Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Qo s provisioning for scalable video streaming over ad hoc networks using cross-layer design

1,169

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,169
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
70
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • Open System Interconection
  • In some cases, the node or the network cannot support the uncompressed video stream. Also, video compression enables a more efficient use of transmission resources.
  • Network with heterogeneous clients.
  • Medium Grain Scalability (MGS): it increases the efficiency by using a flexible prediction module, where all layers can be referenced.
  • The transmitted power is the power that is transmitted from the antenna into space.The receiver threshold is the parameter used to specify the communication range of the wireless nodes and the threshold is the minimal power of the packet required for successful reception.The carrier sensing threshold describes the sensing range of a node.The two-ray ground model considers the received power from both the direct path and a ground reflection path.
  • Encoder can be used for generating SVC bit-stream.-pf: specifies the name of the config file to be used.BitStreamExtractor to generate the original NALU trace file.-pt: generates a packet trace file from the given stream.NALU: Network Abstraction Layer Unit.rec.yuv: Specifies the filename of the coded and reconstructed input sequence for the layer. This sequence is provided for debugging purposes.
  • nalufiltertool to filter the NAL units that have unsatisfied dependencies and emulate a play-out buffer, dropping NAL units that were received too late.nalufilter<sent stream trace file> <received trace file> <play out buffer in milliseconds> <frames per second> > <filtered trace file>
  • The current version of JSVM cannot decode video streams affected by out of order, corrupted, or missing NALUs.<bytes per frame>: length in bytes of each YUV frame, obtained from width*height*1.5.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Computer and Information Sciences Computer Engineering DepartmentQoS Provisioning for Scalable Video Streaming Over Ad-Hoc Networks Using Cross-Layer Design 1
    • 2.  Multi-hop Wireless Networks. Quality of Service (QoS). Cross-layer Design. Scalable Video Coding. Simulation Environment. Proposed Solution. Results and Findings. Future Works. Publications from this Thesis. 2
    • 3. 3
    • 4. Multi-hop Wireless Networks (MHWNs):It is defined as a collection of nodes that communicate with eachother wirelessly by using radio signals with a shared commonchannel. Source Destination Hop Path, chain or route Host Switching Unit 4
    • 5.  There are several names for MHWNs; it could be called packet radio network, Ad-Hoc network or mobile network. The nodes here could be named stations or radio transmitters and receivers. MHWNs Ad-Hoc  Networks Mesh Networks Wireless Sensor Networks 5
    • 6. Ad-Hoc Networks: Nodes in the network are mobile in general. The wireless hosts in such networks, communicate with each other without the existing of a fixed infrastructure and without a central control. A mobile ad-hoc network can be connected to other fixed networks or to the Internet. Most of the Ad-Hoc networks use the allocated frequencies for the Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band. 6
    • 7. Ad-hoc networks have several advantages over the traditionalnetworks, like: Ad-hoc networks can have more flexibility. It is better in mobility. It can be turn up and turn down in a very short time. It can be more economical. It considered a robust network because of its non-hierarchical distributed control and management mechanisms. 7
    • 8. The main challenges face the Ad-Hoc networks are the following: Energy conservation: Nodes in Ad-Hoc networks are equipped with limited batteries. Unstructured and/or time-varying network topology: Because of the nodes mobility, that makes the network topology usually unstructured and makes the optimizing process a difficult task. Scalability & heterogeneity: In some cases, there will be a huge number of nodes. 8
