effect Click here to view video
  9. 9. Holes in ozone layer Click here to view video
  10. 10. • Ozone O3 in stratosphere blocks ultraviolet radiation through it and protect biosphere. • A hole in ozone layer was found over Antarctica caused due to chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). • CFCs – compounds consists of Cl, Fl and C • CFCs use as coolant in refrigerators and air conditioners, in aerosol sprays. • CFCs do not degrade easily.
  11. 11. • Rise into stratosphere and break down O3 to O2 and damage ozone layer. • 1 molecule of Cl can damage 10,000 molecules of O3 • Increased ultraviolet radiation can lead to • In humans - increase incidents of skin cancer, cataract, immune deficiency • In plants & aquatic life – decreased crop yields, reduced population of phytoplankton's, zooplanktons and certain fish larvae.
  12. 12. Biosphere – All living thing on earth together with • ATMOSPHERE, • HYDROSPHERE, • LITHOSPHERE.
  13. 13. HYDROSPHERE • Oceans, rivers, lakes, ponds, pools, polar ice caps, etc. collectively form hydrosphere.
  14. 14. Why is water so necessary? And do all organisms require water? • Water a medium for all the reactions that take place within our body and within the cells occur between substances that are dissolved in water. • Transportation of substances from one part of the body to the other in a dissolved form. • Terrestrial life-forms require fresh water for this because their bodies cannot tolerate or get rid of the high amounts of dissolved salts in saline water.
  15. 15. • Activity – Compare the number of plants and animals of each type in an area (say, 1 m2 ) in wet and dry regions.
  16. 16. • Activity – number of plants and animals of each type in an unused area (say, 1 m2 0 in different seasons.
  17. 17. • There is any relationship between the amount of available water and the number and variety of plants and animals that can live in a given area.
  18. 18. Include – • map of rain fall pattern in India • Biodiversity in India • Compare both maps
  19. 19. Water pollution – (image) • Term water pollution covers following effects
  20. 20. The addition of undesirable substances to water - bodies. . e.g. : fertilisers and pesticides (farming), poisonous substances, like mercury salts (paper-industries), disease-causing organisms, like the bacteria which cause cholera.
  21. 21. The removal of desirable substances from water-bodies. • Dissolved oxygenis used by the animals and plants that live in water. Any change that reduces the amount of this dissolved oxygen would adversely affect these aquatic organisms. • Other nutrients could also be depleted from the water bodies.
  22. 22. A change in temperature : Aquatic • organisms are used to a certain range of temperature in the water-body where they live, • a sudden marked change in this temperature would be dangerous for them or affect their breeding. • The eggs and larvae of various animals are particularly susceptible to temperature changes. Youtube / animation
  23. 23. Biosphere – All living thing on earth together with • ATMOSPHERE, • HYDROSPHERE, • LITHOSPHERE.
  24. 24. lithosphere • The lithosphere is the solid, rocky layer covering the entire surface of the planet, composed of the crust and the hard uppermost mantle.
  25. 25. The tectonic plates of the lithosphere on Earth
  26. 26. • Overlong periods of time, thousands and millions of years, the rocks at or near the surface of the Earth are broken down by various physical, chemical and some biological processes. The end product of this breaking down is the fine particles of soil.
  27. 27. What are the factors or processes that make soil?
  28. 28. The Sun: • The Sun heats up rocks during the day so that they expand. At night, these rocks cool down and contract. Since all parts of the rock do not expand and contract at the same rate, this results in the formation of cracks and ultimately the huge rocks break up into smaller pieces.
  29. 29. Water: • Water helps in the formation of soil in two ways. One, water could get into the cracks in the rocks formed due to uneven heating by the Sun. If this water later freezes, it would cause the cracks to widen. Can you think why this should be so? Two, flowing water wears away even hard rock over long periods of time. Fast flowing water often carries big and small particles of rock downstream. These rocks rub against other rocks and the resultant abrasion causes the rocks to wear down into smaller and smaller particles. The water then takes these particles along with it and deposits it further down its path. Soil is thus found in places far away from its parent-rock.
  30. 30. Wind: • In a process similar to the way in which water rubs against rocks and wears them down, strong winds also erode rocks down. The wind also carries sand from one place to the other like water does. (image / animation)
  31. 31. Living organisms also influence the formation of soil: • The lichen that we read about earlier, also grows on the surface of rocks. While growing, they release certain substances that cause the rock surface to powder down and form a thin layer of soil. Other small plants like moss, are able to grow on this surface now and they cause the rock to break up further. The roots of big trees sometimes go into cracks in the rocks and as the roots grow bigger, the crack is forced bigger. (image / animation)
  32. 32. Types of soil • The type of soil is decided by the average size of particles found in it.
  33. 33. Three main types are • i) Sandy soil – contains large amount of sand particles & very small amount of silt & clay. Found in desert. Cannot hold much water
  34. 34. • ii) Clayey soil – Mainly contains clay particles & small quantity of humus and silt. Compact and can hold water but can’t trap air.
  35. 35. • iii) Loamy soil – Contains clay, silt, sand & humus. Good water holding capacity & porous to allow aeration of roots.
  36. 36. • Soil pollution – Removal of useful components from the soil and addition of other substances, which adversely affect the fertility of the soil and kill the diversity of organisms that live in it, is called soil pollution.
  37. 37. Modern farming practices • Use of large amounts of fertilizers and pesticides. - Use over long periods of time can destroy the soil structure by killing the soil micro-organisms that recycle nutrients in the soil. image • It also kills the Earthworms which are instrumental in • making the rich humus.
  38. 38. • Fertile soil can quickly be turned barren if sustainable practices are not followed.
  39. 39. • Soil erosion –process of removal of fertile top layer of soil by rain water, floods or wind. Click here to view video
  40. 40. Addition of solid waste – • Degradable pollutants – Domestic waste and sewage. • No – degradable pollutants – plastics, pesticides, radioactive substances
  41. 41. Biogeochemical cycle • A pathway by which a chemical element or molecule moves through both biotic (plants & animals) and abiotic (lithosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere) componets of the environment.
  42. 42. Include diagrams / animations / youtubes of
  43. 43. Water cycle
  44. 44. Nitrogen cycle
  45. 45. Carbon cycle
  46. 46. Oxygen cycle