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    Ch13 contents Ch13 contents Document Transcript

    • ‫‪ / - ‬‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ ‫__________________‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ :  ‬‬ ‫١‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ ‫١-١‬ ‫١‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ آﻤﺎدة إﻧﺸﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫١-٢‬ ‫٣‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮر ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫١-٣‬ ‫‪ :  ‬‬ ‫٧‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ ‫٢-١‬ ‫٨‬ ‫اﻻﺵﺘﺮاﻃﺎت اﻟﻌﺎﻡﺔ اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ اﺳﺘﺨﺪام اﻹﺿﺎﻓﺎت‬ ‫٢-٢‬ ‫٨‬ ‫أهﻢ اﻷﻧﻮاع اﻟﺸﺎﺋﻌﺔ ﻡﻦ اﻹﺿﺎﻓﺎت‬ ‫٢-٣‬ ‫٩‬ ‫٢-٣-١ إﺿﺎﻓﺎت ﺗﺨﻔﻴﺾ اﻟﻤﺎء واﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻰ اﻟﺸﻚ‬ ‫٠١‬ ‫- ﻡﺨﻔﻀﺎت اﻟﻤﺎء )اﻟﻤﻠﺪﻧﺎت(‬ ‫٥١‬ ‫- إﺿﺎﻓﺎت ﺗﺄﺥﻴﺮ اﻟﺸﻚ‬ ‫٥١‬ ‫- إﺿﺎﻓﺎت ﺗﻌﺠﻴﻞ اﻟﺸﻚ‬ ‫٧١‬ ‫٢-٣-٢ إﺿﺎﻓﺎت اﻟﻬﻮاء اﻟﻤﺤﺒﻮس‬ ‫٨١‬ ‫٢-٣-٣ إﺿﺎﻓﺎت ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﻧﻔﺎذ اﻟﻤﺎء ﺑﺎﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫٩١‬ ‫٢-٣-٤ إﺿﺎﻓﺎت ﻟﻤﻨﻊ إﺝﺘﺮاف اﻷﺳﻤﻨﺖ ﺑﻔﻌﻞ اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫٠٢‬ ‫٢-٣-٥ إﺿﺎﻓﺎت ﺗﻠﻮﻳﻦ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫١٢‬ ‫٢-٣-٦ إﺿﺎﻓﺎت أﺥﺮى ﻡﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫‪    :  ‬‬ ‫٤٢‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﻌﺎدﻳﺔ‬ ‫٣-١‬ ‫٤٢‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﻤﺴﻠﺤﺔ‬ ‫٣-٢‬ ‫٥٢‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ اﻹﺝﻬﺎد‬ ‫٣-٣‬ ‫٧٢‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﺠﺎهﺰة‬ ‫٣-٤‬ ‫٩٢‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﻘﺎوﻡﺔ‬ ‫٣-٥‬ ‫٩٢‬ ‫٣-٥-١ اﻟﺨﺼﺎﺋﺺ اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮب ﺗﻮاﻓﺮهﺎ ﻓﻰ اﻟﻤﻜﻮﻧﺎت‬ ‫٠٣‬ ‫٣-٥-٢ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎت اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﻘﺎوﻡﺔ‬ ‫٢٣‬ ‫٣-٥-٣ اﻟﺠﺪوى ﻡﻦ اﺳﺘﺨﺪام اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﻘﺎوﻡﺔ ﻓﻰ ﻡﺼﺮ‬ ‫٨٣‬ ‫٣-٥-٤ اﻟﻤﻤﻴﺰات اﻟﻌﺎﻡﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﻘﺎوﻡﺔ‬ ‫٩٣‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﻠﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫٣-٦‬ ‫٢٤‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ذاﺗﻴﺔ اﻟﺪﻡﻚ‬ ‫٣-٧‬ ‫٢٤‬ ‫٣-٧-١ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ ‫٢٤‬ ‫٣-٧-٢ اﻟﺨﻮاص اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻓﻰ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ذاﺗﻴﺔ اﻟﺪﻡﻚ‬ ‫٣٤‬ ‫٣-٧-٣ ﻡﻤﻴﺰات اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ذاﺗﻴﺔ اﻟﺪﻡﻚ‬ ‫٤٤‬ ‫٣-٧-٤ اﻻﺥﺘﺒﺎرات اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻓﻰ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ذاﺗﻴﺔ اﻟﺪﻡﻚ‬ ‫٣٤٢‬
