Vocational education & training


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Vocational education & training

  1. 1. Vocational Education & Training<br />Are students prepared for information fluency?<br />MersiniMoreleli-Cacouris<br />Dept. of Library Science and Information Systems<br />Alexander TEI of Thessaloniki, Greece<br />
  2. 2. Education-Goals<br /><ul><li>The preparation of independent individuals, who can
  3. 3. think critically and creatively
  4. 4. act as informed and responsible professionals and citizens
  5. 5. develop their aesthetic awareness
  6. 6. The acquisition of knowledge and skills, that will enable them to:
  7. 7. to adopt and apply them to any environment
  8. 8. to enhance them continuously
  9. 9. The development of a lifelong relationship with learning</li></li></ul><li> “… [any academic institution’s] purpose is not to transfer knowledge but to create environments and experiences that bring students to discover and construct knowledge for themselves, to make students members of communities of learners that make discoveries and solve problems. The college aims, in fact, to create a series of ever more powerful learning environments” (Barr & Tagg, 1995)<br />Education<br />
  10. 10. “Critical thinking is not a new concept or concern in academic institutions. On the contrary, it has long been a major objective of higher education. However, the need to "cover the subject" has assumed precedence for some instructors, and many concentrate more on delivering facts and subject content than on instilling methodological or analytical skills. With a virtually unmanageable but still growing level of information now available on most topics, it is time for students to return to the most important aspect of learning: mastering thinking skills requisite to proper use of the information at their disposal.” (Engeldinger, 1988)<br />Education<br />
  11. 11. Vocational Education & Training<br />
  12. 12. Variations in terminology<br />
  13. 13. Vocational education and training<br /> Aimed at imparting skills for the labor market, at a sub-professional level<br /> Most diverse education sector, delivered in both the classroom and the workplace, and organized in a variety of ways internationally <br /> A cornerstone is the apprenticeship – combining formal education with on-the-job experience – but also delivered in schools and tertiary educational institutions (Karmel, 2010, p. 229)<br />
  14. 14. Vocational education and training<br /> Institutional arrangements of vocational education complex <br /> (with industry playing an important role) <br /> Approach to teaching and learning distinctive (and contested) <br /> Expectations by the community demanding, with it being seen as the <br /> education sector best positioned to deal with social disadvantage and <br /> addressing issues of equity in many countries (VET offering second-<br /> chance education)<br /> The VET sector is the least understood and most poorly defined <br /> education sector, facing also a status and image problem<br />
  15. 15. … for far too long, Career and Technical Education has been the neglected stepchild of education reform. That neglect has to stop<br /> … the need to re-imagine and remake career and technical education is urgent <br /> CTE has an enormous, if often overlooked impact on students, school systems, and our ability to prosper as a nation(Duncan, 2011) <br />Vocational education and training<br />
  16. 16. Education Ministers of 31 European countries adopted the Copenhagen Declaration on enhanced European cooperation in vocational education and training (2002)<br /> The Declaration (now known as the ‘Copenhagen Process’) gives a mandate to the European Commission to develop concrete actions in the fields of transparency, recognition and quality in vocational education and training (McBride, 2005)<br />The EU and VET<br />
  17. 17. Explicit interest and investment in improving VET in the member states<br />Emphasis on dual role of VET<br />support of economic growth<br /> promotion of social cohesion by improving the employment and career prospects of everyone, from the most highly skilled to those with low levels of qualification(Bridge, 2010)<br />The EU and VET<br />
  18. 18. Problems with quality of VET<br />Diversity in responsibility for VET development, management and policy strategies at the national level<br />EU Initiative to act as the coordinator of national initiatives and provide a comprehensive and convergent view, to complement and support national policies<br /> The EU and VET<br />
  19. 19. The EU and VET<br />Demand for new skills <br />Existing knowledge and competencies to be<br />Widened<br />Complemented through VET programs<br />Upgraded <br />
  20. 20. EU and VET—Bridge to the Future<br />A Cedefop publication <br />A policy report evaluating progress achieved in European policy-making in the field since the beginning of the Copenhagen process<br />Projects into the future how the new policy framework, Europe 2020, will underpin continuing reform in vocational education and training and lifelong learning in the next decade<br />
  21. 21. Characteristics of Programs of Information Literacy that Illustrate Best Practices<br />Category 1: Mission<br />Category 2: Goals and Objectives<br />Category 3: Planning<br />Category 4: Administrative and Institutional Support<br />Category 5: Articulation with the Curriculum<br />Category 6: Collaboration<br />Category 7: Pedagogy<br />Category 8: Staffing<br />Category 9: Outreach<br />Category 10: Assessment/Evaluation (ACRL. Best practices, 2003)<br />
