(multicellular green plants and advanced algae)
Further divided into 5 divisions
• Division 1 – Thallophyta
(Gr., thallus – plant body without root, stem
& leaves, phyton - a plant) Algae
e.g. – Ulothrix...
Ulothrix Spirogyra
Cladomonas Ulva Chara
• Division 2 – Bryophyta
( Gr., bryon – a moss, a liverwort)
e.g. - Riccia, Marchantia, Funaria
Riccia Marchantia
Funaria
• Division 3 – Pteridophta
( Gr., pteris, - idos – fern)
e.g. – Selaginella, Lycopodium, Marsilea,
Equisetum, Azolla, Adia...
Marsilea Equisetum
Azolla Adiantum Dryopteris
• Division 4 – Gymnosperm
(Gr. Gymno – naked, sperma –seed)
e.g. – Cycus, Pinus, Ginkgo
Cycus
Pinus
Ginkgo
• Division 5 - Angiosperm
(Gr., angeion – case ; Sperma - seed)
• Sub Division I – Monocotyledon
( mono – one, cotyledon –...
• Sub Division II – Dicotyledon ( di – two;
cotyledon – seed leaf)
e.g. – Pea, potato, sunflower, rose,
banyan, neem, appl...
1. Division – Thallophyta
• Most primitive & simple plants. Plant body is
not differentiated into stem,root and leaves but...
• cellulose cell wall around cell
• Vascular tissue absent
• Reproduction – Asexual- generally by spores
• Sex organs simp...
2. Division – Bryophyta
• multicellular, small, simplest land plants
confined to shady damp places
• Plant body - flat, gr...
• Gamatophyte is attached to substratum
by means of hair-like outgrowths -
Rhizoids
• Sex organs multicellular, embryo for...
3. Division – Pteriodophyta
• Found in shady & damp places
• plant body is made of root, stem and leaves
• Vascular system...
4. Division – Gymnosperm
• Most primitive & simple seed plants
• seeds are naked & not enclosed within
fruits
• usually pe...
5. Division – Angiosperm
• Highly evolved plants
• Seeds are enclosed within fruit
• Reproductive organs are aggregated in...
On basis of the number of
cotyledons angiosperms are divide
in 2 groups
Division Angiosperm
Subdivision Monocoteledon Dico...
Vascular
bundle
Scattered, closed
(lack cambium),
secondary growth
does not occur
Arranged in ring,
open (have
cambium),
u...
flower Trimerous (parts
arranged in groups
of three)
Pentamerous
(parts arranged
in groups of
five)
Examples Maize, Wheat,...
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Kingdom plantae

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Kingdom plantae

  1. 1. (multicellular green plants and advanced algae) Further divided into 5 divisions
  2. 2. • Division 1 – Thallophyta (Gr., thallus – plant body without root, stem & leaves, phyton - a plant) Algae e.g. – Ulothrix, Cladomonas, Ulva, Chara, Spirogyra
  3. 3. Ulothrix Spirogyra Cladomonas Ulva Chara
  4. 4. • Division 2 – Bryophyta ( Gr., bryon – a moss, a liverwort) e.g. - Riccia, Marchantia, Funaria Riccia Marchantia Funaria
  5. 5. • Division 3 – Pteridophta ( Gr., pteris, - idos – fern) e.g. – Selaginella, Lycopodium, Marsilea, Equisetum, Azolla, Adiantum, Dryopteris Selaginella Lycopodium
  6. 6. Marsilea Equisetum Azolla Adiantum Dryopteris
  7. 7. • Division 4 – Gymnosperm (Gr. Gymno – naked, sperma –seed) e.g. – Cycus, Pinus, Ginkgo Cycus Pinus Ginkgo
  8. 8. • Division 5 - Angiosperm (Gr., angeion – case ; Sperma - seed) • Sub Division I – Monocotyledon ( mono – one, cotyledon – seed leaf) e.g. – Maize, Wheat, rice, onion, sugarcane, barley, banana, coconut Wheat Rice Sugarcane
  9. 9. • Sub Division II – Dicotyledon ( di – two; cotyledon – seed leaf) e.g. – Pea, potato, sunflower, rose, banyan, neem, apple potato sunflower banyan apple
  10. 10. 1. Division – Thallophyta • Most primitive & simple plants. Plant body is not differentiated into stem,root and leaves but it is in the form of an undivided thallus. • Most are aquatic – marine/ fresh water. Some are terrestrial (live on land near moist places) • Usually contain green pigment (chlorophyll) for photosynthesis. Some algae have other photosynthetic pigments such as red, brown, blue green and purple) • Autotrophic
  11. 11. • cellulose cell wall around cell • Vascular tissue absent • Reproduction – Asexual- generally by spores • Sex organs simple, single celled, no embryo formation • Green algae - Ulothrix, Cladophora, Spirogyra, Ulva, Chara • Red algae – Batra, Polysiphonia • Brown algae – Laminaria, Fucus, Sargassum
  12. 12. 2. Division – Bryophyta • multicellular, small, simplest land plants confined to shady damp places • Plant body - flat, green thallus in liverworts & leafy, erect structures in mosses • lack true roots, stem and leaves and have no flower • True vascular system absent
  13. 13. • Gamatophyte is attached to substratum by means of hair-like outgrowths - Rhizoids • Sex organs multicellular, embryo formed after fertilization e.g. – liverworts – Riccia, Marchantia mosses – Funaria, Sphagnum Riccia Funaria
  14. 14. 3. Division – Pteriodophyta • Found in shady & damp places • plant body is made of root, stem and leaves • Vascular system – well developed • have no flowers & do not produce seeds • sex organs – multicellula & jacketed by sterile cells, fertilized egg develops into embryo • e.g. Selaginella, Lycopodium, Equisetum, Marsilea, Azolla, Adiantum, Dryopteris, Pteris, Pteridium
  15. 15. 4. Division – Gymnosperm • Most primitive & simple seed plants • seeds are naked & not enclosed within fruits • usually perennial, evergreen and woody plants • e.g. – Cycus, Pinus (pine) , Cedrus (deodar) , Ginkgo Cycus Pinus Ginkgo
  16. 16. 5. Division – Angiosperm • Highly evolved plants • Seeds are enclosed within fruit • Reproductive organs are aggregated in a flower • Embryo in seeds have structures called ‘ cotyledon’ – (seed leaves)
  17. 17. On basis of the number of cotyledons angiosperms are divide in 2 groups Division Angiosperm Subdivision Monocoteledon Dicotyledon Seeds Have one cotyledon Have two coteledon Root system Fibrous Tap Stem Hollow (bamboo), Strong stem Reduced to disc ( onion, garlic), False stem (banana)
  18. 18. Vascular bundle Scattered, closed (lack cambium), secondary growth does not occur Arranged in ring, open (have cambium), undergo secondary division Leaf Radical (arises directly from soil), sessile (without petiole), parallel venation (e.g. banana) Petiolate (have petiole), dorsi- ventral (having dissimilar dorsal & ventral surfaces), reticulate venation (e.g. hibiscus)
  19. 19. flower Trimerous (parts arranged in groups of three) Pentamerous (parts arranged in groups of five) Examples Maize, Wheat, Rice, Onion, Sugarcane, Barley, Banana, Coconut, grasses Pea, potato, sunflower, rose, banyan, neem, apple
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