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Levin Clarifying Certification
Levin Clarifying Certification
Levin Clarifying Certification
Levin Clarifying Certification
Levin Clarifying Certification
Levin Clarifying Certification
Levin Clarifying Certification
Levin Clarifying Certification
Levin Clarifying Certification
Levin Clarifying Certification
Levin Clarifying Certification
Levin Clarifying Certification
Levin Clarifying Certification
Levin Clarifying Certification
Levin Clarifying Certification
Levin Clarifying Certification
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Levin Clarifying Certification

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  1. Clarifying Certification Language, Components & Process Estelle Levin 7 th October 2008 8 th Annual CASM Conference
  2. Presentation Content <ul><li>A very short history of certification </li></ul><ul><li>What is certification? </li></ul><ul><li>Different types of certification </li></ul><ul><li>Language and definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Certification fundamentals </li></ul><ul><li>How to set up a certification system </li></ul><ul><li>Who is setting up certification for ASM? </li></ul>
  3. A Very Short History of Certification! <ul><li>Neoliberal Structural Adjustment </li></ul><ul><li>Deregulation </li></ul><ul><li>Damage to vulnerable people and the commons </li></ul><ul><li>(the environment, indigenous cultures) </li></ul><ul><li>NGO Campaigns Consumer Pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative models of governance and assurance </li></ul><ul><li>( e.g. certification, corporate social responsibility) </li></ul>
  4. Different types of Assurance <ul><li>Principle modes of governance for assuring social and environmental protection: </li></ul><ul><li>CERTIFICATION IS NOT THE ONLY OPTION </li></ul><ul><li>and may not be the best one! </li></ul><ul><li>IT DEPENDS ON YOUR OBJECTIVES! </li></ul>Multiple Stakeholders Corporation Government OWNER Protect the commons (environment, cultural diversity) and vulnerable populations. <ul><li>Voluntary Certification Systems </li></ul>Brand / risk management Profit Protect access to resources (land, capital, labour) <ul><li>Corporate Social & Environmental Responsibility </li></ul>Elections Protect political position <ul><li>Government Regulations </li></ul>DRIVER SYSTEM
  5. <ul><li>What are the project’s objectives? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the goal to protect the commons or something else? </li></ul><ul><li>How important is third party assurance? Would first or second-party suffice? </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore…. </li></ul><ul><li>Is certification the best way to achieve these goals? </li></ul><ul><li>Or are there other assurance systems that would achieve these more </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cheaply? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>easily? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>quickly? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>effectively? </li></ul></ul>Key Questions for Deciding on Certification as the right Governance Tool
  6. Level of Independence in Assurance Based on ISEAL (2007, Module 1: 24) A person or body that is independent of the person or organisation being evaluated, and of user interests in that person or organisation. Certification and accreditation bodies most often carry out third party audits. e.g. FLO-Cert Third Party A person or body that is related to, or has an interest in the person or organisation being evaluated, such as a client or purchaser of products from the organisation. e.g. Buyer, Trade Association Second Party The person or organisation that is undergoing evaluation. A first party audit includes internal audits or peer reviews. e.g. Company CSR Manager First party The assessment is conducted by: Level of independence
  7. What is Certification? <ul><li>Certification is ONE TYPE OF ASSURANCE. </li></ul><ul><li>The PURPOSE of certification of artisanal minerals or producers is to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide the structure and procedures to achieve specific commercial or developmental goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assure the consumer of some type of quality, i.e. that that certain goals have been met. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> It is a PROMISE or GUARANTEE that a particular governance system has been applied and specific standards have been achieved </li></ul></ul>
  8. Different types of Certification <ul><li>Certification can assure 4 main things: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Product / manufacturing quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Origin / chain of custody </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process & Production Methods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A system which assures all of these things provides </li></ul><ul><li>total quality or ethical assurance </li></ul>
  9. <ul><li>Fair Trade </li></ul><ul><li>Forest Stewardship Council </li></ul><ul><li>Are children involved in extraction or processing? What do they do? </li></ul><ul><li>Is mercury used to extract the gold? </li></ul><ul><li>Do women have equal access to opportunities in the mine? </li></ul><ul><li>Social and environmental issues relating to HOW something is produced (mined, farmed, fished, processed) </li></ul>Process & Production Methods <ul><li>KPCS </li></ul><ul><li>ICGLR </li></ul><ul><li>Where does the product come from? </li></ul><ul><li>Who has owned and traded the product? </li></ul><ul><li>Where the product comes from (origin) </li></ul>Origin / chain of custody <ul><li>ISO14001 </li></ul><ul><li>ISO 9001 </li></ul><ul><li>SA8000 </li></ul><ul><li>Is there an environmental management plan ? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there an accident & emergency plan ? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the mine security strategy ? </li></ul><ul><li>How comprehensive / effective / feasible are these plans and strategies? Are they properly implemented? </li></ul><ul><li>Are governance structures democratic and transparent? </li></ul><ul><li>How the organisation manages its risks and opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>How the organisation is run </li></ul>Management systems <ul><li>Assaying gold </li></ul><ul><li>Checking gems for irradiation </li></ul><ul><li>What is the purity of the gold? </li></ul><ul><li>Has the gem been heat treated? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the diamond synthetic? </li></ul><ul><li>Naturalness or quality of manufacture </li></ul>Product quality Examples Useful questions What is Certified? Type of Certification
