Transboundary Air PollutionResearch and Policy.Micheal YoungDepartment of Environment, Heritage and Local Government.<br /...
Presentation Outline.<br />Historic Background to Acid Rain<br />International Policy Development<br />National Policy<br ...
Background History.<br />Air Pollution observed in Britain for centuries, intensified since industrial revolution<br />‘Ac...
Presentation Outline.<br />Background Tranboundary Air Pollution<br />International Policy Development<br />National Polic...
International Action.<br />UN/ECE Region: Europe, North America<br />Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution ...
CLRTAP Protocols.<br />Sulphur Protocols (1985, 1994)<br /> -30% of 1990 level by 2000<br />NOx Protocol (1988)<br /> Stab...
Emission Trends.<br />
Changing Context to CLRTAP (1979).<br />Significant hemispheric effects<br />Task Force on Hemispheric Transport<br />Inte...
EU NEC Directive/ Gothenburg Protocol.<br />Multi effect, multi pollutant<br />Acidification, eutrophication and ground le...
PM<br />VOC<br />SO2<br />NOx<br />NH3<br />Human Health<br />Revised Gothenburg Protocol NEC Directive to set policy targ...
Presentation Outline.<br />Background Tranboundary Air Pollution<br />International Policy Development<br />National Polic...
National PolicyContext.<br />Air quality in Ireland is relatively good<br /> General compliance with EU/National standards...
NEC National Programme (2005/2007)<br />SO2, VOCs and NH3 on track for 2010<br />NOx challenge: 2009 estimate 35% > ceilin...
Actual Inventory Estimate<br />Final Inventory Outturns<br />Optimised <br />Reduction Curve<br />Optimised <br />Reductio...
Presentation Outline.<br />Background Tranboundary Air Pollution<br />International Policy Development<br />National Polic...
Conclusions.<br />Policy Analysis is data intensive<br />Important to maintain and develop capacity<br /> Inventories, cri...
Conclusions.<br />  ‘…need to shift the goal of the science activity from simply developing knowledge to a goal of informi...
Thank you for listening.Micheal YoungDepartment of Environment, Heritage and Local Government.<br />EPA Research Workshop<...
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Transboundary Air Pollution Research and Policy - Michael Young, Department of Environment, Heritage and Local Government

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Presentation from EPA Transboundary Research Workshop, Galway, 8th and 9th September 2010.

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Transboundary Air Pollution Research and Policy - Michael Young, Department of Environment, Heritage and Local Government