    • 9.  Low-quality communications: In general, the wireless channel is weak, unreliable, unprotected from outside interferences, and the quality of the network can be affected by the environmental factors. Resource-constrained computation: The resources in Ad-Hoc networks “such as network bandwidth” are available in limited amounts. Ease of snooping on wireless transmissions (security hazard). 9
    • 10. In addition to that, Ad-Hoc networks inherit some of the issueswhich are faced by the traditional wireless networks, like: There are no known boundaries for the maximum range that nodes will be able to receive network frames. The wireless channel has time-varying and asymmetric propagation properties. Hidden-node and exposed-node problems may occur. COLLISION Blocked By The Transmitter Receiver Transmitter Exposed NodeSender 1 Receiver Sender 2 10
    • 11. Applications of Ad-Hoc Networks :Source Sink 11
    • 12. 12
    • 13.  ZigBee is a new standard for the ad-hoc networks based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. The ZigBee standard is a specification for Low Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs) that are formed and maintained under the ZigBee working alliance. 13
    • 14. Application Layer Slotted (beacon enabled mode) Defined in the ZigBee SpecificationBased on CSMA/CA Network Layer Un-Slotted (beaconless mode) MAC Sub-Layer  Based on DSSS Defined in the IEEE 802.15.4 Standard Physical Layer  Data rate for each channel is 250 kbpsThree physical layers:• 2.4 GHz• 915 MHz• 868 MHz 14
    • 15. 15
    • 16. Ad-Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV): The AODV routing protocol is based on the Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV) algorithm. It can minimize the number of required broadcasts by creating routes in on-demand basis. It is considered as a pure on-demand route acquisition system. 16
    • 17. Route Discovery Process in AODV: Last Sequence RREQ Number for the Destination Destination RREQ RREQSource RREQ The intermediate nodes reply to the Broadcast ID RREQ only if they have a route to the destination with a sequence number* Route Request (RREQ) equal or greater than the one included Node’s IP Address in the RREQ. 17
    • 18. Route Discovery Process in AODV: Destination RREP RREPSource* Route Replay (RREP) 18
    • 19. The source node needs to reinitiate the route discovery protocol every time it moves.If any node in the route moves away, its upstream neighbor propagates a link failure notification message (RREP with ∞ metric).Nodes in AODV use hello messages to inform about their neighbors in the network, and for maintaining the connectivity of nodes. 19
    • 20. 20
    • 21.  In general, QoS is defined as a measure of how well the network performs its tasks and satisfies the users’ requirements. QoS represents the set of parameters which should be implemented in the network infrastructure to meet the service performance requirements. Performance Parameters Throughput Delay Jitter Packet Loss Availability Transmission Propagation Queuing Processing 21
    • 22.  The QoS requirements can be differ based on the provided service. Transferring a file Multimedia Streaming There are another important problems in Ad-Hoc network when providing QoS such as routing, maintenance and variable resource problems . 22
    • 23.  The QoS in multi-hop network can be classified based on the QoS approaches or based on the layer at which nodes operate in the network protocol stack. QoS QoS Approaches Approaches Coupled Decoupled Independent Dependent 23
    • 24. 24
    • 25.  In the early stage of the multi-hop wireless Application networks, the network protocol design was Presentation based on the layered architecture. Session The main feature of this approach was the Transport simplicity of the protocol design. Network However, this approach was not ideal for the Data Link multi-hop wireless networks, because of its inflexibility which result in poor performance. Physical OSI Model 25