  22. 22. A. Institutional/Strategic Planning<br /> Documentation and policy issues<br /> B. Operational/Administrative Planning<br /> Leadership, Cooperation, Financial, Curricular, Marketing issues<br /> C. Implementation/Curriculum Planning and Development<br /> Information Literacy Programs, Staff involved, Assessment and evaluation methods (CAUL, 2004)<br />Best Practice Characteristics for Developing Information Literacy in Australian Universities: a guideline<br />
  23. 23. OECD reviews the ways education supports integration of young people into the labor market<br />Need for more and better data on the structure of VET in various countries<br />Need for identification of “best practices”, i.e. models of where VET systems and the labor market work together to meet needs of students and employers (Gurría, 2007) <br />Comparisons of VET systems <br />
  24. 24. Ensure a Variety of Skills for Innovation <br />Combine technical skills with problem-solving capabilities and communication and management skills <br />Ensure that all TEIs focus on providing their students with flexible and transferable skills and competencies (OECD, for the knowledge society, 2011)<br />
  25. 25. Explore the potential of a National Qualifications Framework <br />Encourage employers to specify competencies for employment <br />Encourage educational institutions to design programs to develop these competencies in students <br />Ensure that students know what competencies they need in order to become employable <br />Set up a qualifications framework to make transfers across fields of study and institutions more flexible <br />Facilitate the assessment and recognition of prior learning <br />
  26. 26. Australia<br />In 1995 implementation of national framework for credit transfer between vocational and higher education systems<br />In March 2007, country’s elite institutions, signed a credit-transfer agreement permitting full transfer of credits among them <br />Great Britain<br />England<br />Credit-transfer arrangements in the form of regional articulation agreements involving just a few institutions <br />Scotland and Wales<br />Have nearly full credit-transferability within their borders <br />Transferability between vocational and higher-education systems-Examples, CCL<br />
  27. 27. New Zealand <br />Emphasis in credit-transferability has been to promote credit transfers within the higher-education system<br />USA<br />Flexibility and openness cornerstone of postsecondary education system <br />All states have tried to find ways to promote credit transfer between two- and four-year systems<br />Transferability across state lines or between public and private institutions (whether in- or out-of-state) largely conducted ad hoc<br />Transferability between vocational and higher-education systems-Examples<br />
  28. 28. Specific occupational skills needed - in professional, managerial and technical jobs, in expanding fields such as health care, as well as in traditional trades like electricians<br /> Two projects:<br />Learning for jobs—initial VET www.oecd.org/edu/learningforjobs <br />Skills beyond School— postsecondary level<br />(OECD. Policy reviews, 2010)<br />Policy Reviews of Vocational Education and Training (VET)<br />
  29. 29. Cross-country survey on adult skills (in 2011, results in 2013)<br />Identify current skills of the labor force, and establish a benchmark<br />Understand ways skills are acquired, enhanced or lost<br />Coverage of general competencies<br />Literacy<br /> Numeracy<br />Ability to solve problems in technology-rich environments<br />Will measure skills and competencies needed for individuals to participate in society and for economies to prosper <br />Will help governments better understand how education and training systems can nurture these skills (PIAAC, 2008)<br />Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC)<br />
  30. 30. Cross-country survey on adult skills (in 2011, results in 2013)<br />Identify current skills of the labor force, and establish a benchmark<br />Understand ways skills are acquired, enhanced or lost<br />Coverage of general competencies<br />Literacy<br /> Numeracy<br />Ability to solve problems in technology-rich environments<br />Will measure skills and competencies needed for individuals to participate in society and for economies to prosper <br />Will help governments better understand how education and training systems can nurture these skills (PIAAC, 2008)<br />Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC)<br />
  31. 31. Key competencies for LifeLong Learning<br /><ul><li>Communication in mother tongue
  32. 32. learning to learn
  33. 33. communication in foreign languages
  34. 34. social and civic competences
  35. 35. competences in maths, science, technology
  36. 36. sense of initiative and entrepreneurship
  37. 37. digital competencies
  38. 38. cultural awareness and expression (Bridge to the future, 2010)</li></li></ul><li>Computer literacy<br />Information Technology (IT)/ Electronic Information Literacy (EIT)<br />Library literacy <br />Media literacy <br />Network literacy/ Internet Literacy/ Hyper-Literacy<br /> Digital Literacy/ Digital Information Literacy (Bowden, 2001)<br />Skill based competencies<br />
  39. 39. The skills and abilities for location, critical reception, assessment <br /> and use of information and media in individuals’ professional and personal lives <br />Information literacy<br />