  1. 1. Transboundary Air PollutionResearch and Policy.Micheal YoungDepartment of Environment, Heritage and Local Government.<br />EPA Research Workshop<br />Transboundary Air Pollution<br />Galway.<br />8th September 2010.<br />
  2. 2. Presentation Outline.<br />Historic Background to Acid Rain<br />International Policy Development<br />National Policy<br />Conclusions<br />
  3. 3. Background History.<br />Air Pollution observed in Britain for centuries, intensified since industrial revolution<br />‘Acid Rain’ coined in 1872<br />Declining fish yields in southern Norway<br /> linked to acidification early 20th Century<br />London Smogs 1952 - 4,000 deaths<br />Tall stacks policy – long range transport<br />Swedish scientists establish link between acidification and transboundary AP 1960s.<br />
  4. 4. Presentation Outline.<br />Background Tranboundary Air Pollution<br />International Policy Development<br />National Policy<br />Conclusion<br />
  5. 5. International Action.<br />UN/ECE Region: Europe, North America<br />Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) (1979)<br />Research & Development (Article 7)<br />Monitoring Networks<br />Exchange of information (Article 8)<br />Develop Emission Inventories<br />EMEP Protocol (1984)<br />Permanent funding mechanism<br />Develop atmospheric models<br />Monitoring Network<br />
  6. 6. CLRTAP Protocols.<br />Sulphur Protocols (1985, 1994)<br /> -30% of 1990 level by 2000<br />NOx Protocol (1988)<br /> Stabilisation of 1987 level by 1994<br />VOCs Protocol (1991)<br />Heavy Metals/POPs Protocols (1998)<br />Gothenburg Protocol (1999), revision (2011?)<br />Based on Best Available Techniques (BAT)<br />
  7. 7. Emission Trends.<br />
  8. 8. Changing Context to CLRTAP (1979).<br />Significant hemispheric effects<br />Task Force on Hemispheric Transport<br />Inter-linkages with climate change<br />EG Black Carbon, TF Reactive Nitrogen<br />Move to global conventions<br />Stockholm Convention on POPs (2004)<br />Global Mercury Convention (2013)<br />EU Internal legislation addressing TAP<br />CLRTAP Long Term Strategy 2020 <br />Single integrated protocol, focus on ‘unintended’ releases<br />Global confederation of regional conventions<br />Focus on ecosystem recovery.<br />
  9. 9. EU NEC Directive/ Gothenburg Protocol.<br />Multi effect, multi pollutant<br />Acidification, eutrophication and ground level ozone<br />SO2, NOx, VOCs, NH3 target 2010, plus PM2.5 2020<br />Targets informed by cost effectiveness<br />Fixed absolute ceilings<br />Integrated Assessment Modelling (GAINS model)<br />Source path receptor analysis - data intensive<br />Emission inventories/projections<br />Atmospheric dispersion and deposition<br />Critical load/level data<br />Feasible and cost effective abatement options<br />
  10. 10. PM<br />VOC<br />SO2<br />NOx<br />NH3<br />Human Health<br />Revised Gothenburg Protocol NEC Directive to set policy targets for 2020<br />Acidification<br />Eutrophication<br />Ozone<br />Gothenburg Protocol - EU NEC Directive.<br />
  11. 11. Presentation Outline.<br />Background Tranboundary Air Pollution<br />International Policy Development<br />National Policy<br />Conclusion<br />
  12. 12. National PolicyContext.<br />Air quality in Ireland is relatively good<br /> General compliance with EU/National standards<br />Little historic heavy industry – ‘new’ economy based on cleaner technologies<br />Upwind of Europe – reduced transboundary events<br /> Relatively low export levels.<br />Problems with city smogs – residential sector<br />‘smoky’ coal ban effective policy intervention.<br />
  13. 13. NEC National Programme (2005/2007)<br />SO2, VOCs and NH3 on track for 2010<br />NOx challenge: 2009 estimate 35% > ceiling<br />Economic growth 1997-2007<br />Assumed GDP 4%, actual outturn > 10%<br />Vehicle abatement technology failure<br /> Transport strongly correlated with GDP<br />Inventory improvements<br />Significant increase in absolute emission estimates<br />Euro correction alone for NOx for 2009<br />Accounts for 70 % of Distance to Target <br />Leaving 10 % (7 kt) exceedence<br />Fixed absolute ceiling! – Revision to adopt flexibility mechanism.<br />
  14. 14. Actual Inventory Estimate<br />Final Inventory Outturns<br />Optimised <br />Reduction Curve<br />Optimised <br />Reduction Curve<br />Non Compliance<br />Fixed National Emission Ceiling<br />
  15. 15. Presentation Outline.<br />Background Tranboundary Air Pollution<br />International Policy Development<br />National Policy<br />Conclusions<br />
  16. 16. Conclusions.<br />Policy Analysis is data intensive<br />Important to maintain and develop capacity<br /> Inventories, critical loads, modelling, sectors<br />Cross cutting nature of policy area<br /> national research coordination important.<br />Maintain & improve research base<br /> Participation with international networks is important<br />
  17. 17. Conclusions.<br /> ‘…need to shift the goal of the science activity from simply developing knowledge to a goal of informing action’<br /> Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution 2010, Draft Executive Summary. http://www.htap.org/<br />
  18. 18. Thank you for listening.Micheal YoungDepartment of Environment, Heritage and Local Government.<br />EPA Research Workshop<br />Transboundary Air Pollution<br />Galway.<br />8th September 2010.<br />

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