    • 26.  In the layered architectures, the Layer 3 Task 3 networking task will be divided and Layer 2 Task 2 distributed among layers, and each layer will be assigned to provide certain services. Layer 1 Task 1 The communication between nonadjacent Layer 3 layers is forbidden, while the adjacent layers can only communicate procedure Layer 2 calls and responses. Layer 1 Protocols in the layered architecture are designed by respecting the rules of the reference architecture. 26
    • 27.  The cross-layer design can be defined as a protocol design by the violation of the reference layered communication architecture with respect to a certain layered architecture. The violation of a layered architecture can be done in many different ways. After the violation of the layered architecture, the layers will be no longer separated. 27
    • 28. Categories of cross-layer designs: HintsNotifications Interface to set a lower layerInterface for parameter explicit notification from a lower layer Upward Downward Back-and-forth to higher information flow information flow information flow layer 1 Creation of New Interfaces 28
    • 29. Categories of cross-layer designs: Designed layer Fixed layerSuperlayer Merging of Coupling without Vertical 2 3 4 adjacent layers new interfaces calibration 29
    • 30.  Based on the number of layers involved in optimizations (single, multiple or full), the cross-layer design can be categorized to three types: • Layer trigger scheme. • Joint optimization scheme. • Full cross-layer design. 30
    • 31. QoS Support With Cross-layer Design: Network Status Transport Layer Traffic Volume Rate Control Congestion Control Network Layer Admission Control Routing Flow Distribution MAC Layer Scheduling Channel Assignment Space and Time Physical Layer Modulation / Rate Ideas Power Control Adaptation Network Topology 31
    • 32. 32
    • 33.  The video stream consists of multiple frames that are displayed in a certain frame rate. The size of the frames is specified by the format of the frame. Y U V Luminance Component Two chrominance components, hue Intensity Format Video Resolution (in pixels) Size Used in This Thesis Quarter CIF (QCIF) 96 × 80 176 × 144  Common Intermediate Format (CIF) 352 × 288 33
    • 34.  The constraints on the multimedia applications can be different from one device to another. This issue, is one of the reasons which makes the video compression plays a major role in video transmission nowadays. The main goal of the video compression algorithms is to achieve an optimal compression while maintaining a low level of distortion from the compression process. 34
    • 35.  Video compression or what is known as video coding is the process of compacting a digital video signal into a fewer number of bits. Compression Process Compressor De-compressor (Encoder) (Decoder) The reduction of the video size by the compression process is achieved by removing redundancy (unnecessary components for reproduction process). 35
    • 36. Residual Temporal Frames Spatial CoefficientsvideoInput Model Model Stored Entropy Encoded Motion Vectors Frames Encoder Output Video Coding 36
    • 37.  Scalability means it is possible to remove some parts of the stream while maintaining a result that forms another valid bit stream for some target decoder, and represents the original content with a reconstruction quality that is less than the original bit stream. It allows recipients, and other network elements, to adjust the video stream according to their capabilities. It can help in protecting the more important parts of the bit stream from being dropped or lost in case of congestion. 37
    • 38. Scalability ModesTemporal Spatial  Quality / SNR 38
    • 39. Quality scalability: The quality scalability a.k.a. "SNR scalability" is similar to the spatial scalability but without changing of resolution between layers. Quality Scalability Coarse Grain Scalability Medium Grain Scalability  Fine Grain Scalability 39
    • 40. Scalable Video Coding (SVC) is an encoding technique that allows adapting to the variable network conditions. It has been standardized by the Joint Video Team (JVT) of the ISO/IEC Moving Pictures Experts Group (MPEG) and the ITU-T Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG) as an extension for the H.264/AVC standard. 40
