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Reducing Mercury Emmisions  In Amazonia
 

Reducing Mercury Emmisions In Amazonia

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Reducing Mercury Emmisions  In Amazonia Reducing Mercury Emmisions In Amazonia Presentation Transcript

  • Reducing Mercury Emmisions of Small Scale Gold Buying Shops in Amazonia Designing and implementing low cost, easy to build and effective mercury capture systems in gold shops in Brazil and Peru
  • Presentation Outline
    • Overview of the EPA “Gold Shop” Project
    • Measuring the problem: Gold shop emmisions
    • Designing and testing a viable and appropriate solution in Brazil
    • Experiences in Madre de Dios, Peru
    • “ Reducing Mercury Emisiones in Artisanal and Small Scale Mining”
    • Direction – Bailey, Engle and Fernandez
    • Technology Design and Enginering - Habeggar
    • Communication and Disemination – Ramierez and Pinto
    • Project Started in August 2006
    • Countries: Brazil, Peru
  • Why focus on Gold Shops?
    • Burn Mercury-gold amalgam during gold purchasing
    • Typically have little or no control of emmited airbourne mercury
    • Regional funnel points for ASM gold production
    • Located in regional economic centers
    • Located in regional population centers – high human exposure rates
    • Gold shops have been an underserved link in the ASM gold production chain in regards to mercury management.
  • Sediments processed with mercury Amalgam (Hg-Au) (50% mercury) Simplified ASM gold processing cycle
  • Sediments processed with mercury Burned in the field Amalgam (Hg-Au) (50% mercury) Amalgam (Hg-Au) (5-15 % mercury) Simplified ASM gold processing cycle
  • Sediments processed with mercury Burned in the Field Purified gold Amalgam (Hg-Au) (50% mercury) Amalgam (Hg-Au) (5-15% mercury) Burned in the Gold Shops Simplified ASM gold processing cycle
  • Purified Gold Amalgam (5-15 % mercury) Mercury Released to the Environment Burned in the Gold shop Simplified ASM gold processing cycle
  • Purified Gold Amalgam (5-15 % mercury) Mercury Released to the Environment Mercury Capture System Burned in the Gold shop Simplified ASM gold processing cycle
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  • Itaituba Creporizão
    • Itaituba, Pará (pop. 25,000)
    • Creporizão (pop. ~1000)
    • Located in the Tapajos region
      • Major gold producing region in Brasil
      • Area: 100,000 km 2
      • 20,000 Garimpeiros
    • Puerto Maldonado, Peru (pop. 25,000)
    • Laberinto (pop. ~2000)
    • Located in Madre de Dios department
      • Primary Gold producing region in Peru
    Project Study Areas Puerto Maldonado & Laberinto
  • Data Collection Puerto Maldonado / Laberinto Madre de Dios , Peru (May/Sept 2008)
    • EPA/Argonne teams were accompanied by local and regional government officials during inspections.
    • Visual inspections of Gold Shops to assess ventilation and existing mercury capture technology.
    • Measurement of mercury concentrations inside Gold Shops, in public areas adjacent to Gold Shops zone and in ambient air in the community.
    • Mercury Analyzers Used
      • Lumex RA-915 Mercury analyzer
      • Jerome 431-X Mercury analyzer
      • Mercury Tracker 3000
  • Data Collection Itaituba/Creporizão, Brazil (October 2006)
  • Itaituba,Brazil - December 2006
  • Itaituba, Brazil - December 2006
  • Puerto Maldonado / Laberinto - May 2008
  • Study Results Itaituba/ Creporizão, Brazil
    • Amalgams have an average mercury content of 10 %
    • Most gold shops had no mercury control measures
    • Most gold shops had mercury concentrations above WHO standards.
    • Most gold shop owners and managers said they wanted a system to contol mercury emmisions but:
        • Existing systems were too expensive ( US $5000 – $25,000 )
        • A system was not required by government authorities
    • The municipal governments said the wanted to regulate but :
        • There was no technology available that was affordable to most of the regulated community.
  • Shops with Mercury Control Technology Madre de Dios, Peru No Control 9 System not working 2 ---------------------------- Total 11 No Control 6 System not working 1 ---------------------------- Total 7 No Control 13 System not working 0 ---------------------------- Total 13
  • Mercury Concentrations Inside Gold Shops Average concentration, 11 shops in Puerto Maldonado
      • Reference Value: WHO maximum occupational Air Standard OSM: 20 mcg/m 3
  • Mercury Concentrations adjacent to Gold Shops Average concentration, 11 shops in Puerto Maldonado
      • Reference Value: WHO maximum ambient air standard : 1 mcg/m 3
  • Designing a Mercury Capture System Design Principles
    • Effective in capturing mercury vapor and aerosols to reduce environmental release and human exposure
    • Affordable for the majority of gold shops in developing countries
    • Easy to construct using locally available materials and local technologies
    • Low maintenance
    Argonne engineers developed prototypes using dynamic thermodynamic aerosol simulation models and proven ventilation engineering theory.
  • EPA Mercury Capture System
  • EPA Mercury Capture System Interior of the top cone showing the flow smoothening vane The system contains a powerful extractor fan to create negative air pressure to draw exhaust into the System A series of baffle plates act as impaction surfaces for mercury aerosols to strike and coagulate . The extractor fan and the baffle plates are joined in a single unit that is easy to transport and insert into a 200 liter drum.
