Normally human body and the life processes
in it are functioning smoothly.
• But there are micro-organisms around us which can
do us harm by entering our body through food, water
Because of these harmful things entering
our body, our normal physical condition and
overall health are all disturbed.
• This is called as disease.
The white blood cells in our body creates
the resistance to the disease causing things.
• But if the harmful germs are
more and the resistance
power of white blood cells
is less then the person falls
prey to the disease.
• When a person becomes ill,
his or her normal physical
and mental condition and
overall health are all
According to their mode of spreading ,
diseases are classified
• Polluted food, water, air and also contact with the
diseased person and using his things can let the
harmful germs enter our body.
Types of diseases
changes in the
space with a
Direct contact or
using the things
Cholera Tuberculosis Scabies
typhoid Influenza eczema
• Reasons : When the disease producing virus enters
the body with the air that is breathed in or by contact
with an infected person or by using the infected
person’s clothes, utensils, etc.
• Main Symptons: Small boils on the skin like blisters,
high fever, headache.
• Preventive Measures: A person does not generally
get chickenpox a second time.
• Reasons: Through food, water or air contaminated with
• Symptons: Fever, Throat becomes red, strain is felt in
the muscles of the back and legs, weakness in the
muscles of arms or legs, growth of muscles is arrested.
• Preventive Measures : Vaccination , Proper Medical
• Reasons : Bite of an affected dog, monkey, cat or rabbit.
• Symptons : Severe headache, fever, throat muscles become
rigid and contracted with severe pain, liquid or even water
cannot be swallowed, fear of water, Patient is delirious, limbs
become flaccid and go into spasm.
• Preventive Measures: Clean the wound with soap and water,
take required no. of injections of anti-rabies , along with your
pet animals, also take anticholera injections.
• Reasons : Germs enter air through the spittle of the
• Symptons : Cough, Low grade fever, Blood in spittle,
loss of weight, Pain in the chest, difficulty in
• Preventive measures : BCG Vaccination, isolating
the patient, Medical treatment.
• Reasons : Through contaminated food and water also
• Symptons : Fever that lasts for a definite period, rose
coloured rash on the chest, diarrhoea, headache
• Preventive measures : Taking typhoid vaccine, drinking
boiled water, not eating outside uncovered food, eating
only clean fresh food, keeping food covered at home,
maintaining public hygiene.
• Reasons : Water or food contaminated through houseflies
• Symptons : Severe diarrhoea and vomitting, dehydration, dry
skin, sunken eyes, stomachache, cramps in the legs .
• Preventive measures : Maintaining hygiene in public places,
controlling houseflies, not eating uncovered food, drinking
boiled water and taking cholera vaccine.
• Reasons : Contagious disease, inflammation of the inner lining
of the Intestine due to infection by bacteria, virus or worms
• Symptons : Stomacache, fever, Vomiting, Loss of appetite,
diarrhoea or constipation, Loss of weight .
• Preventive measures : Consume only safe food and water,
Maintain personal cleanliness
• Reasons : Through food via houseflies and also through
contaminated water, milk
• Symptons : Dehydration, sunken eyes, dry mouth and lips,
reduced urine formation, cold hands and feet, Slow pulse rate.
• Preventive measures : Drink boiled and cooled water , maintain
personal cleanliness and cleanliness in cooking area, wash fruit
and vegetables before use.
• Reasons : Infection by HIV virus
• Symptons : Lose their ability to fight disease and
hence they contract diseases frequently.
• Preventive measures: Appropriate medical treatment
and extending helping hand to the patient.
Body Water –Very Important for
functioning of various body parts.
• Water level in the body decreases due to vomitting,
loose motion in cholera, diarrhoea and body becomes
dry. This is called dehydration. Due to this there are
chances of death as well.
• To make for the loss of water due to loose motions or
diarrhoea, Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS) is given
• 1 spoon of sugar is added to 1 glass of water along with a pinch
of salt and this stirred solution (ORS) is given to the patient.
• In case of diarrhoea, the absorptive function of the intestine is
disturbed. However the sugar in the ORS can be absorbed in
the body. Along with sugar, salt and water are also absorbed
giving temporary relief till further medical treatment is given. This
avoids the possible serious consequences.
It is better to prevent disease than to cure and treat
them medically. To avoid the disease causing
germs, bacteria to enter the body and even if they ,
they should get distroyed is called Vaccination.
Diseases can be prevented by following certain
habits of personal hygiene and keeping our
surrounding clean and taking vaccines .
• To prevent the danger of disease or to prevent an
epidemic, Government implements various
vaccination programmes through Health department.
• In this there is vaccine available for everyone during
epidemic . Also various types of vaccines to build
immunity of the child against various diseases since
birth are given to every children at their growth stage
from time to time.
General measures for the prevention of
• Drink filtered and boiled water.
• Taking a balanced diet.
• Learning healthy habits.
• Maintaining personal hygiene as well as keeping our
• Taking proper medical treatment immediately if
symptons of diseases are seen.
• Not to treat with half knowledge without having
proper scientific information.
• Having basic awareness of disease.
• Plague, devidevi such diseases have been eradicated .
• Sometimes diseases like malaria, dengue spreads
out fast .
• Sometimes diseases like swine flu are spread
through a person travelling in foreign countries.
• During such time don’t fall prey to rumors, rather try
to get appropriate scientific information .