Suzuki Ali Sustainable Development And Human Security

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Suzuki Ali Sustainable Development And Human Security

  1. 1. Sustainable development and human security in relation to ASM CASM-ASIA <ul><li>Facilitators </li></ul><ul><li>Ch Usman Ali </li></ul><ul><li>(Global Assets Management & Associates) </li></ul><ul><li>Seiji Suzuki (Shizuoka University) </li></ul><ul><li>The 8th Annual CASM Conference </li></ul><ul><li>Brasilia, Brazil </li></ul><ul><li>October 6, 2008 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Mediating Conflicts Through Dialogues - Another Means of Integrating Differences - <ul><li>Seiji Suzuki, Shizuoka University, Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Toshiko Kikkawa, Keio University, Japan </li></ul><ul><li>CTE CENTRO DE TREINAMENTO EDUCACIONAL DE CNTI </li></ul><ul><li>BRAZILIA, BRAZIL </li></ul><ul><li>Oct. 6, 2008 </li></ul>Sustainable development and human security   in relation to ASM CASM-ASIA
  3. 3. Tables: 1) What is CROSSROAD? 2) EXAMPLES AND PRACTICE 3) MAKING YOUR OWN…… CROSSROAD   is registered trademark in Japan
  4. 4. <ul><li>What is CROSSROAD? </li></ul><ul><li>Background from the study of the aftermath experiences of the earthquakes, </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers found even in the case of crisis </li></ul><ul><li>People were likely to make decisions through </li></ul><ul><li>TRADE OFF </li></ul><ul><li>not ‘if you choose this, you abandon that’ </li></ul><ul><li>But not always; EITHER OR NOT </li></ul><ul><li>Rather ; in-between </li></ul>
  5. 5. Trade-Off decision makings <ul><li>People deal with the situations of </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts (Psychological, sociological sense) </li></ul><ul><li>double-bind </li></ul><ul><li>IMPORTANT POINT: </li></ul><ul><li>NEVER NEGATE ANY FACTOR </li></ul>
  6. 6. Example: <ul><li>The government has made a decision to ban the usage of mercury in small scale mining </li></ul><ul><li>and enforced the law related to this decision. </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think </li></ul><ul><li>Is this practical when socio-economic situations of the SSMwers are taken into consideration? </li></ul><ul><li>Do they stop using mercury simply due to the introduction of the law? </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>CROSSROAD </li></ul><ul><li>is expected to produce some kind of agreements among those concerned with conflicting interests over the issues common to them. </li></ul>
  8. 8. EXAMPLES (2 slides) <ul><li>YOU ARE: </li></ul><ul><li>City officer in charge of temporary housing for the disaster victims (TSUNAMI or Earthquake) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Situations <ul><li>A month has passed since the disaster </li></ul><ul><li>happened. You have been procuring sites </li></ul><ul><li>for the temporary housing for the people </li></ul><ul><li>who had lost their houses. An additional </li></ul><ul><li>hundreds houses are yet to be built but </li></ul><ul><li>not much sites available. </li></ul><ul><li>Do you utilize schoolyards as housing sites? </li></ul><ul><li>YES NO </li></ul>
  10. 10. Explanation and Analysis <ul><li>Double-binding situation: </li></ul><ul><li>Need for housing sites for disaster victims </li></ul><ul><li>× </li></ul><ul><li>Building houses in schoolyards </li></ul>
  11. 11. What is BAD when answer YES <ul><li>・ Disturbance to school education/ obstacle to recovery of school activities </li></ul><ul><li>・ Safety of school children </li></ul><ul><li>・ Security in general </li></ul>
  12. 12. What is BAD when answer NO <ul><li>・ Delay of the recovery </li></ul><ul><li>・ Few disputes after the recovery( school could be a justification to get rid of temporary housings after use) </li></ul><ul><li>・ Destruction of pld cpmmunities (because local people around the school are forced to scatter for their housings) </li></ul><ul><li>・ Scarcity of housing sites </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>In the case of the Japanese respondents </li></ul><ul><li>Respondents are city officers </li></ul><ul><li>YES: NO: </li></ul><ul><li>55.6 % 44.4 % </li></ul><ul><li>sources: Yamori and Kikkawa forthcoming </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>In the case of the people in the street </li></ul><ul><li>YES: NO: </li></ul><ul><li>72.9 % 27.1 % </li></ul><ul><li>source: Yamori and Kikkawa forthcoming </li></ul>
  15. 15. Example 2 <ul><li>You are: City Officer in charge of relief goods </li></ul><ul><li>Situation; </li></ul><ul><li>There is a huge surplus of secondhand clothes sent by the good will all over the country. It cost the city council a fortune to keep them in the storage. </li></ul><ul><li>DO YOU BURN THEM? </li></ul><ul><li>YES NO </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Double-binding situation: </li></ul><ul><li>Good will of secondhand clothes </li></ul><ul><li>         × </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of storage </li></ul>Explanation and Analysis
  17. 17. What is BAD when YES answer <ul><li>・ Additional task (to burn them) </li></ul><ul><li>・ Smoke may be another ecological hazard </li></ul><ul><li>・ Disappointment to the donors’ goodwill </li></ul><ul><li>・ May be needed in the future </li></ul>
  18. 18. What is Bad when NO answer <ul><li>・ Additional personnel staff and financial burden for the store house </li></ul><ul><li>・  Store houses may be used for another purpose </li></ul><ul><li>・  Not many want secondhand clothes. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Do you burn them? </li></ul><ul><li>YES: NO: </li></ul><ul><li>20.1 % 79.9 % </li></ul>
