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Sustainable development of wind energy in Ireland - challenges of biodiversity and ecosystem services - David Bourke
 

Sustainable development of wind energy in Ireland - challenges of biodiversity and ecosystem services - David Bourke

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    Sustainable development of wind energy in Ireland - challenges of biodiversity and ecosystem services - David Bourke Sustainable development of wind energy in Ireland - challenges of biodiversity and ecosystem services - David Bourke Presentation Transcript

    • Sustainable development of wind energy in Ireland – challenges of biodiversity and ecosystem services. David BourkeAinhoa González, Nova Sharkey, Jesko Zimmermann, John McCann, and Jane Stout
    • Outline• Energy policy• Impacts on biodiversity – National/international literature – Spatial analyses• Key gaps/research questions
    • Policy Drivers“Directive on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources”
    • How will we meet the 2020 Renewable Energy targets? Wind Wave Biomass2041 MW of installed wind capacity – 174 onshore (1 offshore – 25 MW) SEAI Report (2011) “Energy Forecasts for Ireland to 2020”.
    • (EEA, 2009)
    • Impacts on Species & Habitats • Birds & Bats – Collision – Avoidance (energetic costs) – Birds of prey, upland & waterbirds – Migration routes Bird Watch Ireland – Barotrauma - bats • Cetaceans/marine communities – Noise, habitat loss, collisions, habitat creation • Habitat disturbance, fragmentation NPWS Baerwald et al. (2008)(Inger et al., 2009; Maar et al., 2009) (Drewitt and Langston, 2006; Stewart et al. , 2007; Masden et al. 2010)
    • Effects on birds are variable and context specific. BirdWatch Ireland BirdWatch Ireland Pearse-Higgins et al. (2012)
    • Q. How much viable wind do we have inside and outside of designated areas? 70,000 Designated 60,000 Non designatedArea Con > 7m/s (km2) 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0 50m 75m 100m Turbine Hub Height Bourke et al. (in prep)
    • Q. Can we meet renewable energy targets without developing designated areas? 70,000 Designated 60,000 Non designated ~4000 MW Q. Height v Density?Area Con > 7m/s (km2) 50,000 40,000 30,000 •Impacts different species 5 – 10 MW/km2 20,000 •Turbine footprint reduced 10,000 400 to 800km2 0 50m 75m 100m Turbine Hub Height Bourke et al. (in prep)
    • Q. Where are wind farms located and planned in the future?Q. Is the density of wind farm development a problem and is it in the “right or wrong places”? Bourke et al. (in prep)
    • Future Challenges (1)• Adequate evidence to provide sound advise• More publishing of data• Inaccessible grey literature/internal reports• Many gaps in our knowledge – Fundamental ecological understanding – Impacts on species? – Impacts on habitats?
    • Stacks to Mullaghareirk Mountains, West Future Challenges (2) Limerick Hills and Mount Eagle SPAMultiple stressors & cumulative effects • Development (e.g. wind farms, roads) • Climate change • Land-use change • Invasive species • Habitat loss Future Challenges (3) • Planning • Assessment • Monitoring Photo: RSPB Images/Andy Hay/PA Wire
    • Key areas for future research• Bird/bat sensitivity maps• Population-level impacts• Species specific studies• Identification of migration routes/corridors and stepping stones of bats in Ireland• Cumulative effects• Preliminary research into impacts on marine species and habitats
    • bourkedo@tcd.ie Thanks to Ms Soledad ColombeSustainable Energy Authority of Ireland BirdWatch Ireland EirGridSpecial thanks to the SIMBIOSYS Team and the EPA for funding. Bird Watch Ireland