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5 compaction
5 compaction
5 compaction
5 compaction
5 compaction
5 compaction
5 compaction
5 compaction
5 compaction
5 compaction
5 compaction
5 compaction
5 compaction
5 compaction
5 compaction
5 compaction
5 compaction
5 compaction
5 compaction
5 compaction
5 compaction
5 compaction
5 compaction
5 compaction
5 compaction
5 compaction
5 compaction
5 compaction
5 compaction
5 compaction
5 compaction
5 compaction
5 compaction
5 compaction
5 compaction
5 compaction
5 compaction
5 compaction
5 compaction
5 compaction
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5 compaction

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  • 1. Compaction ‫الدمك‬04/05/12 Soil Compaction 1
  • 2. Compaction Effect Air Water Water Air Solid Solid Loose soil Compacted soil ‫تربة سائبة‬ ‫تربة مدموكة‬ Soil Compaction04/05/12 2
  • 3. Compaction Advantages ‫مزايا الدمك‬  As compaction increases, the following occurs:  Increasebearing capacity ‫ زيادة قدرة تحمل التربة‬  Decrease potential for settlement ‫ تقليل إمكانية الهبوط‬  Reduction in hydraulic conductivity ‫ تقليل نفاذية التربة‬ Soil Compaction04/05/12 3
  • 4. ?What is compaction A simple ground improvement technique, where the soil is densified using external compactive effort. Densification is done through reducing voids. ‫الدمك: هو طريقة بسيطة لتحسين خواص التربة حيث يتم زيادة كثافتها‬ ‫باستخدام جهد دمك خارجى. وزيادة الكثافة يتم عن طريق تقليل حجم‬Compactive .‫الفراغات‬effort + water = Soil Compaction 04/05/12 4
  • 5. ?What is compactionThe object of compaction is to improve the properties of the soil that is used as sub grade material for roads, fills of dams, embankments or under shallow foundations. ‫يهدف الدمك إلى تحسين خواص التربة المستخدمة فى‬ ‫كطبقة أساس فى الطرق والمواد المستخدمة فى‬ ‫السدود والجسور وكتربة إحلل أسفل الساسات‬ .‫السطحية‬ Soil Compaction 04/05/12 5
  • 6. Purpose of Compaction? The compaction of soils and fills will result in improving the shear strength and reduce permeability and settlements. ‫ يهدف الدمك لتحسين مقاومة القص وتقليل النفاذية‬ ‫والهبوط‬ Field compaction of soil is assessed in terms of the dry density of the soil, which is the weight of soil solids per unit bulk volume. ‫ يتم تقييم الدمك الحقلى باستخدام قيمة وزن وحدة‬ 04/05/12 .‫الحجوم الجاف‬ Soil Compaction 6
  • 7. Relationship between γ dry and γ bulk Ww wc = Wd air Ww + Wd W 1 + wc = = water ww wc Wd WdV W soil Wd = wd 1 1 + wc Wd W γb γd = = = V ( 1 + wc )V 1 + wc Soil Compaction 04/05/12 7
  • 8. Laboratory Compaction Test- To obtain the compaction curve and definethe optimum water content and maximum drydensity for a specific compactive effort. ‫-يتم إجراء الختبار لتحديد محتوى المياه المثل‬ .‫وأقصى كثافة جافة وذلك تحت تأثير جهد دمك محدد‬ Soil Compaction04/05/12 8
  • 9. Standard Proctor Compaction Test  The standard was originally developed to simulate field compaction in the lab, for small and medium loads.  Standard Proctor ‫اختبار بروكتور القياسى‬  Mold: 945 (1000 cm3) or 1/30 ft3 ‫حجم القالب‬  Hammer: 2.50 Kg or 5.50 lb hammer ‫ وزن المطرقة 05.2 كجم‬  Drop Height = 30 cm or 12” ‫ارتفاع السقوط03 سم‬  No. of Soil Layers = 3 ‫عدد الطبقات3 طبقات‬  No. of Blows = 25 layer 25 ‫ضربة لكل طبقة‬ Soil Compaction04/05/12 9
  • 10. Modified Proctor Test  The modified was developed to simulate larger compaction effort for more serious loads and bigger equipment  Modified Proctor ‫اختبار بروكتور المعدل‬  Mold: 945 (1000 cm3) or 1/30 ft3  Hammer: 4.50 Kg or 10 lb hammer ‫ وزن المطرقة = 05.4 كجم‬  Drop Height = 45 cm or 18” ‫ارتفاع السقوط54 سم‬  No. of Soil Layers = 5 ‫عدد الطبقات5 طبقات‬  No. of Blows = 25 layer ‫عدد الضربات52 ضربة‬ Soil Compaction04/05/12 10