  20. 20. Let’s practice
  21. 21. City Employee taking care of the evacuation centre <ul><li>At midnight after the 1 st day of the earthquake, trucks full of relief supplies arrive. Your boss told you to unload them while you are too busy coordinating among the earthquake refugees at the centre. </li></ul><ul><li>DO YOU OBEY THE ORDER BY YOUR BOSS? </li></ul><ul><li>YES NO </li></ul><ul><li>from this page to page, quoted from Kikkawa and others </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>YES NO </li></ul>What is Bad ? What is Bad?
  23. 23. Do you unload the goods as told? <ul><li>YES: NO: </li></ul><ul><li>36.6% 62.4% </li></ul>
  24. 24. City employee in charge of food distribution for earthquake refugees temporarily staying in the centre <ul><li>There are approximately 3000 victims </li></ul><ul><li>currently staying in the centre as a whole. </li></ul><ul><li>You now have 2000 meals available. There </li></ul><ul><li>is little chance of obtaining additional meals </li></ul><ul><li>for a while. </li></ul><ul><li>DO YOU HAND OUT 2000 MEALS NOW? </li></ul><ul><li>YES NO </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>YES NO </li></ul>What is Bad ? What is Bad?
  26. 26. <ul><li>Do you distribute the food? </li></ul><ul><li>YES: NO: </li></ul><ul><li>67.1% 32.8% </li></ul>
  27. 27. City employee taking care of the evacuation centre <ul><li>Your boss told you to go and buy food for 5 colleagues who have been working all night after the earthquake. Fortunately at the nearby shop, you found ten lunch boxes, and could buy what you wanted. But you found 8 people behind you, also trying to buy food for themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>DO YOU BUY WHAT AND AS MANY AS YOU WERE TOLD TO BUY BY YOUR BOSS? </li></ul><ul><li>YES NO </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>YES NO </li></ul>What is Bad ? What is Bad?
  29. 29. <ul><li>Do you buy what you were told to buy? </li></ul><ul><li>YES: NO: </li></ul><ul><li>52.4% 47.6% </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Your house was built 40 years ago. An expert diagnosed that your house is in danger of complete collapse in the next earthquake.It costs R$ 500,000 to retrofit. You can not afford it without a loan. </li></ul><ul><li>Do you decide to retrofit? </li></ul><ul><li>Yes No </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>YES NO </li></ul>What is Bad ? Mortgage No earthquake to come (unnecessary expenditure) What is Bad? Loss of the house in the earthquake
  32. 32. <ul><li>A family was injured by their collapsed house. After evaluation, the child was found to be in a critical condition. The parents have possibly critical injuries. </li></ul><ul><li>Do you transport the parents first? </li></ul><ul><li>YES NO </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>YES NO </li></ul>What is Bad ?   What is Bad?
  34. 34. Let’s try to construct your own Crossroad question <ul><li>Hint 1 decide who you are </li></ul><ul><li>decision-maker </li></ul><ul><li>Hint 2 explain the situation breifly. </li></ul><ul><li>Hint 3 construct a question </li></ul><ul><li>Answer is Yes/ No </li></ul>
  35. 35. As an administrator, you know small-scale miners use mainly mercury and cyanide for the production of the gold, not environmentally sound. Environmental sound mining cost more. Do you enforce them to use a new method, which is environmentally sound but cost more? YES NO
  36. 36. <ul><li>As an government officer, you warned that they should not use mercury for gold production. Because mercury kill people and environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Then small-scale miners replied to you that they knew mercury is bad. And if they stop using it, they have to kill their children because they do not get money, otherwise. </li></ul><ul><li>Do you force them to stop using mercury? </li></ul><ul><li>Yes No </li></ul>
  37. 37. Johari’s Window quoted from Kikkawa 2005 You know I know Unknown Blind Not known to Self Hidden Open Known to Self Not known to Others Known to others
  38. 38. modified by Kikkawa( 2005) To the locals TO The Specialists Administra-tors Areas in blue to be made known by bilateral communications between two parties Unknown to either party Known only to the locals Information Unknown Known only to the specialists Public to both parties Information known Information unknown Information known
  39. 39. Information to be shared by those concerned Scientists/Engineers =experts The local people Knowledge/ situations particular to the locals NGOs GOVERNMENT ccop Social scientists Image of the risk communication for constructing CROSSROAD NOTES International Organizations WORLD BANK/CASM Assessing the risk based on the scientific and engineering knowledge
  40. 40. <ul><li>For the sustainable activities of SSM </li></ul><ul><li>Risk communication is more desirable either for those engaged in it or for the maintenance of the environment they live on. </li></ul><ul><li>But this communication is: </li></ul><ul><li>not simply a one-way message that delivers the </li></ul><ul><li>results of risk assessments by experts ( ex. </li></ul><ul><li>scientists, government officials or biz pros. who </li></ul><ul><li>have detailed info about risk) to the public. </li></ul><ul><li>Rather, the experts convey their assessments to the interested parties, who in turn, respond to the experts with their concerns, opinions or reactions to such assessments. </li></ul><ul><li>Kikkawa 2002 </li></ul>
  41. 41. Thank you for your attention. <ul><li>Suzuki </li></ul><ul><li>Kikkawa </li></ul>

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