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EchavarríA Standard Zero Requirements

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  • 1. Cristina Echavarría Executive Director FAIRTRADE WORKSHOP 8th CASM ANNUAL CONFERENCE BRASILIA, 2008 STANDARD ZERO FOR FAIRTRADE ARTISANAL GOLD AND ASSOCIATED SILVER AND PLATINUM SOCIAL , ECONOMIC, ENVIRONMENTAL, LABOUR AND TRADING REQUIREMENTS: Main challenges for miners
  • 2. SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
    • Fairtrade adds development potential
    • Members of the Organisations are Community Based Artisanal and Small Scale Miners (ASM)
    • Democracy, Participation and Transparency
  • 3. SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Members of the Organisations are Community Based Artisanal and Small Scale Miners (ASM)
    • This Fair Trade initiative is directed at community based artisanal and small scale miners’ organisations including all possible forms of organisations that they constitute. A community based mining organisation is comprised of a majority of members or shareholders who are active miners, and as members of the local community contribute to its social and economic development. It also includes small entrepreneurs with contracted workers.
    • MINIMUM
    • A 100% of the volume of Fair Trade certified gold must be produced by community based artisanal and small scale miners. The association is not allowed to buy from non certified neighbouring miners.
    • CHALLENGE
    • Incorporating neighbours and family in a transparent and traceable manner.
  • 4. SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Fair Trade should make a difference in development and quality of life for artisanal and small scale mining communities
    • MINIMUM
    • The miners’ organisation can demonstrate that Fair Trade revenues will promote social and economic development of artisanal and small scale miners, families and communities.
    • Taxes, fees, royalties or other tributes as required by applicable legislation should be paid to the relevant authority by the miners’ organisation.
    • The mining operations are conducted with the agreement of the existing local communities.
    • PROGRESS
    • A monitored plan should be developed under which the benefits of Fair Trade are shared, based on democratic and inclusive decisions taken by the miners’ organisation.
    • Miners’ organisations play an active role in planning and promoting local sustainable development including economic diversification.
  • 5. SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Democracy, Participation and Transparency
    • The organisation must be an instrument for the social and economic development of the members, their families and the local community, while in particular the benefits of Fair Trade must come to the members. The organisation must therefore have a democratic structure and transparent administration, which enables an effective control by the members and it’s Board over the management, including the decisions about how the benefits are shared. Furthermore, there must be no discrimination regarding membership and participation. .
  • 6. SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Democracy, Participation and Transparency
    • PROGRESS
    • The organisation works towards transparent planning of the business.
    • The organisations are encouraged to make periodic business plans, annual cash flow predictions and longer term strategic plans. Such plans will be approved at the Annual General Meeting
    • MINIMUM
    • A legal, transparent and democratic organisational structure is in place
    • The annual report and accounts are presented in an understandable and clear manner for all, approved at the Annual General Meeting, and made publicly available.
    • Adequate administration is in place.
  • 7. MAIN CHALLENGES SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
    • The right to be legal
    • Getting organised
    • Developing democratic governance
    • Literacy and numeracy
    • Getting women miners in the picture
    • Transparency and accountability of organisations
    • Political incidence
  • 8. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
      • Trading Capacity
      • Fairtrade premium
      • Economic strengthening of the organisation
      • Improved Productivity and Economic Efficiency of ASM
  • 9. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT : The organisation must have access to the logistical, administrative and technical means to bring a quality product to the market. The organisation makes a commitment to the adequate and planned use of the Fairtrade Premium, to gradually strengthen its economy.
    • PROGRESS
    • The miners’ organisation increases efficiency in its trading operations
    • As soon as Premium is available, there must be a yearly Premium plan and budget in place.
    • The organisation will work towards the strengthening of its business related operations. This could for example be through the building up of working capital, etc.
    • MINIMUM
    • Logistics and communication equipment are in place
    • The use of the Fair Trade Premium is decided though democratic processes, approved at the Annual General Meeting and properly documented.