  40. 40. Information fluency<br />Information fluency is achieved when computing skills <br />are combined with a knowledge of information, including <br />its many forms and sources, and critical thinking skills <br />(Associated Colleges of the South, 2007)<br />
  41. 41. Information literacy   <br />Ability [of individuals] to define problems in terms of their information needs, and to apply a systematic approach to search, locate, apply, and synthesize the information and evaluate the entire process in terms of effectiveness and efficiency (Business dictionary, 2009)<br />
  42. 42. Information literate people will demonstrate an awareness of how they gather, use, manage, synthesize and create information and data in an ethical manner and will have the information skills to do so effectively (Sconul, 2011)<br />Information literate people<br />
  43. 43. ‘information literate people are those who have learned<br />how to learn because they know how knowledge is organized, <br />how to find information, and how to use information in a way <br />that others can learn from them’ (Ford, 1991)<br />Information literate people<br />
  44. 44. define information literacy within the higher literacies and its importance to student performance, lifelong learning, and active citizenship; <br />design one or more models for information literacy development appropriate to formal and informal learning environments throughout people's lifetimes; and <br />determine implications for the continuing education and development of teachers<br />The American Library Association's Presidential Committee on Information Literacy <br />
  45. 45. The American Library Association's Presidential Committee on Information Literacy <br />emergence of the InformationAge offers great challenges <br />information expanding at unprecedented rate, rapid strides in technology for storing, organizing, and accessing the ever growing tidal wave of information<br />…large components of which are only available to people with money and/or acceptable institutional affiliations <br /> shift in how we should teach and learn, how we should live and work in the 21st century<br />3Rs alone – reading, writing, and arithmetic – no longer represent basic literacy skills needed by all to achieve educational and workplace success in this new millennium (ALA Final report, 1989)<br />
  46. 46. The importance of Information Literacy<br />Need for information literacy skills great in today's work environment <br />Efforts to "manage" knowledge increasingly necessary to keep a strategic advantage within a global market <br />Business leaders calling for information literate workers (Breivik, 2005)<br />
  47. 47. Importance and applicability of Information Literacy<br /> Few executives yet know how to ask: <br />What information do I need to do my job? <br />When do I need it? <br />In what form? <br />And from whom should I be getting it?<br /> Fewer still ask: <br />What new tasks can I tackle now that I have all this data?<br />Which old tasks should I abandon?<br />Which tasks should I do differently? (Drucker, 1992)<br />
  48. 48. In ascending order of complexity <br />simple information skills – using a single information tool, e.g. a library catalog<br />compound information skills – combining simple information<br /> skills/tools, e.g. preparing a bibliography by searching several databases <br />complex/integrated information skills – making use of a variety of information networks, evaluating and repackaging information (Tuckett, 2001)<br />Levels of Information Literacy Skills Hierarchy<br />
  49. 49. International Initiatives<br />
  50. 50. The Alexandria Proclamation<br /> … recognizes information literacy as “a basic human right in the digital world” as it empowers individuals “in all walks of life to seek, evaluate, use and create information effectively to achieve their personal, social, occupational and educational goals”(Alexandria proclamation, 2005)<br />
  51. 51. The creation of an Information Society is key to social, cultural and economic development of nations and communities, institutions and individuals in the 21st century and beyond.<br />Information Literacy encompasses knowledge of one’s information concerns and needs, and the ability to identify, locate, evaluate, organize and effectively create, use and communicate information to address issues or problems at hand; it is a prerequisite for participating effectively in the Information Society, and is part of the basic human right of life long learning<br />Information Literacy, in conjunction with access to essential information and effective use of information and communication technologies, plays a leading role in reducing the inequities within and among countries and peoples, and in promoting tolerance and mutual understanding through information use in multicultural and multilingual contexts<br />The Prague DeclarationTowards an Information Literate Society<br />
  52. 52. The Prague DeclarationTowards an Information Literate Society<br />Governments should develop strong interdisciplinary programs to promote Information Literacy nationwide as a necessary step in closing the digital divide through the creation of an information literate citizenry, an effective civil society and a competitive workforce<br />Information Literacy is a concern to all sectors of society and should be tailored by each to its specific needs and context <br />Information Literacy should be an integral part of Education for All, which can contribute critically to the achievement of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals, and respect for the Universal Declaration of Human Rights<br />
  53. 53. National Initiatives<br />
  54. 54.
