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  • 1. EGMONT – Royal Institute for International Relations, Belgium Central Africa Program Koen Vlassenroot, Steven Van Bockstael
  • 2.
    • Conflict Diamonds: the Kimberley Process as an international, multistakeholder response.
    • Weak internal controls in artisanal diamond producing countries (eg. Ghana) threaten integrity and effectivity of the KPCS
    • Moscow Declaration 2005, creation of WGAAP
    • Belgian FPS FA commissioned EGMONT to study these dynamics
  • 3.
    • Two objectives:
      • Strengthen KPCS integrity by improving control over informal extraction and trade
      • Improve social and economic situation of artisanal diamond diggers, miners; encourage positive role of ASM in driving rural development
    • Cooperation with WGAAP, CASM
    • Strenght in combination:two desired outcomes, one set of measures
  • 4.
    • Research project
      • Existing literature
      • Newly commissioned field research
    • Three phases
      • General research
      • Critical review of past diamond development programs
      • Validation, conclusions
  • 5.
    • Current status
      • Research completed
      • Validation workshop held in Pretoria, 15-16 Sept 08
      • Drafting publication
    • Official presentation at KP Plenary, New Delhi (3 november 08), by Belgian FA minister
  • 6.
    • Research includes:
      • Geological analysis of transborder mining, case study Berbérati-Yokadouma-Enyele (CAR, RCongo, Cameroun)
      • Anthropological study on how this affects communities. The bana Lunda: Congolese artisans in Angola during civil war
  • 7.
    • State capacity in Africa: key governance issues, challenges, approaches:
      • Monitoring mining and trading
      • Formalising the sector
      • Establishing internal controls (KP)
    • Study on cooperatives in Brazil, Venezuela, Guyana
      • Key factors driving coop development, organization and structure, services
      • Lessons for African cooperative development?
  • 8.
    • Significant wage differences between African/Latin-American diggers
      • Why? Examination of value-chain, price mark-ups as diamonds travel their paths
    • Diamonds in Mbuji-Mayi (DRC), attention for grass-roots initiatives
    • Ghanaian diamond industry: GCD cooperation with galamsey , smuggling of Ivorian conflict diamonds.
    • Interventions in the artisanal diamond secor
      • PDA/IDMP, Sierra Leone
      • D4D, Liberia
  • 9.
    • KP Moscow Declaration, 2005 Recommendations
      • Ensuring traceability of production from mine to export
      • Regulating artisanal mining
      • Regulating the trade in artisanal mining
      • Tackling illicit cross-border trade
      • Encouraging artisans to move into the formal economy
  • 10.
    • Contribution of Egmont to the KPCS and artisanal diamond mining
      • Support to the WGAAP in implementing Moscow Recommendations
        • Case studies of different strategies
        • Evaluation of past interventions
        • Lessons learned, reflecting in improved and more balanced recommendations
      • Positive effect of KP requirements on ASM communities
        • Formalization can lead to retaining more money inside the country, stimulating development
        • Improves social/eco capital of mining communities, reducing vulnerability to exploitation
  • 11.
    • Contact:
    • Steven Van Bockstael
    • [email_address]