  10. Language & Definitions 1 <ul><li>Normative Document can be a Standard, Code of practice, Technical Specification and Regulation. </li></ul><ul><li>Standard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides the rules, guidelines or characteristics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sets out the Objectives, Scope, Principles, Requirements / Criteria, and Indicators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May also deal with terminology, symbols, packaging, marking or labelling requirements. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Principles are the values and goals, which guide how a Standard is drafted, implemented and used for auditing purposes. These are a statement of intent. </li></ul><ul><li>Criteria or Requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Derived from the principles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to judge the organisation or product’s compliance with the standard. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audited against using pre-determined indicators . </li></ul></ul>
  11. Language & Definitions 2 <ul><li>Conformity Assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the assessment of conformity with a standard. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encompasses verification, certification, and accreditation . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Verification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An assessor or inspector verifies that requirements of a standard have been fulfilled. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verification results are used to decide certification or accreditation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Certification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A decision on certification is taken based on information provided by the inspector or assessor who conducted verification. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Third-party attestation that fulfilment of specified requirements has been demonstrated. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accreditation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Third-party attestation of a certification body’s competence to carry out specific conformity assessment tasks. </li></ul></ul>
  12. Certification Fundamentals <ul><li>Purpose / Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Needs Assessment / Feasibility Study </li></ul><ul><li>Product </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Consultation Process </li></ul><ul><li>Normative Documents </li></ul><ul><li>Policies and Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Governance framework </li></ul><ul><li>The Compliance Mechanism </li></ul><ul><li>The Compliance Assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Certification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accreditation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Assessment Cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Labelling </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity-building </li></ul><ul><li>Traceability & supply chain integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural prerequisites for good governance </li></ul>The following need to be identified or decided upon:
  13. Key objectives in how a Certification System is developed <ul><li>Simple! </li></ul><ul><li>Productive (i.e. it must realise its objectives), </li></ul><ul><li>Financially independent </li></ul><ul><li>Financially sustainable over time </li></ul><ul><li>Legitimate amongst key stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Applicable in a variety of contexts (universalism). </li></ul><ul><li>(or the principles may be universals but the requirements etc. can be specific to certain producers and countries ) </li></ul>
  14. ISEAL Certification Development Process (based on Code of Practice) <ul><li>Document procedures for the process (TOR) and justification for the certification system </li></ul><ul><li>Consult on TOR </li></ul><ul><li>Develop first draft of Standard </li></ul><ul><li>Publish the work programme at least once every 6 months, including contact point </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct public review (consultation) </li></ul><ul><li>Compile comments received </li></ul><ul><li>Re-draft Standard, work programme etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Publish the standard </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat 4 to 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Other core aspects: </li></ul><ul><li>Consensus record-keeping </li></ul><ul><li>Regular review (every 5 years) </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a focal point </li></ul><ul><li>Manage how requirements are presented </li></ul>
  15. Minerals Certification Initiatives <ul><li>CTC - Certified Trading Chains </li></ul><ul><li>ARM - Association for Responsible Mining </li></ul><ul><li>KPCS - Kimberley Process Certification System </li></ul><ul><li>ICGLR - International Conference on the Great Lakes Region </li></ul><ul><li>CRJP - Council for Responsible Jewellery Practices </li></ul><ul><li>IRMA - Initiative for Responsible Mining Assurance </li></ul><ul><li>Various diamonds efforts </li></ul>
  16. Thank you! Estelle Levin Resource Consulting Services, Limited [email_address] +44 1223 241042

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