  55. 55. “Rather than merely possessing data, we must also learn the skills necessary to acquire, collate, and evaluate information for any situation<br /> This new type of literacy also requires competency with communication technologies, including computers and mobile devices that can help in our day-to-day decision making<br /> National Information Literacy Awareness Month highlights the need for all Americans to be adept in the skills necessary to effectively navigate the Information Age” (Obama, 2009)<br />National Information Literacy Awareness Month, 2009<br />
  56. 56. National Information Literacy Awareness Month, 2009<br /> “Over the past decade, we have seen a crisis of authenticity emerge. We now live in a world where anyone can publish an opinion or perspective, whether true or not, and have that opinion amplified within the information marketplace. At the same time, Americans have unprecedented access to the diverse and independent sources of information, as well as institutions such as libraries and universities, that can help separate truth from fiction and signal from noise” (Obama, 2009)<br />
  57. 57. National Information Literacy Awareness Month, 2009<br />NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim October 2009 as National Information Literacy Awareness Month. I call upon the people of the United States to recognize the important role information plays in our daily lives, and appreciate the need for a greater understanding of its impact<br />
  58. 58. Both Associations foster lifelong learning and take initiatives to ensure that students at all educational levels prepared to meet challenges of 21st century<br />For both Associations Information Literacy skills are necessary for student success<br />Goals<br />Promote the idea of Information Literacy<br />Ensure the adequate preparation of trainers <br />Actions<br />Committee on collaboration of university and K-12 librarians for the benefit of their constituencies (BluePrint, 1998)<br />BluePrint for collaboration ACRL/AASL<br />
  59. 59. Goals<br />Achieve seamless continuation of AASL standards for IL to ACRL standards of IL<br />Promote information literacy standardscompetency for higher education<br />Develop specific information literacy performance indicators and measurable outcomes for education students<br />Encourage ALISE members to include modules on IL in their programs<br />Develop relationships with local school boards to create and promote information literacy programs for school librarians' continuing education <br />BluePrint for collaboration ACRL/AASL<br />
  60. 60. Students and Information Literacy<br />
  61. 61. <ul><li>Plagiarism is going social
  62. 62. Legitimate educational sites are more popular than cheat sites
  63. 63. 15% of content matches, come directly from sites that promote and benefit from academic dishonesty
  64. 64. Wikipedia is the most popular site for matched content
  65. 65. Educators with the knowledge and tools can address the growing problem (Plagiarism and Web, 2011) </li></ul>Where students find material<br />
  66. 66. The top eight matched sites, along with their given category, are: <br />1) en.wikipedia.org - Encyclopedia <br />2) answers.yahoo.com – News & Portal <br />3) www.answers.com - Social & Content Sharing <br />4) www.slideshare.net - Social & Content Sharing <br />5) www.oppapers.com - Cheat Sites & Paper Mills <br />6) www.scribd.com - Social & Content Sharing <br />7) www.coursehero.com - Homework & Academic <br />8) www.medlibrary.org - Homework & Academic (Plagiarism and Web, 2011) <br />Where students find material<br />
  67. 67. College Students and Information Seeking<br />Head, Alison & Michael B. Eisenberg (2009). HowCollege Students SeekInformationintheDigitalAge. TheInformationSchool, UniversityofWashington.<br />Project informationliteracy<br /> 1. Progressreport, no. 1: “LessonsLearned” |<br />(http://projectinfolit.org/pdfs/PIL_Fall2009_Year1Report_12_2009.pdf)<br />
  68. 68. College Students and InformationSeeking<br />The research group conducted research among 27,666 students of 6 American universities, in April and May 2009 <br />2,318 responses were collected<br />HarvardUniversity<br />IllinoisStateUniversity<br />UniversityofWashington<br />ChaffeyCommunityCollege (CA)<br />ShorelineCommunityCollege (WA)<br />VolunteerStateCommunityCollege (TN)(Head & Eisenberg, 2009)<br />
  69. 69. CollegeStudents and InformationSeeking<br />In general findings reveal that most students are not aware of the abundance of resources available to them<br />Whether doing research for a course or for personal reasons almost all students developed a search strategy based on a limited number of common sources of information— close at hand, tried and true. Almost all of them relied at first on suggested readings and Google, for course research, or Google and Widipedia for addressing issues arising in their everyday lives<br />The majority of students did not indicate any variations in frequency or order of use of these sources, regardless of their information goals or despite the plethora of other electronic sources or personal assistance existing (Head & Eisenberg, 2009)<br />