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  • Baffle Plates
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  • Flexible System Installation Itaituba and Creporizao, Brazil
  • Pilot system efficiency tests Brazil, July 2007 >80% measured removal efficiency Mercury Concentrations in Exhaust Mean of 6 tests runs burning 100% mercury samples Exhaust without treatment: 1580 mg/m 3 Exhaust with treatment : 330 mg/m 3 Cost of system : Materials + Labor + Installation ~ US $450
  • Potential Mercury Emmisions Prevented
    • If a gold shop processes 100 kg of gold amalgam per year
    • and
    • Assuming the amalgam contains 10% mercury
      • then
    • Air Mercury emmisions for this shop = 10 kg mercury per year
        • (100 kg x 10% mercury = 10 kg)
    • With recommended instalation and use,
    • a Mercury Capture System running at a 80 % capture efficiency would result in
    8 kg of mercury emmision prevented per year per Gold Shop
  • EPA Mercury Capture System Advantages
      • Affordable-- $450 (Brazil and Peru)
      • Lightweight - 50 kg
        • Easily transportable
      • Simple Construction:
        • Uses commonly available drums
        • 1- 1.5 days in a small metal shop
      • Simple straightfoward Instalation
        • 3 hours labor (avg; Peru and Brazil)
      • Mercury capture rates at 80 % with recommended installation and operation
    • Recent activities in Madre de Dios, Peru
    • 2008 Objectives
    • Install pilot system in a gold shop in Puerto Maldonado
    • Conduct the first workshop to disseminate the Mercury Capture System in Peru
  • Federal, State and Municipal governments actively supported the pilot system installtion and the workshop
  • Installation of a Pilot System Sept 19 2008, Puerto Maldonado
    • Proof that system can be adapted to conditions in Peruvian gold shops indicating robust design.
    • Several shop owners had volunteered their shops for initial installation financed by US EPA.
    • Gold Shop selected by goverment officials was a high emmiting shop, processing about 3 kilos of gold per day.
  • High emitting shop Burns 3 kg gold / day High levels of mercury avg. 450 mcg/m 3 during burns (WHO reference: 20 mcg/ m 3 )
  • Niveles de Mercurio A & M Metals , Puerto Maldonado
      • Referencia Maximo de Aire Ocupacional (industral) OSM: 20 mcg/m 3 Mercurio
      • (WHO occupational maximum)
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  • Effects of Mercury Capture System Installation Mercury Concentrations Inside shop - A & M Metals , Puerto Maldonado
      • Reference Value: WHO maximum occupational Air Standard OSM: 20 mcg/m 3
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  • Primer Seminario Sistema Colector de Mercurio Puerto Maldonado: September 19, 2008
    • Estimated Participants: 30
    • Actual Participants: 61
    • Representatives from de:
          • Federal, State and Municipal Governments
          • Miners associations
          • Gold shops
          • Universities
          • Hospitals
          • Press
    • The mayor of Puerto Maldonado
    • gave the opening address.
  • Primer Seminario Sistema Colector de Mercurio Puerto Maldonado: 9/19/08
    • Workshop Topics:
      • Mercury in ASM
      • Effects of Mercury on Human Health
      • Advantages of the Mercury Capture System
      • Construction and Cost of the System
      • Hand on demo of a sample system
      • Site visit to installed working system in Gold shop
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  • Mercury Reduction is Artisanal Mining in the Brazilian Amazon
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  • Mercury Reduction in Artisanal Mining in the Peruvian Amazon Lima: Ministry of Energy and Mines
    • Conducted 4 public workshops at the ministry of Energy and Mines regarding Mercury Management in Gold Shops in ASM.
  • Discussions with Vice Minister Felipe Isasi, Ministry of Mines to catalyze action on addressing mercury in gold shops and disseminating the Mercury Capture System technology throughout Peru Lima: Ministry of Energy and Mines
  • EPA Mercury Capture System Advantages
      • Affordable-- $450 (Brazil and Peru)
      • Lightweight - 50 kg
        • Easily transportable
      • Simple Construction:
        • Uses commonly available drums
        • 1- 1.5 days in a small metal shop
      • Simple straightfoward Instalation
        • 3 hours labor (avg; Peru and Brazil)
      • Mercury capture rates at 80 % with recommended installation and operation
  • For more information
    • Marilyn Engle
    • US Environmental Protection Agency,
    • Office of International Affairs
    • [email_address]
    • Luis E. Fernandez
    • Argonne National Laboratory / Stanford University
    • [email_address]
    • Loren Habegger
    • Argonne National Laboratory
    • [email_address]
    • Daniela Pinto
    • ECODATA
    • [email_address]
  • Acknowledgements
    • Ministerio de Energia y Minas (MEM), Lima
      • Ing. Fredesbindo Vaquez Fernandez
      • Ministerio de Energia y Minas (MEM), Officina de Pequena Minera y Mineria Artesanal, Puerto Maldonado
      • Ing. David Cuadros Torres
    • Consejo National del Ambiente (CONAM), Puerto Maldonado
      • Jennifer Zavala Arsque
      • Maria Ysabel Amador Chavez
    • Direccion Regional de Energias y Minas
      • Ing. Ronny Pastor Velasquez,
    • Embajada de los E.E U.U
      • Miguel Yepez
      • Estaban Sandoval
    • Amazon Conservation Association
      • Luis Betancourt
    • Thank you for your attention.
  •