    • The organisation has an established accounting system in place.
  • 10. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Improved Productivity and Economic Efficiency of ASM
    • Miners’ organisations identify optimal mining and metallurgical technologies to improve their level of mineral recovery.
    • Miners invest in cleaner and more efficient technologies to improve the level of mineral recovery.
    • Women miners and minority groups have equal access to mineral resources and technological innovation within the organisation
    • By-products of the mining process are identified and their market potential is investigated, and if feasible, they will be developed too.
  • 11. MAIN CHALLENGES ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
    • Strengthening administrative capabilities : strategic planning, risk management, accounting and democratic governance practices
    • Capacity to develop an annual plan for the use of the premium- long term shared vision.
    • Developing economies of scale and exporting directly
    • Access to credit and pre-financing for purchase of Au and cleaner technology
    • Value added….??
    • Getting banks to work with them
    • Getting governments to work with them
    • Getting professionals to work with them - where is the academia?
    • Digital divide - ICT’s
    • Security issues for transport of valuables
    • ARM’s toolkits : quality control system / traceability and cost of production toolkits
  • 12. LABOUR DEVELOPMENT The proposed requirements are based on the concept of decent labour proposed by the International Labour Organisation (ILO)
    • Prohibition of any Kind of Forced Labour
    • Elimination of Discrimination against Women Miners and Disadvantaged Groups
    • Abolition of Child Labour
    • Health and Safety Conditions in the Workplace
    • Social Protection (Social Security Systems)
    • Additional criteria for miner organisations that employ a significant number of workers
  • 13. LABOUR DEVELOPMENT Elimination of Discrimination against Women Miners and Disadvantaged Groups
    • MINIMUM
    • The organisation will recognise the same opportunities to men, women , and disadvantaged individuals regardless of their provenance or origin in all areas of mining activity, as a worker, associate or entrepreneur.
    • The organisation will ensure that men and women receive the same pay for the same task or function.
    • Where there is gender, ethnic or other disparity there should be at least proportional representation of these minorities in decision making bodies.
    • PROGRESS
    • Actions will be implemented by the miners’ organisation with women and other disadvantaged groups and individuals to improve their opportunities for participating on equal terms , especially regarding the mining/ processing work and the management of the ASM producer organisation
    • Miners’ organisations provide support to pregnant and lactating women members to have safe work arrangements for themselves and for their infants while mothers are at work.
  • 14. LABOUR DEVELOPMENT Abolition of child labour
    • MINIMUM
    • The minimum age is eighteen years for all types of employment or labour that by its nature or working conditions may be dangerous for health, security or morality of the minors.
    • Minors who participate in mining through family work should not execute tasks that are especially dangerous for them, such as subsoil and underwater activities, heavy loads, the use of toxic substances and night time shifts, or shifts prior to school schedule.
    • In no case will working endanger the schooling and the social, moral or physical development of the minor.
    • PROGRESS
    • The complete elimination of all forms of un- allowed child work or labour in ASM will be part of the vision and forms part of the development plans of the organisation and the mining community.
    • The miners’ organisation undertakes actions directed at achieving the improvement of local services for education , recreation and care of small children while the mother works, occupational training and youth employment / apprenticeship.
  • 15. LABOUR DEVELOPMENT - MINIMUM Health and Safety Conditions in the Workplace
    • The miners’ organisation will ensure that all its workers have access to information and basic training on health and safety in mining, its main risks and hazards, and how to prevent, prepare and respond to emergencies.
    • The miners’ organisation ensures that all workers use basic equipment for personal protection, in accordance to the nature of the mine, the work to be done and the place.
    • The miners’ organisation has a clear and defined policy and process to deal with violence and sexual harassment at work .
    • The miners’ organisation has a committee in charge of taking decisions and implementing actions in health and safety in the workplace.