  70. 70. College Students andInformationSeeking<br />A significant number of students, when conducting research and finding information, leveraged scholarly sources and public Internet sites and favored brevity, consensus, and currency <br />Findings indicate that students conceptualize research, especially information seeking, as a competency learned by rote, rather than as an opportunity to learn, develop, or expand upon an information-gathering strategy which leverages the wide range of resources available to them in the digital age (Head & Eisenberg, 2009)<br />
  71. 71. Recommendation by researchers:<br /> Students should be given course-related research assignments that encourage the collection, analysis, and synthesis of<br />multiple viewpoints from a variety of sources, so the transfer of information literacy and critical thinking competencies may be more actively called up, practiced, and learned by students (Head & Eisenberg, 2009)<br />CollegeStudents andInformationSeeking<br />
  72. 72. Cannot read a citation<br />Have difficulties in using a call number to locate a book on the shelf<br />Do not know how to evaluate/think critically about sources<br />Wikipedia their main/only source<br />Little research experience beyond Google<br />Have difficulties in selecting a proper research topic<br />Have difficulties in identifying appropriate key words for searching<br />Ignore plagiarism problems<br />What our students do not know<br />
  73. 73. Information literacy not included in learning outcomes/assessment<br />No experience with libraries-lack of school libraries<br />Lack of resources or access to them<br />Lack of professionals to educate them-librarians<br />Untrained teachers or with dated research abilities<br />Information Literary not among high priority skills<br />What our students do not know--Reasons<br />
  74. 74. Information Literacy in <br />Higher education<br />
  75. 75. Association of College and Research Libraries, ACRL (2000). Information literacy competency standards for higher education. <br />Retrieved from<br />http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/standards/informationliteracycompetency.cfm<br />
  76. 76. Information Competencies for Higher Education<br />Standard I. The information competent student determines the nature and extent of the information needed <br />Standard II. The information competent student accesses needed information effectively and efficiently <br />Standard III. The information competent student evaluates information and sources critically and incorporates selected information into his or her knowledge base and value system.<br />
  77. 77. Information Competencies for Higher Education<br />Standard IV. The information competent student, individually or as a member of a group, uses information effectively to accomplish a specific purpose <br />Standard V. The information competent student understands many of the economic, legal, and social issues surrounding the use of information and accesses and uses information ethically and legally<br />
  78. 78. I. The information competent student determines the nature and extent of the information needed<br />POSSIBLE LEARNING OBJECTIVES/OUTCOMES | <br />“Students will be able to …”<br />• confer with the instructor and participate in class and work <br /> group discussions to identify a research topic or information <br /> need<br />• develop a thesis statement and formulate research questions<br />• explore background sources (encyclopedias, chronologies, <br /> handbooks, etc.) to increase familiarity with the topic<br />• review and revise the information need to achieve a <br /> manageable focus<br />
  79. 79. I. The information competent student determines the nature and extent of the information needed <br />POSSIBLE LEARNING OBJECTIVES/OUTCOMES <br /> “Students will be able to …”<br />• identify key concepts and words that describe the research <br /> topic<br />• recognize that knowledge is organized into disciplines that <br /> influence the way in which information is accessed<br />• identify the purpose and audience of potential resources <br /> (e.g., popular versus scholarly, current versus historical)<br /><ul><li> differentiate between primary and secondary sources, </li></ul> recognizing how their use and importance vary with each<br /> discipline<br />
  80. 80. I. The information competent student determines the nature and extent of the information needed <br />POSSIBLE LEARNING OBJECTIVES/OUTCOMES |<br />“Students will be able to …”<br />• recognize that information may need to be constructed <br /> using raw data from primary sources<br />• broaden the information seeking process beyond local <br /> resources when necessary by using resources at other <br /> locations or utilizing interlibrary loan services<br /><ul><li> describe criteria used to make information decisions and </li></ul> choices<br />
  81. 81. II. The information competent student accesses <br /> needed information effectively and efficiently <br />EXAMPLE (Maughan, 2010)<br />FROM STANDARD TO . . . .OBJECTIVE/OUTCOME TO . . . . LEARNING ACTIVITIES<br />Standard II Students will be able to identify Students will be directed to the and use controlled vocabulary Library website and told to search and terms specific to the discipline for books on a given topic.<br /> They will be asked to report their<br /> results and indicate the type of <br /> search they performed and the <br /> words they searched<br />
