PM [µg/m³]urban backgroundregional backgroundhemispheric/natural backgroundUrban areas countryside10152030253540 Traffic, ...
Local and National Policy Options 15 April 20132Schematic view of local air pollutionPM [µg/m³]urban backgroundregional ba...
Local and National Policy Options 15 April 20133Effective local policy options1. Sources that significantly contribute to ...
Local and National Policy Options 15 April 20134What can national governments add?● To EU-policy: go beyond traditional “t...
Local and National Policy Options 15 April 20135About carrots and sticks1. Get the prices right  taxes = national mandate...
Local and National Policy Options 15 April 20136Low-level PM2.5-emissions in 473 European cities– Traffic 35%– Wood burnin...
Local and National Policy Options 15 April 20137Local options for air quality improvementTraffic emissions– Road pricing …...
Local and National Policy Options 15 April 20138exceedances of the PM10 24h-limit valueimpacts of various control scenario...
Local and National Policy Options 15 April 20139Case study Greater London:Reduction in area exceeding PM10 limit values%re...
Local and National Policy Options 15 April 201310Case study Rotterdam: speed limits (120 80 km/h)● slower speed less sto...
Local and national policy options | 02 April 20131111Case study PM2.5 exposure Netherlands:the scope for cost-effective lo...
Local and national policy options | 02 April 201312Case study Natura2000 protection Netherlands:balancing actions at diffe...
Local and national policy options | 02 April 201313Measures for agricultural NH3 emissionsGenericreduce emissions andbackg...
Local and national policy options | 02 April 201314Less meat is healthy, less costly and good for the environmentExpenditu...
Local and national policy options | 02 April 201315Conclusion● There is a potential for further air qualityimprovement by ...
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Air Pollution: Local and National Policy Options - Rob Maas

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Air Pollution: Local and National Policy Options - Rob Maas

  1. 1. PM [µg/m³]urban backgroundregional backgroundhemispheric/natural backgroundUrban areas countryside10152030253540 Traffic, local sources1 15 April 2013Local and nationalpolicy optionsRob Maas
  2. 2. Local and National Policy Options 15 April 20132Schematic view of local air pollutionPM [µg/m³]urban backgroundregional backgroundhemispheric/natural backgroundUrban areas countryside10152030253540 Traffic, local sources
  3. 3. Local and National Policy Options 15 April 20133Effective local policy options1. Sources that significantly contribute to local air pollution– Transport– Residential heating– Small scale industry & building– Agriculture2. Sources that are not/insufficiently regulated at the international level– “Think global … Act local .. A Plan B for climate change”– Transition vision: towards a Biobased economy .. Circular economy …Green Growth
  4. 4. Local and National Policy Options 15 April 20134What can national governments add?● To EU-policy: go beyond traditional “technical measures”› Integration with spatial planning, congestion policy, agriculturalpolicy, energy policy, infrastructural investments, …› Stimulate behavioural change  teleworking, healthy lifestyle› Stimulate innovation, efficiency● To local policy:avoid the ‘social dilemma’
  5. 5. Local and National Policy Options 15 April 20135About carrots and sticks1. Get the prices right  taxes = national mandate!– Include societal and environmental costs in product taxes;– Remove perverse subsidies on energy, agriculture, (air)traffic– Invest in clean technology development2. Set limits to growth  permits = local mandate!– Only allow if future air quality is guaranteed– Early scrapping of old equipment/cars3. Innovate: show leadership– Get industry, citizens and research community behind a longterm vision that makes growth possible within air quality limitvalues
  6. 6. Local and National Policy Options 15 April 20136Low-level PM2.5-emissions in 473 European cities– Traffic 35%– Wood burning 34%– Industrial processes 11%– Other domestic sources 9%– Industrial combustion 8%– Waste 3%Source: City-Delta Study
  7. 7. Local and National Policy Options 15 April 20137Local options for air quality improvementTraffic emissions– Road pricing ……………. Fuel and other taxes– Low emission zones ………. Scrapping schemes– Limit accessibility ……. Parking fees ….. Public transport– Speed limits– Adaptation: traffic circulation; screens/tunnelsResidential biomass burning– Permitted or not?– Set emission & fuel standards (reduction 50-75%) ?– Focus on indoor health?Industry– Restructuring old industrial areas
  8. 8. Local and National Policy Options 15 April 20138exceedances of the PM10 24h-limit valueimpacts of various control scenarios0200004000060000800001000001200002002 Trend2005Trend2010LEZ 2010(Euro III & PF)LEZ 2010(EURO III + PF)&"StEP"LEZ 2010(EURO IV + PF)&"StEP"affectedresidents050100150200250lenghtofnon-attainmentroadsectionsinkmaffected residentslength of street sections in non-complianceCase study Berlin: Low emission zones
  9. 9. Local and National Policy Options 15 April 20139Case study Greater London:Reduction in area exceeding PM10 limit values%reductionin area% reduction inexposedpopulation2008 7.4% 4.9%2010 12.4% 12.6%2012 26.7% 21.4%
  10. 10. Local and National Policy Options 15 April 201310Case study Rotterdam: speed limits (120 80 km/h)● slower speed less stop-go traffic● other benefits:– CO2 emissions (- 15%)– Noise impacts (- 50%)– Less road accidents and victimsNO2 PM10emission reduction (%) 15-25% (NOx) 25-35%air quality improvement50m from roadside 5 μg/m3 (7%) 4 μg/m3 (4%)200m from roadside 3 μg/m3 (3%) 1 μg/m3 (1%)reduction in contribution A13 tototal air quality (up to 200m) 25% 34%
  11. 11. Local and national policy options | 02 April 20131111Case study PM2.5 exposure Netherlands:the scope for cost-effective local measures is smallerthan for European wide measuresEuropean measures
  12. 12. Local and national policy options | 02 April 201312Case study Natura2000 protection Netherlands:balancing actions at different spatial levels: local-national-EU12Localmanagementplans:Low habitatquality&Highexceedenceexpanding zones withlimited room for newfarmsreducingpublic supportSources of deposition:2/3 national1/3 international
  13. 13. Local and national policy options | 02 April 201313Measures for agricultural NH3 emissionsGenericreduce emissions andbackground depositionLocation specificreduce deposition on aspecific nature reserveTechnical  general rules for manurestorage, application, animalhouses, etc. local implementation ofstricter animal housingstandards (air scrubbers)Non-technical Limits on livestock density  relocation of farms closure of farms restrictions on farmingwithin certain areas
  14. 14. Local and national policy options | 02 April 201314Less meat is healthy, less costly and good for the environmentExpenditure Energy Land use Ammonia PesticidesAverage dietHealthy diet
  15. 15. Local and national policy options | 02 April 201315Conclusion● There is a potential for further air qualityimprovement by taking technical and non-technical measures at national and local level– Taxation– Scrapping schemes● Do national & local governments needinternational coordination to take action?– EU-pressure? Voluntary actions?– Facilitate mutual learning?

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