    • The miners’ organisation will work towards making a diagnosis of the main risks and vulnerabilities to accidents and to disasters in the community because of mining activity
    • Each organisation will be in charge of designing and implementing a mining rescue plan and first aid program depending on the kind of mining activity it develops
  • 16. LABOUR DEVELOPMENT Social Protection (social security)
    • MINIMUM
    • The organisation will recognise that the worker’s widow/widower has the right to occupy the position and prerogatives held by the deceased miner in the mine and in the organisation, with the object of preventing her/his abandonment and that of her/his family.
    • PROGRESS
    • The organisation will make efforts to ensure that all associates and mine workers benefit from some kind of social security
    • FOR CONTRACTED LABOUR
    • The organisation recognises the right of all paid workers to join an independent union free from the interference of the employer, the right to establish and belong to federations, and the right to collective bargaining.
    • Miner’s representation and participation improve as a result of training activities. These will also be directed at improving the knowledge of the miner’s about the principles that guide Fair Trade.
  • 17. MAIN CHALLENGES LABOUR DEVELOPMENT
    • Women’s rights
    • Child labour
    • AIDS orphans dilemma
    • Perception of risk
    • Informal work arrangements
    • Mining rescue and equipment cost
  • 18. ENVIRONMENTAL DEVELOPMENT: Seeks to minimise the use of mercury and cyanide through implementation of responsible practices and technologies to mitigate impact on the environment and human health. Ecological restoration is also key.
    • Management of Toxic Substances, Such as Mercury and Cyanide
    • Ecosystem Health and Ecological Restoration
    • Premium Ecological FT ASM Gold
  • 19. ENVIRONMENTAL DEVELOPMENT Management of toxic substances
    • PROGRESS
    • The use of retorts or alternative mercury recovery devices by members of the miner’s organisation is to be considered a minimum requirement for continued certification after the first year.
    • The cyanide processing plant must be operated by personnel trained in the safe and proper use of cyanide.
    • MINIMUM
    • Amalgamation burning must not take place in domestic residences.
    • Amalgamation tailings and cyanide waste solutions must not be discharged into water, or where they can reach the water bodies.
    • Nitric acid for dissolving mercury from the amalgamation should not be used
    • Any residual cyanide solution must be neutralized before responsible discharge
  • 20. ENVIRONMENTAL DEVELOPMENT Ecosystem Health and Ecological Restoration
    • Certified miners promote minimum environmental impacts within the region where they operate.
    • If the mining operation of the organisation is located in a national park or similar environmentally protected area, an explicit authorization of the relevant authority must certify environmental feasibility.
    • Fuel residues and their containers must not be dumped into water bodies
    • The introduction of any technological change should be accompanied by an environmental mitigation plan.
    • In case of alluvial deposits, the organisation demonstrates efforts to reduce discharge of suspended solids into water bodies, and if possible to recycle water from washing plants.
    • Measures should be taken to enable native ecosystem rehabilitation.
    • The miners’ organisation makes efforts towards the improvement of drinking water supply and quality.
  • 21. Green Premium FT ASM Gold
    • No mercury or cyanide must be used for mineral processing.
    • The mined areas gain ecological stability within three years, or the optimal time according to ecosystem characteristics.
    • Tailings and pooling do not exceed the local ecosystem capacity for rehabilitation
    • Topsoil removed from the site is replaced during the rehabilitation process.
    • The silt load into stream, river or lake systems is controlled in quantity and frequency, such that the native aquatic ecosystem is not disrupted .
  • 22. MAIN CHALLENGES ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS
    • Access to clean technologies and efficient processing - knowledge!
    • How can we process gold without mercury..show us!
    • Technological solutions to separate the Hg and Cn circuits
    • Tailings management
    • Technology for ASM is not easily available
    • Access to credit to improve efficiency of operations and get cleaner technologies
    • Where are the universities?
  • 23. TRADING STANDARDS
    • Buying from Certified miners
    • Pricing and Premium
    • Long Term Trading Relationship
    • Pre-Finance
    • Quality Definition and Claims