  82. 82. Australian and New Zealand Information Literacy Framework:<br /> principles, standards and practice. 2n ed. Ed. By Alan Bundy. Adelaide: Australian and New Zealand Institute for Information Literacy, 2004.<br />
  83. 83. ANZIIL<br />Standard 1. The information literate person recognises the need for information and determines the nature and extent of the information needed <br />Standard 2. The information literate person finds needed information effectively and efficiently <br />Standard 3. The information literate person critically evaluates information and the information seeking process <br />Standard 4. The information literate person manages information collected or generated <br />Standard 5. The information literate person applies prior and new information to construct new concepts or create new understandings <br />Standard 6. The information literate person uses information with understanding and acknowledges cultural, ethical, economic, legal, and social issues surrounding the use of information<br />
  84. 84. Society of College, National and University Libraries, SCONUL. (2011). The Seven Pillars of Information Literacy. SCONUL Working Group on Information Literacy <br /> Accessed:<br />http://www.sconul.ac.uk/groups/information_literacy/publications/coremodel.pdf<br />
  85. 85.
  86. 86. Management of Information Literacy<br />
  87. 87. A mission statement for information literacy should be established by educational authorities to ensure compatibility among various institutions and adherence to international standards<br /> Individual educational institutions might adopt this to specific needs and conditions<br />Mission statements<br />
  88. 88. Examples of mission statements<br />Wartburg College. Vogel Library, Iowa<br />http://library.wartburg.edu/infolit/GenEdEvaulation2005.pdf<br /> Vogel Library’s mission is to educate information-literate<br /> lifelong learners<br />
  89. 89. Wartburg College. Vogel Library<br />We believe that information literacy is so fundamental that it is an integral part of the academic experience in and out of the classroom <br />We believe course-integrated instruction connected with a real academic need is more effective than stand-alone information literacy courses or disconnected tours and library orientations <br />We believe in a planned curriculum with distinct, sequenced information literacy content that allows practice and reinforcement without duplication <br />We believe that our information literacy instruction and any subsequent activity must help to achieve a faculty member’s course objectives <br />
  90. 90. Wartburg College. Vogel Library<br />We believe that professors and students must be guided toward the understanding that the librarians’ goals are interconnected with their own course goals and curricular needs <br />Above all, we emphasize the teaching of concepts over skills as a means to achieve our information literacy mission of educating information-literate lifelong learners <br />
  91. 91.
  92. 92. Austin Community College<br />…of the mission of Library Services is to provide "instruction to promote information literacy and life-long learning" <br />Students graduating from Austin Community College should be prepared to apply the information skills they learn as students to all aspects of their lives as citizens, family members, employees, and professionals <br />Information literate students have transferable skills from their formal education they can use throughout life and as a means toward continued learning (http://library.austincc.edu/help/infolit/InfoLit-Overview.php )<br />
  93. 93. The mission of Palomar College Library/Media Center is to collaborate with all disciplines to empower and teach students to find, evaluate, and use information effectively<br />We will collect, organize, and maintain information in all its formats to support the intellectual growth of students and the professional needs of our faculty(http://www.palomar.edu/library/libmission.htm)<br />Palomar College<br />
  94. 94. Owensboro Community and Technical College Library<br /> We will strive to promote information literacy across campus with the purpose of enhancing the pursuit of knowledge in all disciplines, requiring students to think critically, and strengthening life-long learning skills. We will strive to educate students, faculty, and other campus personnel to understand all aspects of information literacy, including organization of information into knowledge, and evaluation of all information in all forms. We will provide resources and services in an environment that fosters independent thinking, helping students to become confident in their skills to be used in their professional and personal lives (http://legacy.owensboro.kctcs.edu/library/infoliteracy.htm)<br />
  95. 95. Factors to be considered<br />Level and Educational goals of program<br />Desired learning outcomes<br />Adaptation of existing standards<br />Tailored to the needs and background of recipients<br /> Content<br />Teaching strategies: focus on learning, pedagogical issues, application of new technologies <br />Assessment methods<br />Design of an Information Literacy Program<br />