    • 41. 41
    • 42. Tools Used in This Thesis: Network Simulator 2: It is an open source object oriented discrete-event simulator. It is written in C++, and it uses Object Tool Command Language (OTcl) as a command and configuration interface. Network Scenario 42
    • 43.  Joint Scalable Video Model (JSVM): It is an open source project written in C++ and used as the reference software for the Scalable Video Coding (SVC) project. Scalable Video-streaming Evaluation Framework (SVEF): It is a mixed online/offline open-source framework used to evaluate the performance of H.264/SVC video streaming. SVEF is written in C and Python and released under the GNU General Public License. 43
    • 44.  myEvalSVC & myEvalSVC_Sink: They are a customized agents used to evaluate H.264/SVC transmission over NS2 simulator. Cygwin: It is software provides Linux look and feel environment for Microsoft Windows. Visual C++ 2008 Express Edition: Microsoft Visual C++ is an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) product from Microsoft for the C, C++, and C++/CLI programming languages. 44
    • 45. Simulation Parameters: Parameter Used Value Network Queue Number Dimensions Transmitted SignalFactor (Gt) CarrierRoutingofType Type(Pt_) AntennaPropagation Model Transmit Data ofSize Size (CS) Radio ChannelDuration Z_) Network Interface Type Interface LossNodes Max Fragmented Y_, Operating Protocol SimulationRateGain System Frequency Number Threshold Antenna Model Sensing Sources Traffic Type Location (X_, Queue Power Antenna DropTwo80802.15.4m Scalable3,×dBi (SVC) 20000.0012000Queue m0, 2s WirelessKbps OmniPriority Tail2.4Bytes IEEEAODV (0, 1,GHz 250Antenna 50, 20w Ray100 1.0 Channel -1000.5) 1.0 Video Ground Receive MAC TypeFOREMAN Antenna Gain (Gr)YUV VideoReceiver Threshold (RX) Sequence Z YUV Video Sequence802.15.4 BUS IEEE dBi 1.0 Number of Frames 150 Number of Frames 150 Frame Rate 15 fps Frame Rate 15 fpsResolution (in pixels) 96 × 80 MAX Resolution (in pixels) 96 × 80 Y X 45
    • 46. Preparing Input Trace • YUV Video • Main Configuration File 1 • Layer Configuration File JSVM 9.19.14 Decoder ---------- new ACCESS UNIT Length LId TId QId Packet-Type GENERAL ======================================= Start-Pos. #============================== ---------- Discardable Truncatable ========== ====== 24] OutputFile JSVM Encoder NON-VCL: SEI NAL UNIT [message(s): === === === ============ =========== =========== Bitstream.264 # Bitstream file (Specifies the filename 0x00000000 PARAMETER SET (ID=0) (ID=0) 0 StreamHeader NON-VCL: SEQUENCE NON-VCL: SUBSET SEQUENCE57 (H264AVCEncoderLibTestStatic) PARAMETER SET 0 0 No No # for the bit-stream to be encoded) 0x00000039PARAMETER SET (ID=0) NON-VCL: PICTURE 12 FrameRate 0 0 0 ParameterSet 15.0 No # Maximum frame rateNo [Hz] 0x00000045PARAMETER SET (ID=1) NON-VCL: PICTURE 8 10]0 #MaxDelay NON-VCL: SEI NAL UNIT [message(s): 0 0 ParameterSet 1200.0 No No # Maximum structural delay [ms] 0x0000004d 0, QL 0, 18 BId-1,0 0, QP 32 ) 0 SliceData Frame 0 ( LId 0, TL AVC-I, AP FramesToBeEncoded 0 150 No No # Number of frames (at input frame rate) Frame 0 ( LId 0, TL 0, QL 1, SVC-I, BId 0, AP 0, QP 32 ) .Frame .0.( LId.0, TL . .QL 2, SVC-I, BId 1, AP.0, QP.32 ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0, . . . . . . . . . . . . ReconFile Original # (Specifies the number of frames of the Frame 0 ( LId 0, TL 0, QL 3, SVC-I, BId 2, AP 0, QP 32 ) Encoding Process rec.yuv ........................................ Bitstream.264 # input sequence to be encoded) encoding.txt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... Reconstructed file JSVM 9.19.14 Encoder Info: MaxDeltaQP was set to 0 for layer with MGSVectorMode #====================== INPUT / OUTPUT ========================================= JSVM Decoder profile & level info: JSVM BitStreamExtractor ===================== SourceWidth 96 # Input frame width (H264AVCDecoderLibTestStatic) DQ= 0: Main @ Level 1 SourceHeight 80 (BitStreamExtractorStatic) # Input frame height DQ= 1: Scalable High Intra @ Level 1 DQ= 2: Scalable High Intra @ FrameRateIn Level 1 15 # Input frame rate [Hz] DQ= 3: Scalable High Intra @ Level 1 AU 0: I T0 L0 Q0 QP 32 Y 33.6156 U 39.4929 V FrameRateOut 39.9656156032 bit # Output frame rate [Hz] 0: I T0 L0 Q1 QP 32 InputFile 240 bit FOREMAN_96x80_15.yuv # Input file Decoding 0: I T0 L0 Q2 QP 32 Reconstructed 200 bit 0: I T0 L0 Q3 QP 32 Y 33.6427 U 39.4929 V 40.0422 rec_layer.yuv #ReconFile NALUReconstructed file 176 bit # Trace File Process Video Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .#SymbolMode ............. 0 # 0=CAVLC, 1=CABAC originaltrace.txt decoding.txt. . . . . . . Bitstream.yuv. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .............. 46
