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Sustainable Transport - David Browne, Brian Caulfield & Margaret O’Mahony - EPA Conference June 2010
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Sustainable Transport - David Browne, Brian Caulfield & Margaret O’Mahony - EPA Conference June 2010


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  • 1.   Sustainable Transport by David Browne, Brian Caulfield & Margaret O’Mahony Centre for Transport Research (TRIP), School of Engineering, Trinity College Dublin (TCD)   Funded by the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Transport
  • 2. Objectives
    • Identify and evaluate potential socio-economic, political, institutional, legal and technical barriers to sustainable travel and transport
    • Impacts of potential policies which could help overcome these barriers and to ensure that the transport system and services evolve along more sustainable trajectories
    • Identify research priorities
  • 3. Potential barriers from literature
    • Financial
    • Technical or market availability
    • Institutional and administrative
    • Failure to attract public acceptability
    • Legal or regulatory
    • Policy failures or unintended outcomes
    • Physical
  • 4. Barriers evaluated according to:
    • Timeline: short, medium or long-term
    • Level of subsidiarity: international, EU, national, regional, local
    • Type of policy measure required: fiscal, technical, regulatory, legal, guidelines, education awareness
    • Actor: Gov, transport operators, state agencies, local authorities, general public, industry etc
    • Specific relevance to Ireland
    • Significance: how big an obstacle to sustainable transport
  • 5. Barriers to
    • modal shift
    • travel demand or mobility management
    • integrated transport and more efficient institutional arrangements
    • alternative fuels and technologies
    • fuel economy
    • behavioural and cultural change
    ‘ Dublinbike’ Station
  • 6. Short-term barrier priorities
    • Inflexible bus services
    • Poor public transport service quality perception
    Metro bus project in Istanbul (Daimler)
  • 7. Medium-term barrier priorities I
    • Insufficient funding to improve reliability and provide high quality public transport service quality
    • Incomplete and discontinuous cycle networks
    • Perception that walking and cycling are unsafe and potentially hazardous
    • Structure of vehicle and fuel taxation
    • Insufficient , affordable or suitable high-density housing for families in urban areas
    A ‘Cargo bike’ in Copenhagen
  • 8. Medium-term barrier priorities II
    • Planning and zoning – expansive commuting footprints around Irish cities and towns
    • Availability of alternative fuels and vehicles
    • Relatively low or fluctuating market price for fossil fuels
    • Awareness of social, economic or environmental impacts of travel and transport
  • 9. Long-term barrier priorities
    • Limited public transport coverage particularly in rural or low-density rural areas
    • Poor rail freight options
    • Impact of fiscal measures
    • Balanced regional development
    • Historic urban sprawl
    • Infrastructural challenges
    • Car ownership symbolism
  • 10. Local Authority ranking of barriers
    • Lack of alternatives
    • Resource constraints
    • Public acceptability
    • Physical barriers
    • Impacts to commercial activity and competitiveness
    • Political and institutional resistance
    • Additional costs to network users
    • Legal and regulatory barriers
    • Lack of technical guidance and modelling tools
  • 11. Sustainability appraisal criteria used to evaluate policies
    • Modal shift
    • Reduction in GHG emissions
    • Impact on rural communities
    • Impact on lower socio-economic groups
    • Net additional cost to consumer
    • Net additional cost to exchequer
  • 12. Short-term policy recommendations
    • National public transport network analysis review
    • Financial incentives to discourage car travel during peak hours
    • Encourage rail freight
    • Reducing car parking spaces at work places
    • Incentives and support for e-working
    • Residential housing density guidelines – fit for purpose and suitable for multi-person households
    • On-line and mobile phone accessible national travel information portal
    • Fiscal incentives for alternative fuelled vehicles
  • 13. Medium-term policy recommendations
    • Improvements in existing cycling and walking infrastructure
    • Workplace parking levies
    • Guidelines for ‘soft support measures’
    • Promotion of school travel plans
    • Evaluate effectiveness of National Spatial Strategy and Regional Planning Guidelines
    • Integration of mandatory local transport plans with development plans
  • 14. Long-term policy recommendations
    • Extension of public transport infrastructure and services
    • Complete infrastructural projects in Transport 21
    • Development of national walking and cycling network
    • Restructured vehicle and fuel taxation to internalise all external costs of transport
    • Promotion of balanced regional development and creation of strong local economies
  • 15. Local Authority policy priorities
    • Education and awareness
    • Investment in walking and cycling infrastructure
    • Improved public transport services
    • Balanced regional development and spatial planning
    • Developing local transport and land use plans
    • Policy integration and institutional cooperation
  • 16. Lower priority policies for Local Authorities
    • Freight modal shift
    • Promotion of eco-driving
    • Infrastructure for alternative fuels
    • Lower speed limits
  • 17. Research Priorities I
    • Consumer attitude surveys to assess potential behavioural change
    • Estimate of structural demand and discretionary travel price elasticities
    • Comparative analysis of potential fiscal measures
    • Best practice of retrofitting and achieving sustainable neighbourhoods
    • Data collection on non-commuting travel and freight transport movements
    “ They’ll do anything to avoid the congestion charge”
  • 18. Research Priorities II
    • Development of guidelines for local transport plans
    • Multi-criteria analysis of fuel and technology options for public bus transport and fiscal instruments to support AFVs
    • Research into the possible ‘rebound effect’ associated with more fuel efficient vehicles
    • Potential incentives for road freight efficiency and freight modal shift