  • 11. Specification for Field Compaction Relative to what?  Proctor Test – standard or modified % Relative Compaction ‫نسبة الدمك‬ γ d ( field ) R( %) = × 100 R ~ (95 – 100%) γ d max ( lab ) If R > 95%, the compaction is accepted in most cases. ‫أكبر من59% ناجحة‬ R > 98% could be required in some cases. R > 100% could be reached. .‫ ممكن أن تزيد نسبة الدمك عن 001% فى بعض الحالت‬ Soil Compaction04/05/12 11
  • 12. Zero Air Voids Line γd max Modified Proctor TestDry Density, γ d γd max Standard Proctor Test Rock Breaker O.M.C O.M.C Water Content, wc Soil Compaction04/05/12 12
  • 13. Required Equipment Add pre-measured amounts and tools of water to soil sample Soil Compaction04/05/12 13
  • 14. Mix Sample thoroughly Put mixed soil in mold in 3 layers (Standard Proctor) Soil Compaction04/05/12 14
  • 15. Modified Proctor Test Soil Compaction04/05/12 15
  • 16. Compact each layer using Remove collar and trim Rammer, 25 blows per layer the top Soil Compaction04/05/12 16
  • 17. Weigh mold and sample Soil Compaction04/05/12 17
  • 18. Take Samples for wc Extrude the sample determination Soil Compaction04/05/12 18
  • 19. Field CompactionHand Held Vibrating Plates  for compacting very small areas  effective for granular soils Soil Compaction 04/05/12 19
  • 20. Vibratory RollerFor very thin lifts and small areas Soil Compaction 04/05/12 20
  • 21. Smooth-wheel roller Compacts effectively only to 200-300 mm; therefore, place the soil in shallow layers (lifts) Soil Compaction04/05/12 21
  • 22. Pneumatic Rubber Tired Roller Soil Compaction04/05/12 22
  • 23. Sheep foot Roller Provides kneading action; “walks out” after compaction Very effective on clays Soil Compaction 04/05/12 23
  • 24. Impact Roller Provides deeper (2-3m) compaction. e.g., air field Soil Compaction 04/05/12 24
  • 25. FIELD COMPACTION TESTS 1- Sand Cone Test. .‫ 1- اختبار المخروط الرملى‬ 2- Rubble Balloon Test. .‫ 2- اختبار البالون المطاطى‬ 3- Nuclear Test. .‫ 3- اختبار بالطرق النووية‬ Soil Compaction 04/05/12 25
  • 26. Sand Cone Test ‫اختبار المخروط الرملى‬ Performed in the Field. .‫ اختبار للدمك يجرى فى الموقع‬ Using sand cone and uniform (standard) sand. .‫ يتم باستخدام جهاز المخروط والرمل القياسى‬ Uniform sand: Passing through sieve No. 20 and retained on No. 40 20 ‫ رمل منتظم الحبيبات هو المار من منخل رقم‬ .40 ‫والمحجوز على منخل رقم‬ Soil Compaction04/05/12 26
  • 27. Field Measurement of Compaction Sand Cone ‫المخروط الرملى‬ W V γd,field = W / V Soil Compaction04/05/12 27
  • 28. Measurement of Field Compaction Most common methods are  Nuclear Method  Sand Cone method  Rubber Balloon method Soil Compaction 04/05/12 28
  • 29. Modified Proctor Test Rock Breaker Soil Compaction04/05/12 29
  • 30. Rock Breaker Soil Compaction04/05/12 30
  • 31. Rock Breaker Soil Compaction04/05/12 31
  • 32. Rock Breaker Soil Compaction04/05/12 32
  • 33. Rock Breaker Soil Compaction04/05/12 33
  • 34. Rock Breaker Soil Compaction04/05/12 34
  • 35. Rock Breaker Soil Compaction04/05/12 35
  • 36. Rock Breaker Soil Compaction04/05/12 36
  • 37. Rock Breaker Soil Compaction04/05/12 37
  • 38. Rock Breaker Soil Compaction04/05/12 38
  • 39. Rock Breaker Soil Compaction04/05/12 39
  • 40. Soil Compaction04/05/12 40

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