    • 47. Preparing Input Frame Trace Decoding Process Frame NALU Trace File decoding.txt Originaltrace.txt 2 Time Size LId TId QId Number 0.000000 787 0 0 0 0 0.033333 240 0 0 0 2 0.066667 275 0 F-N Stamp 0 0 3 0.100000 244 0 0 (f-nstamp) 0 4 0.133333 262 0 0 0 5 0.166667 283 0 0 0 6 0.200000 303 0 0 0 7 ................................................................ sendingtrace.txt Frame Sending Number Time 0x00000000 57 0 0 0 StreamHeader No No -1 0 0x00000039 12 0 0 0 ParameterSet No No -1 0 0x00000045 8 0 0 0 ParameterSet No No -1 0 NS2_Trace.awk 0x0000004d 18 0 0 0 SliceData No No 0 0 0x0000005f 745 0 0 0 SliceData No No 0 0 ........................................................... NS2_Trace.txt 47
    • 48. NS2_Trace.txt Simulation Flow VideoTrace Application myEvalSVC myEvalSVC_Sink Application Transport UDP UDP Transport Network AODV AODV Network Logical Link Control Logical Link Control PriQueue / PriQueue / Interface Queue Interface Queue MyPriQueue MyPriQueueMedium Access Control IEEE 802.15.4 IEEE 802.15.4 Medium Access Control Network Interface Network Interface Physical IEEE 802.15.4 IEEE 802.15.4 Physical SimulatedSource Network Sink 48 Node Node
    • 49. Receive Frame Frame Time Size LId TId QId NumberReconstructing Video 40.558194 787 0 NS20Simulator 0 0 40.575762 240 0 LRWPAN.tcl 0 0 2 1 40.597426 275 0 0 0 3 40.620082 244 0 0 0 4 40.655271 262 0 0 0 5 40.687997 283 0 0 0 6 ................................................................ Simulation Trace Output Video Trace videoTrace.dat ReceiveFrame LRWPAN.tr Packet VideoTrace Packet Sending Time Number Size LId TId QId ID Time 40.097163 0 100 0 0 0 0 40.000000 40.104203 0 100 Prepare_ReceivedTrace_Step1.awk 2 0 0 0 40.000000 40.109964 0 100 0 0 0 1 40.000000 40.139287 0 100 0 0 0 6 40.000000 40.145175 0 74 0 0 1 10 40.033333 40.151256 0 100 0 0 0 3 40.000000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SVEF Format. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............ NS2_Trace.txt sendingtrace.txt NS2_VideoTrace Prepare_ReceivedTrace_Step2.exe 49
    • 50. Start-Pos. Length LId TId QId Packet-Type Discardable Truncatable ========== ====== === === === ============ =========== =========== 0x00000000 57 0 0 0 StreamHeader No No -1 0Reconstructing Video 0x00000039 0x00000045 12 8 0 0 0 0 ParameterSet No 0 Prepare_ReceivedTrace_Step2.exe 0 ParameterSet No No No -1 -1 0 0 0x0000004d 18 0 0 0 SliceData No No 0 40558 2 0x0000005f 745 0 0 0 SliceData No No 0 40558 0x00000348 18 0 0 0 SliceData No No 2 40575 0x0000035a 198 0 0 0 SliceData No No 2 40575 .................................................................................... Start Frame Packet- received.txt Frame Sending sendingtrace.txt Position Size LId TId Id Type Q Discardable Number Truncatable Time 0x0000004d 18 0 0 0 SliceData No No 0 40558 0x0000005f 745 0 0 0 SliceData No No 0 40558 0x00000348 18 0 0 0 SliceData nalufilter No SVEF No 2 40575 0x0000035a 198 0 0 0 SliceData No No 2 40575 0x00000420 18 0 0 0 SliceData No No 3 40597 0x00000432 233 0 0 0 SliceData No No 3 40597 ........................................................... Original filteredtrace.txt Bitstream.264 Video JSVM BitStreamExtractor (BitStreamExtractorStatic) 50
    • 51. Reconstructing Video JSVM BitStreamExtractor (BitStreamExtractorStatic) 3 Bitstream-filter.264 JSVM Decoder (H264AVCDecoderLibTestStatic) filteredtrace.txt Bitstream-filter.yuv SVEF framefilter Bitstream-conceal.yuv 51
    • 52. 52