    • ‫‪‬‬ ‫٦٤‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﻤﻘﺬوﻓﺔ )ﺥﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﺮش(‬ ‫٣-٨‬ ‫٨٤‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﺒﻮﻟﻴﻤﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫٣-٩‬ ‫٨٤‬ ‫٣-٩-١ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﺒﻼﺳﺘﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫٠٥‬ ‫٣-٩-٢ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﺒﻮﻟﻴﻤﺮﻳﺔ اﻷﺳﻤﻨﺘﻴﺔ‬ ‫٠٥‬ ‫٣-٩-٣ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ اﻷﺳﻤﻨﺘﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﺤﻘﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻮﻟﻴﻤﺮات‬ ‫٢٥‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﺨﻔﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫٣-٠١‬ ‫٥٥‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﺜﻘﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫٣-١١‬ ‫٦٥‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﻜﺘﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫٣-٢١‬ ‫‪  :  ‬‬ ‫٧٥‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺡﻠﺔ اﻹﻋﺪاد )ﻗﺒﻞ اﻟﺼﺐ(‬ ‫٤-١‬ ‫٩٥‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺡﻠﺔ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﻄﺎزﺝﺔ )اﻟﺼﺐ(‬ ‫٤-٢‬ ‫٧٦‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺡﻠﺔ ﻡﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ اﻟﺼﺐ‬ ‫٤-٣‬ ‫‪   :  ‬‬ ‫١٧‬ ‫ﻡﻘﺪﻡﺔ‬ ‫٥-١‬ ‫١٧‬ ‫آﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺑﻴﺎن ﻧﺴﺐ ﻡﻜﻮﻧﺎت اﻟﺨﻠﻄﺔ‬ ‫٥-٢‬ ‫٣٧‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ اﻟﺮآﺎم و اﻟﻌﺠﻴﻨﺔ اﻷﺳﻤﻨﺘﻴﺔ‬ ‫٥-٣‬ ‫٥٧‬ ‫ﻃﺮق ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ اﻟﺨﻠﻄﺎت اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫٥-٤‬ ‫٠٨‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ اﻟﺨﻠﻄﺎت اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﻘﺎوﻡﺔ‬ ‫٥-٥‬ ‫٥٨‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ اﻟﺨﻠﻄﺎت اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﻴﺔ ذات اﻟﻤﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎت اﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫٥-٦‬ ‫‪    :  ‬‬ ‫٩٨‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﻓﻰ ﻡﻘﺎوﻡﺔ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫٦-١‬ ‫٩٨‬ ‫ﻡﻨﺤﻨﻰ اﻟﺘﻮزﻳﻊ اﻟﺘﻜﺮاري‬ ‫٦-٢‬ ‫١٩‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎوﻡﺔ اﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ واﻟﻤﻘﺎوﻡﺔ اﻟﻤﻤﻴﺰة‬ ‫٦-٣‬ ‫١٩‬ ‫٦-٣-١ اﻟﻤﻘﺎوﻡﺔ اﻟﻤﻤﻴﺰة )رﺗﺒﺔ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ(‬ ‫١٩‬ ‫٦-٣-٢ ﻡﺘﻮﺳﻂ اﻟﻤﻘﺎوﻡﺔ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻬﺪف‬ ‫٢٩‬ ‫ﻡﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎت اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻰ اﻟﺠﻮدة‬ ‫٦-٤‬ ‫٣٩‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ اﺥﺘﺒﺎر اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫٦-٥‬ ‫٤٩‬ ‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴــﻘﺎت‬ ‫٦-٦‬ ‫٤٩‬ ‫٦-٦-١ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ اﻟﺨﻠﻄﺔ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﻴﺔ اﻟﻼزﻡﺔ ﻟﻤﺸﺮوع ﺝﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫٤٩‬ ‫٦-٦-٢ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ اﻟﻤﻘﺎوﻡﺔ اﻟﻤﻤﻴﺰة‬ ‫٥٩‬ ‫٦-٦-٣ اﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻼﺡﻴﺔ ﺥﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ﻡﻨﺸﺄ‬ ‫٦٩‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ اﻹﺡﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ اﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت اﻟﻤﻔﺮدة‬ ‫٦-٧‬ ‫٦٩‬ ‫٦-٧-١ ﻡﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ اﻟﻤﺮآﺰﻳﺔ‬ ‫٧٩‬ ‫٦-٧-٢ ﻡﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ اﻟﺘﺸﺘﺖ‬ ‫٨٩‬ ‫٦-٧-٣ أﺵﻜﺎل اﻟﺘﻮزﻳﻌﺎت اﻟﺘﻜﺮارﻳﺔ‬‫٠٠١‬ ‫ﺗﻮزﻳﻊ اﻟﺒﻴـﺎﻧﺎت‬ ‫٦-٨‬ ‫٤٤٢‬
    • ‫‪ / - ‬‬ ‫‪    :  ‬‬ ‫٧٠١‬ ‫ﻡﻘﺪﻡﺔ‬ ‫٧-١‬ ‫٨٠١‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻀﻴﺮ ﻋﻴﻨﺎت اﺥﺘﺒﺎرات اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﻄﺎزﺝﺔ‬ ‫٧-٢‬ ‫٨٠١‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻮاص اﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﻄﺎزﺝﺔ‬ ‫٧-٣‬ ‫٩٠١‬ ‫٧-٣-١ اﻟﻘﻮام‬ ‫٩١١‬ ‫٧-٣-٢ اﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬ ‫٥٢١‬ ‫٧-٣-٣ اﻻﻧﻔﺼﺎل اﻟﺤﺒﻴﺒﻲ‬ ‫٦٢١‬ ‫٧-٣-٤ اﻟﻨﻀﺢ‬ ‫‪    :  ‬‬ ‫٧٢١‬ ‫ﻡﻘﺎوﻡﺔ اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬ ‫٨-١‬ ‫٧٢١‬ ‫٨-١-١ اﻟﻌﻮاﻡﻞ اﻟﻤﺆﺙﺮة ﻋﻠﻰ ﻡﻘﺎوﻡﺔ اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬ ‫٣٤١‬ ‫٨-١-٢ أﺵﻜﺎل اﻻﻧﻬﻴﺎرات اﻟﻤﺤﺘﻤﻠﺔ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺗﺄﺙﻴﺮ ﺡﻤﻞ اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬ ‫٤٤١‬ ‫٨-١-٣ اﺥﺘﺒﺎر ﻡﻘﺎوﻡﺔ اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬ ‫٧٤١‬ ‫ﻡﻘﺎوﻡﺔ اﻟﺸﺪ‬ ‫٨-٢‬ ‫٧٤١‬ ‫٨-٢-١ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻡﻘﺎوﻡﺘﻲ اﻟﺸﺪ واﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬ ‫٨٤١‬ ‫٨-٢-٢ ﻃﺮق اﺥﺘﺒﺎر ﻡﻘﺎوﻡﺔ اﻟﺸﺪ‬ ‫٢٥١‬ ‫ﻡﻘﺎوﻡﺔ اﻻﻧﺤﻨﺎء‬ ‫٨-٣‬ ‫٤٥١‬ ‫ﻡﻘﺎوﻡﺔ اﻟﻘﺺ‬ ‫٨-٤‬ ‫٦٥١‬ ‫ﻡﻘﺎوﻡﺔ اﻟﺘﻤﺎﺳﻚ‬ ‫٨-٥‬ ‫٠٦١‬ ‫ﻡﻌﺎﻳﺮ اﻟﻤﺮوﻧﺔ‬ ‫٨-٦‬ ‫٠٦١‬ ‫٨-٦-١ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ ‫١٦١‬ ‫٨-٦-٢ اﺥﺘﺒﺎر ﻡﻌﺎﻳﺮ اﻟﻤﺮوﻧﺔ‬ ‫٣٦١‬ ‫٨-٦-٣ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻡﻌﺎﻳﺮ اﻟﻤﺮوﻧﺔ ﻓﻰ اﻻﻧﺤﻨﺎء‬ ‫٤٦١‬ ‫٨-٦-٤ اﻟﻌﻮاﻡﻞ اﻟﺘﻰ ﺗﺆﺙﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻡﻌﺎﻳﺮ اﻟﻤﺮوﻧﺔ‬ ‫٤٦١‬ ‫٨-٦-٥ ﺑﻌﺾ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت ﻟﺘﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻡﻌﺎﻳﺮ اﻟﻤﺮوﻧﺔ‬ ‫٥٦١‬ ‫٨-٦-٦ اﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ اﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎرﻳﺔ‬ ‫٥٦١‬ ‫٨-٦-٧ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺑﻮاﺳﻮن‬ ‫‪    :  ‬‬ ‫٧٦١‬ ‫اﻟﻬﺪف واﻟﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫٩-١‬ ‫٨٦١‬ ‫ﻡﻄﺮﻗﺔ اﻻرﺗﺪاد )ﺵﻤﻴﺪت(‬ ‫٩-٢‬ ‫٥٧١‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮﺝﺎت ﻓﻮق اﻟﺼﻮﺗﻴﺔ‬ ‫٩-٣‬ ‫٨٨١‬ ‫اﺥﺘﺒﺎر اﻟﻘﻠﺐ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﻰ‬ ‫٩-٤‬ ‫٤٩١‬ ‫اﺥﺘﺒﺎر اﻟﺘﺤﻤﻴﻞ‬ ‫٩-٥‬ ‫٧٩١‬ ‫ﻋﺪم ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ﻟﻤﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎت اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ‬ ‫٩-٦‬ ‫٨٩١‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺎرﻳﺮ ﺳﻼﻡﺔ وأﻡﺎن اﻟﻤﻨﺸﺂت‬ ‫٩-٧‬ ‫٥٤٢‬
    • ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪  :  ‬‬‫١٠٢‬ ‫٠١-١ اﻻﻧﻜﻤﺎش‬‫١٠٢‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ ‫٠١-١-١‬‫١٠٢‬ ‫أﺳﺒﺎب ﺡﺪوث اﻻﻧﻜﻤﺎش‬ ‫٠١-١-٢‬‫١٠٢‬ ‫أﻧﻮاع اﻻﻧﻜﻤﺎش‬ ‫٠١-١-٣‬‫٤٠٢‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻮاﻡﻞ اﻟﺘﻰ ﺗﺆﺙﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻧﻜﻤﺎش اﻟﺠﻔﺎف‬ ‫٠١-١-٤‬‫اﺥﺘﺒﺎر اﻟﺘﻐﻴﺮ اﻟﺤﺠﻤﻰ ﻟﻠﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺠﻔﺎف واﻟﺮﻃﻮﺑﺔ ٦٠٢‬ ‫٠١-١-٥‬‫٨٠٢‬ ‫٠١-٢ اﻟﺰﺡﻒ‬‫٨٠٢‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ اﻟﺰﺡﻒ‬ ‫٠١-٢-١‬‫٠١٢‬ ‫ﺡﺴﺎب ﻗﻴﻤﺔ اﻟﺰﺡﻒ‬ ‫٠١-٢-٢‬‫١١٢‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺙﻴﺮ اﻟﺰﺡﻒ‬ ‫٠١-٢-٣‬ ‫‪()   :   ‬‬ ‫‪‬‬‫٣١٢‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ ‫١١-١‬‫٣١٢‬ ‫أﺳﺒﺎب ﺗﻠﻒ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫١١-٢‬‫٤١٢‬ ‫ﻡﻘﺎوﻡﺔ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫١١-٣‬‫٤١٢‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻡﻴﺔ و اﻟﻤﻨﻔﺬﻳﺔ و اﻻﻡﺘﺼﺎص‬ ‫١١-٤‬‫٠٢٢‬ ‫ﺻـﺪأ اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫١١-٥‬‫٦٢٢‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎوﻡﺔ ﻟﺘﺄﺙﻴﺮ اﻟﻜﻴﻤﺎوﻳﺎت‬ ‫١١-٦‬‫٨٢٢‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻮاص اﻟﺤﺮارﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫١١-٧‬‫٢٣٢‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎوﻡﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫١١-٨‬‫٣٣٢‬ ‫ﺗﺄﻡﻴﻦ ﺗﺤﻤﻞ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ﻡﻊ اﻟﺰﻡﻦ‬ ‫١١-٩‬ ‫٩٣٢‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫٣٤٢‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫***********‬ ‫٦٤٢‬