  96. 96. Sections to be included<br /> 1. Introduction—definition of IL/IF, scope<br /> 2. History of similar efforts in institution<br /> 3. Goals and objectives of program<br /> 4. Body of the plan<br /> 5. Oversight<br /> 6. Methods of assessment<br /> 7. Timeline for implementation<br /> 8. Marketing plan (Burkhardt, 2005)<br />Design of an Information Literacy Program<br />
  97. 97. Agencies (VET)<br />
  98. 98. European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Cedefop<br />Centre of expertise to support the development of VET and evidence based policy making <br />Provides advice, research, analysis, information, stimulates European cooperation and common learning <br />Works closely with the European Commission, governments, representatives of employers and trade unions, as well as with researchers and practitioners <br />Cedefop shares its expertise through electronic and hard-copy publications, conferences and working groups <br />
  99. 99. The mission of OECD is to promote policies that will improve the economic and social well-being of people around the world<br /> Education among its topics <br /> Pre school and school<br /> Higher education and adult learning  <br /> Education, economy and society  <br /> Human Capital  <br /> Research and knowledge management <br />Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, OECD<br />
  100. 100. International Labour Organization, ILO<br />The international organization responsible for drawing up and overseeing international labor standards. <br />United Nations agency that brings together representatives of governments, employers and workers to jointly shape policies and programs promoting Decent Work for all<br />Topic: Skills, knowledge and employability<br />
  101. 101. The Center works to improve <br /><ul><li>The engagement
  102. 102. Achievement, and
  103. 103. Transition of high school and postsecondary CTE students </li></ul>Through technical assistance to <br /><ul><li>States
  104. 104. Professional development for CTE practitioners, and
  105. 105. Dissemination of knowledge derived from scientifically based research </li></ul>National Research Center for Career and Technical Education (NRCCTE) <br />
  106. 106. The largest national education association dedicated to the advancement of education that prepares youth and adults for careers<br />Association for Career and Technical Education<br />
  107. 107. The Foundation strives to help people achieve their potential by expanding access to and success in education beyond high school<br />Tuning USA launches faculty-led process that will involve students and employers in linking college degrees to workplace relevance and students’ mastery of agreed-upon learning objectives <br />Lumina Foundation <br />
  108. 108. Agencies (Information Literacy)<br />
  109. 109. Unesco<br />Strengthening education systems<br />Entrepreneurship Education<br />Education should encompass both academic knowledge and practical skills to prepare young people for responsible citizenship and the world of work <br />Fostering entrepreneurship attitudes and skills in secondary schools raises awareness of career opportunities, as well as of ways young people can contribute to the development and prosperity of their communities. It helps reduce youth vulnerability, social marginalization and poverty <br />Themes: Information and Media Literacy<br />
  110. 110. Information Literacy Section (2002- )<br />Primary purpose to foster international cooperation in the development of information skills education in all types of libraries<br />Action Plan, 2011-2012<br /><ul><li>Long-term strategy to implement and adapt concepts and programs of IL
  111. 111. Core curriculum within the National Information Society Policy Framework
  112. 112. Set of indicators to assess IL of population </li></ul>International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, IFLA<br />
  113. 113. International Alliance for Information Literacyhttp://enil.ceris.cnr.it/Basili/EnIL/Iailpage.html <br />Founding Members<br />Australian and New Zealand Institute for Information Literacy (ANZIIL) http://www.anziil.org/<br />European Network on Information Literacy (EnIL) (European Union) http://www.ceris.cnr.it/Basili/EnIL/index.html<br />National Forum on Information Literacy/NFIL (United States)http://www.infolit.org<br />NORDINFOlit (Scandinavia) http://www.nordinfolit.org<br />SCONUL Advisory Committee on Information Literacy (United Kingdom)http://www.sconul.ac.uk/groups/information_literacy<br />
  114. 114. Mission<br />to promote information literacy at home and abroad <br />to provide programmatic research and training activities to a broad spectrum of constituencies <br />National Forum on Information Literacy, http://infolit.org/<br />
  115. 115. Mission<br />Dedicated to playing leadership role in assisting individuals and institutions in integrating information literacy throughout the full spectrum of the educational process<br />Goals<br />Prepare librarians to become effective teachers of information literacy programs <br />Support librarians and other educators and administrators in playing leadership roles in the development and implementation of information literacy programs <br />Forge new relationships throughout the educational community to work towards information literacy curriculum development <br />Offer opportunities for growth and development in the changing field of information literacy<br />Institute for Information Literacy, IIL http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/issues/infolit/professactivity/iil/welcome.cfm<br />
  116. 116. ACRL Information Literacy website, The ACRL Information Literacy Coordinating Committee's gateway to resources on information literacy <br />http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/issues/infolit/index.cfm<br /> ALA/ACRL<br />
  117. 117. http://www.ala.org/apps/primo/public/search.cfm<br />Promote & share peer-reviewed instructional materials created by librarians to teach people about discovering, accessing and evaluating information in networked environments<br />
  118. 118. ANimatedTutorialsSharing Project<br />http://ants.wetpaint.com<br />
  119. 119. International Journal of Vocational and Technical Education<br />Journal of Education and Work<br />Journal of Career and Technical Education<br />(former title: Journalof Vocational and Technical Education)<br />Journal of Vocational Education Research<br />Journal of Vocational Education & Training http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/13636820.asp<br />Vocational Education Journal<br />Vocational Training: European Journal(information, full text some issues www.cedefop.eu.int/publications.asp <br />Vocations and Learning http://www.springerlink.com/content/120916/<br />Journals--VET<br />
  120. 120. Communications in Information Literacy<br /> http://www.comminfolit.org/index.php/cil (open access)<br />Journal of Information Literacy http://jil.lboro.ac.uk/ojs/index.php/JIL/index (open access)<br />College & Research Libraries<br />Community & Junior College Libraries<br />Journal of Academic Librarianship<br />Research Strategies (ceased publication)<br />School Library Media Quarterly<br />Journals—Information Literacy<br />
  121. 121. Recommendations--VET<br />Necessity for improved and attractive VET<br />Development of policies and strategies to advance lifelong learning opportunities for all at all levels<br />Promote the creation of a new culture in educational institutions, which will support student involvement in the educational process<br />Consensus on student learning outcomes<br />
  122. 122. Recommendations<br />Information literacy skills more important for VET students, considering their lower economic and social background<br />Advocate, at various levels and to important stakeholders, the benefits of Information Literacy <br />Associate Information Literacy skills with accreditation, assessment and employability<br />Prepare, with selective faculty members, examples of course integrated information literacy programs<br />
  123. 123. Recommendations<br /> “International practice shows that, for successful development of an IL education system, it is necessary to set unified state-level standards, evaluation tools, and methodology. These components could promote cooperation between the actors of IL and the education system” (Krumina, 2011)<br />
  124. 124. Need for research to estimate information fluency of students <br />Under-prepared students have little natural curiosity to explore ambiguous ideas that make them uncomfortable <br />People who are less skilled at a task tend to overestimate their skill levels<br />Less skilled people have difficulty recognizing that others have better skills than they do<br />Although training helps improve skills, the less skilled are less likely to seek such training (Dunning-Kruger, 1999)<br />Understand what students do to accomplish assignments<br />Assist students progress from summarizing what they found to analysis and interpretation<br />Recommendations<br />
  125. 125. Establish a National Forum to serve as the National Focal Point for Information Literacy programs provided to every educational sector. Application of web 2.0 technologies will facilitate participation and communication. <br />Establish a National Resource Center, which will include exemplary online tutorials, surveys, current news etc. <br />Encourage faculty enhancement of own information literacy skills and involvement in IL programs <br />Establish a Teaching & Learning Center, staffed with education experts, information technology professionals, discipline specialists and information scientists to support the development of information literacy programs<br />Recommendations<br />
  126. 126. …it also backs the case for investing in education, even when other areas of public spending are under pressure. “Education is an essential investment for responding to the changes in technology and demographics that are re-shaping labor markets” (Gurría, 2010)<br />Conclusion<br />
  127. 127. “Information should not be seen as mere capital to be accumulated, bought, and sold, but instead, it should be seen as a means to empower all people to make our world a better place… Without the ability to command information, students will not only find themselves left out of the information economy, they will find themselves unable to have a voice in our society”(Swanson, 2005)<br />Conclusion<br />
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