    • 53. 1) Reducing the total number of the dropped base frames.2) Reducing the total number of useless enhancement frames. Goals3) Giving the base frame a high Simplicity priority when network is congested. Efficiency4) Reducing the average delay as much as possible. Creative5) Maintaining an acceptable jitter value.6) Balancing between the simplicity of the design and the performance.7) Maintain the layering principle as much as possible. 53
    • 54. Proposed Cross Layer Design Framework: Application Transport Qid Value Network Queue Length Logical Link Control Interface Queue NB Medium Access Control Network Interface Physical 54
    • 55. 55
    • 56. 56
    • 57. In Simulation Scenarios, the following points have beenconsidered: Evaluating the proposed design on stressed networks. Study the effect of queue size on the proposed solution. Evaluate the proposed design with different movement scenarios. Evaluate the proposed design with different number of nodes. Evaluate the proposed design with different number of senders. 57
    • 58. Acronyms and Notations: PriQueue: represent the results for the original system. MyPriQueue: represent the results when the proposed design is applied. Qid0: Base frames. Qid1: First enhancement frames. Qid2: Second enhancement frames. Qid3: Third enhancement frames. UQid: Useless enhancement frames. 58
    • 59. Scenario Number 1 Queue Size: 50 Source #1 Average Delay Average Jitter Source #2 140 0.04 0.4 250 120 0.035 0.35 200 100 0.03 0.3 150Frame Frame 80 0.025 0.25 Second 60 0.02 0.2 100 40 0.015 0.15 50 20 0.01 0.1 0 0 Qid0 Qid1 Qid20.005 Qid3 0.05 UQid Qid0 Qid1 Qid2 Qid3 UQid PriQueue 0 PriQueue 95 123 129 131 98 Source #1 63 Source #2 123 135 134 203 MyPriQeue 115 54 57 PriQueue 55 19 MyPriQeue 71 38 38 40 13 0.014063 0.30944 0.013992 0.343158 MyPriQeue 0.034645 0.151166 0.023712 0.119075 59
    • 60. ‹#›
    • 61. ‹#›
    • 62. Scenario Number 4 Queue Size: 100 Source #1 Average Delay Average Jitter Source #2 140 0.08 0.7 200 120 0.07 0.6 100 150 0.06 0.5Frame Frame 80 0.05 100 Second 60 0.4 0.04 40 0.3 50 0.03 20 0.2 0.02 0 0.1 0 Qid0 Qid1 Qid2 0.01 Qid3 UQid Qid0 Qid1 Qid2 Qid3 UQid PriQueue 0 PriQueue 116 123 123 124 22 Source #1 65 Source #2 117 126 129 177 MyPriQeue 128 53 53 PriQueue 52 11 MyPriQeue 91 39 39 39 1 0.393313 0.015325 0.660945 0.014242 MyPriQeue 0.364533 0.075983 0.303327 0.05812 62
    • 63. Queue Size: 100Scenario Number 5 Source #1 1.02 0.3 250 1 0.25 200 0.98 0.2 Second 0.96 150 0.15 Frame 0.94 0.1 100 0.92 0.05 0.9 50 0.88 0 Avg. Delay Avg. Jitter 0 PriQueue Qid1 Qid0 1.000154 0.016284 Qid2 Qid3 UQid PriQueue MyPriQueue 60 138 0.925155 0.24894 139 139 236 MyPriQeue 135 30 32 42 23 63
    • 64. Scenario Number 6 Queue Size: 50 Source #1 Average Delay Average Jitter Source #2 160 0.03 0.4 350 140 0.35 0.025 300 120 0.3 250 100 0.02 Frame 0.25 200Frame Second 80 150 0.015 0.2 60 0.15 100 40 0.01 20 0.1 50 0 0.005 0.05 0 Qid0 Qid1 Qid2 Qid3 UQid Qid0 Qid1 Qid2 Qid3 UQid 0 PriQueue 79 117 127 129 Source #1 139 PriQueue Source #245 135 145 146 291 MyPriQeue 94 65 PriQueue 74 76 44 0.014765 0.325783 MyPriQeue 0.013909 62 0.373802 40 41 42 7 MyPriQeue 0.019755 0.138468 0.027152 0.139372 64
    • 65. Notes and discussion Number of Number of Queue Size Movement Number of Base Average DelayScenario Nodes Senders (Packet) Pattern frame Saved Reduced (Sec) 1 3 2 50 Fixed 28 0.382357 2 20 1 50 Fixed 57 0.066058 3 20 2 50 Fixed 39 1.22527 4 3 2 100 Fixed 38 0.386398 5 20 1 100 Fixed 75 0.074999 6 20 2 50 Mobile 32 0.421745 65
    • 66. 66
    • 67. Some of the interesting open issues and future work for thisthesis: Deploying the proposed framework in a real environment. Consider the noise in the design and in the evaluation process. Prevent the useless frames from being sent. Find a way to reduce the effect of the proposed design on the average jitter. Increase the number of simultaneous senders while maintaining good video quality. 67
    • 68. 68
    • 69. Conference: International Conference on WirelessCommunications, Networking and Mobile Computing Paper Title:QoS Provisioning for H.264/SVC Streams over Ad-Hoc ZigBee Networks using Cross-Layer Design Founded by:King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology under grant number ARB-29-54 69
    • 70. 70

    ×