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  • Note, from EEA Emission Inventory Guidebook 2009, 1-a-4 p15:Note that there are different conventions and standards for measuring particulate emissions. Particulate emissions can be defined by the measurement technique used including factors such as the type and temperature of filtration media and whether condensable fractions are measured. Other potential variations can include the use of manual gravimetric sampling techniques or aerosol instrumentation. Similarly, particulate emission data determined using methodology based on a dilution tunnel may differ from emission data determined by a direct extractive measurement on a stack. These issues in measurement methodology, and hence definition, mean that it can be difficult to compare reported emission data.
  • WPB not continuously monitored. April 09, then November, December, February
  • WPB not continuously monitored. April 09, then November, December, February

Transcript

  • 1. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 ETASCIImproved Emissions Inventories for NO x and Particulate Matter from Transport and Small Combustion Installations in Ireland (07-CCRP-4.4.2a) Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 2. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 Objective Establish improved emissions factors (EF) for • NOx (straightforward) and • PM (not so much……………) from “small combustion installations” (< 50 MWth (!) ) • mobile (planes, trains, and automobiles), and • stationary (houses, apartment blocks, factories, shops) Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 3. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 Project rationale• Emissions from these distributed sources are usually emitted • close to ground level • close to people• Long-range transport can also be significant• However, data on quantities and characteristics of emissions from this source are sparse, and may be unreliable.• Heavy reliance on EMEP emission factors (EFs), which relate emission quantities to fuel consumed. Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 4. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 NOx and PM ETASCI Dispersed sources Stationary MobileSCI (< 50 MWth) Road – Passenger cars Domestic / Residential – Freight Commercial / Industrial – Public transport Air / Rail / Sea Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 5. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 Emission FactorsRemember: Emission Activity Emission rate rate factor g.year-1 GJ.year-1 g.GJ-1 Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 6. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 3.5 PM emission factors 3.0PM emission factor (g GJ-1) 2.5 US EPA 2.0 NAEI 1.5 EMEP 1.0 0.5 0.0 Oil Gas Emission factors for residential fuel combustion Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 7. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012Historical evolution of US EPA emissions factors 1968-2008 70 EMEP NOx 60 US EPA emission factors (g.GJ-1) 50 40 NOx Oil NOx Gas PM Oil 30 PM Gas 20 10 EMEP PM 0 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 8. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 Project approachTwo key questions addressed: – Are EMEP emission factors representative of real Irish installations? – Does boiler operating mode influence real-world emission factors?Problem: In-situ measurement of PM is not practicalSolution: Perform PM measurements in laboratory. NOx measurements performed in-situ and in laboratory. Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 9. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 Investigative programmeStep 1: Collate duty cycle dataStep 2: Reproduce these cycles, for each boiler type, under controlled laboratory conditions.Step 3: Determine EF for NOx and for PM: • for each boiler type • during startup • during steady-state operation Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 10. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 Collation of duty-cycle data Type Number monitored DurationWood Pellet 3 Apr 09 – Feb 10 Oil 6 Mar 09 – May 10 Gas 4 Jan 09 – May 10 Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 11. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 Collation of duty-cycle data• Record flue gas temperature at 1 minute intervals• Analyse time-temperature trace to find: • Total running time • Cold/warm start frequency • Runtime at high load and (wood-pellet only) at partial load Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 12. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 Typical duty cycle: oil- and gas-fired boilers Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 13. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 Typical duty cycle: wood-pellet boiler 3 boilers monitored. Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 14. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 Laboratory-based measurements Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 15. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 Laboratory Test FacilityPM sampling Exhaust out PTFE filter (oil, gas only) Gas analysis Data DLPI acquisition vacuum pump BoilerFuel and air in Fan & coil heat exchanger Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 16. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 Gas analysis (Testo 350XL) DLPI (PM size distribution) Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 17. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 Laboratory Test Facility Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 18. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 When it comes to PM… Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 19. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 DLPI (PM size distribution)PM sampling DLPI vacuum pump Boiler to vacuum pump Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 20. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 DLPI (PM size distribution)PM sampling DLPI vacuum pump Boiler Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 21. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 PM sampling process• PM Sampling Process (DLPI), in accordance with BS EN ISO 9096:2003 • Aluminium substrates coated in vacuum grease (dissolve in solvent then bake at 200oC for 2 hours) • Substrates pre-weighed. Resolution 0.01mg • Assemble impactor, heat to flue gas temperature • Establish desired boiler operating condition. Switch on vacuum pump. • Disconnect sample line, evacuate hot gases and allow impactor to cool • Weigh substrates a second time. Δm gives mass of collected PM• PM Sampling Process (Filter) • As above but… • No grease required and • Filter stored in dessicant jar for 2 days before and after sample to ensure same moisture content for both mass readings. Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 22. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 23. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 Emission factors for NOx Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 24. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 Gas-fired boiler: effect of operating condition 80 70.0NOx Emission Factor [g / GJ] 60 Measured Values 39.3 40 EMEP 25.8 USEPA 20 16.8 18.0 0 Steady State Warm Start Cold Start Boiler Operating Mode Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 25. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 Oil-fired boiler: effect of operating condition 80 EMEP, 70 g/GJ USEPA, 58 g/GJ 60NOx Emission Factor [g/GJ] Measured NOx 48.8 42.8 44.8 40.2 37.2 40 EMEP NOx USEPA NOx 20 0 Steady State Warm Start Cold Start Old Nozzle 1 Old Nozzle 2 Boiler Operating Mode Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 26. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 Wood-pellet boiler: effect of operating condition 100 EMEP: 90 g/GJ 80 60 51.6 51.5 49.8 49.0NOx [g / GJ] 49.2 47.8 48.0 45.4 44.9 43.0 40 25.1 20 0 Operating Mode Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 27. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 Weighted-average EF: NOx 100 90 80 70.0 UCD EF 70.0NOx [g / GJ] EMEP EF 60 49.8 44.1 40 32.7 20 0 Wood Pellet Boiler Oil Gas Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 28. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 Emission factors for PM Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 29. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 Gas-fired Boiler: PM Measurements 1 USEPA, 0.8 g/GJ 0.8 Measured 0.6 Values EMEP, 0.5 g/GJPM [g/GJ] EMEP 0.4 USEPA 0.2 0.03 0.04 0.02 0 Steady-State Warm-start Cold-Start Boiler Operating Mode Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 30. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 Oil-fired Boiler: PM Measurements 3.5 EMEP PM10, 3 g/GJ 3Emission Factor [g/GJ] 2.5 Measured PM 2 EMEP PM 1.5 USEPA PM, 1.2 g/GJ USEPA PM 1 0.5 0.39 0.32 0.28 0.33 0.29 0 Steady-State Warm-start Cold-Start Old Nozzle 1 Old Nozzle 2 Boiler Operating Mode Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 31. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 Pellet Boiler: PM Measurements 140 120 100PM [g / GJ] EMEP: 76 g/GJ 80 68.2 51.4 60 40 30.8 24.4 29 21.5 24.9 18 15.9 14.5 14.6 20 0 Operating Mode Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 32. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 Weighted-average EF: PM 76 UCD EF 22.40 EMEP EF 10PM [g / GJ] 3.0 1 0.5 0.31 0.1 0.03 0.01 Wood Pellet Boiler Oil Gas Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 33. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 Weighted-average EF: PM 80 76 70 UCD EF 60 EMEP EFPM [g / GJ] 50 40 30 22.40 20 10 3.0 0.31 0.03 0.5 0 Wood Pellet Boiler Oil Gas Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 34. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 PM size distribution, by mass (normalised) 1.0 0.9 0.8Normalised size distribution 0.7 0.6 Wood-pellet boiler 0.5 Oil-fired boiler 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.01 0.10 1.00 10.00 Particle cutoff diameter [µm] Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 35. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 PM cumulative size distribution by mass 100%cumulative mass fraction 75% 50% Wood Pellet boiler 25% Oil-fired boiler 0% 0.01 0.10 1.00 10.00 100.00 Particle cutoff diameter [μm] Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 36. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 Does shape matter…? Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 37. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 SEM images: PM from wood-pellet boiler Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 38. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 SEM images: PM from oil-fired boilerFrom combustion of kerosene: Scale: Scale: 500 nm 2µm Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 39. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 PM and NOx EF Summary WPB: EMEP = 3x 10 WPBPM [g / GJ] EMEP WPB Oil: EMEP = 10x 1 Oil Boiler EMEP Oil 0.1 NG: EMEP = 20x Gas Boiler EMEP GAS 0.01 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 NOx [g / GJ] Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 40. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 Conclusions• EMEP emission factors for PM, for oil- and gas-fired boilers, are ~10 times higher than found by ETASCI.• EMEP emission factors for NOx, for all three sources, are 3-4 times higher than observed during ETASCI. Is wood green? …or brown? • PM emissions from the wood-pellet boiler were: ~100 times greater than for a similar oil-fired boiler, and ~1,000 times higher than for the corresponding gas-fired boiler. • The morphology of PM from wood-pellet boilers is quite different to that from oil- fired plant. Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 41. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 ETASCIImproved Emissions Inventories for NO x and Particulate Matter from Transport and Small Combustion Installations in Ireland (07-CCRP-4.4.2a) Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 42. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 Information Dissemination• Journal Papers: • Smith, Morrin, Timoney (2010) „Effect of operating condition on the PM emission factor for a domestic biomass boiler‟. Proc IMechE Part A, 225, 5, 614-618 • Morrin, Smith, Timoney (2011) „Quantifying pollutant emissions from combustion of kerosene and natural gas in residential heating boilers‟. Submitted to Proc IMechE Part A, November 2011• National Publications: • Morrin, Smith (2011) „Improved emission inventories for NOx and PM, from transport and small combustion installations in Ireland (ETASCI)‟. Final project report submitted to EPA for online publication, November 2011 • Morrin, Smith (2011) „Improved emission inventories for NOx and PM, from transport and small combustion installations in Ireland (ETASCI)‟. Project synthesis report submitted to EPA for print publication, November 2011• Conference Presentations: • EGTEI subgroup on PM, February 2010, Zurich • EDS Workshop, UCD. March 2010 • EPA CCRP conference, June 2010, poster presentation • International Aerosol Conference, Helsinki, August 2010 • EPA Transboundary Workshop, Galway, September 2010 • EPA Postgraduate seminar, November 2010, poster presentation • UCD Festival of Research, December 2010 Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 43. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 National Emissions, in context 25 Non-road Transport Agriculture 20 Commercial SCINOx Mass [Gg] 15 Res. Peat Res. Coal 10 Res. Biomass Res. Natural Gas 5 Res. Diesel 0 Res. Kerosene NOx (Gg) PM10 (Gg) Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 44. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 National Emissions, in context 60 Road Transport Non-road Transport 50 AgricultureNOx Mass [Gg] 40 Commercial SCI Res. Peat 30 Res. Coal 20 Res. Biomass Res. Natural Gas 10 Res. Diesel 0 Res. Kerosene NOx (Gg) PM10 (Gg) Road Transport Road Transport NOx (Gg) PM10 (Gg) Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 45. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 Carbon Monoxide Emissions Plot of PM Vs CO, All Tests 100 10 Gas BoilerPM [g / GJ] 1 Oil Boiler Wood Pellet 0.1 Boiler 0.01 1 10 100 1000 10000 CO [g / GJ] Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 46. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 Weighted Average Emission Factor• Combine results from duty cycle analysis with EF measured in lab• Steps: 1. Find total running time at each operating mode 2. Calculate quantity of fuel consumed (based on boiler/burner rating) 3. Using lab-based EF calculate total mass of emissions produced at each operating mode 4. Divide total mass of PM and NOx by quantity of fuel used in sampling period → average EF for that fuel type Measured EMEP Guidebook value PM [g / GJ] NOx [g / GJ] PM [g / GJ] NOx [g / GJ] Wood Pellet 22.4 49.8 76 90 Oil 0.31 44.13 3 70 Gas 0.03 32.73 0.5 70 N.B. Doesn‟t make sense in the context of slide 42 Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 47. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012Source: Nussbaumer et al, Particulate emissions from biomass combustion in IEA countries. Zurich, 2008 Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 48. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012Source: Nussbaumer et al, Particulate emissions from biomass combustion in IEA countries. Zurich, 2008 Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 49. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012Source: Nussbaumer et al, Particulate emissions from biomass combustion in IEA countries. Zurich, 2008 Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 50. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012Source: Nussbaumer et al, Particulate emissions from biomass combustion in IEA countries. Zurich, 2008 Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 51. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 52. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 Oil-fired Boiler: Emission Factor Vs AFR Variation of PM and NOx emission factors Vs Relative AFR 3 50 2.5 45 2PM [g/GJ] 40 PM 1.5 35 NOx 1 30 0.5 0 25 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 Relative AFR, λ Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 53. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 What, exactly, is PM? Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 54. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 PM size distribution, by mass Normalised Steady State Size Distribution 1.2Normalised size distribution 1.0 0.8 Size distribution curve very similar for all operating modes but …. Wood Pellet Boiler 0.6 Oil-fired Boiler 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.01 0.10 1.00 10.00 Di [um] Normalised Warm Start Size Distribution 1.2 Normalised size distribution 1.0 0.8 Wood Pellet Boiler 0.6 Oil-fired Boiler 0.4 0.2 0.0 Normalised Cold Start Size Distribution 0.01 0.10 1.00 10.00 100.00 Di [um] 1.2 Normalised size distribution 1.0 0.8 Wood Pellet Boiler 0.6 Oil-fired Boiler 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.01 0.10 1.00 10.00 100.00 Di [um] Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 55. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012Source: Shneider et al, On-line Nanoparticle Size Distribution Measurements of a 15kW Pellet Burner.Webpaper, available online at http://www.aidic.it/aaas10/webpapers/28Schneider.pdf Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 56. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 Initial plan2 x PhD studentsSCI test facilityPortable emissions measurement system Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 57. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 CLRTAP CAFE UNFCCC Policy EU Directives EMEP TREMOVE PMP COPERT Monitoring ModellingAIRMEX RAINS / GAINS PRIMES Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 58. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 ContextCollection of emission data SOx, NOx, NH3Measurement of air and NMVOC, COprecipitation quality HM (Pb, Hg, Cd, etc)Modelling of atmospherictransport and deposition POP PM Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 59. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 ContextTask Force on Measurements and Modelling Particulate Matter Assessment Report, 2007: • “Inventories for Carbon need substantial improvement in term of accuracy and coverage of source categories...” • “...particularly those of road traffic, wood combustion and residential heating.” Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 60. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 EPA UEP ETASCI WP2: WP1: SCI + non-roadRoad transport transport EURO 4-6 Domestic Passenger car SCI Commercial Industrial COPERT Freight TREMOVE ARTEMIS Rail ARTEMIS Sea Public transport EURO IV-VI Ai SAGE r Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin
  • 61. STRIVE Research Conference, Trinity College Dublin, 28th June 2012 Emission Source Year Factor (g/GJ) Bostrom 2002 70 van Loo 2002 101 van Loo 2002 92 Kubica et al. 2002 295 EMEP Quoted Value 2009 76 - 695 Johansson et al. 2004 65 NOx emission factors for wood pellets Dr. William Smith, School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin