...
EXECUTIVE SUMMARYThe present report constitutes the delivery D6.1 of the Work Package 6: Resourcedevelopment of the EMPATI...
Table	  of	  Contents	  EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ...................................................................................
SECTION 1: INTRODUCTORY                 METHODOLOGICAL REMARKS: THE ROLE OF CASE STUDIES WITHINEMPATIC ACTIVITIES1.1. Case...
only to the Higher Education sector, and also because the guidelines are mainly focused toInformation Literacy programmes ...
SECTION 2: CASE STUDIES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION LEARNING SECTOR2.1 Problems, questions and potential benefitsThe main issu...
The Information Literacy project at Staffordshire University is a very important example of howInformation Literacy can be...
SECTION 3: CASE STUDIES IN THE SCHOOL LEARNING SECTOR3.1 Problems, questions and potential benefitsThe main issues raised ...
 3.2. Characteristics of case studies matching the issues	  	           Initiative           Problem/potential benefit    ...
SECTION 4: CASE STUDIES IN THE VOCATIONAL EDUCATION LEARNING SECTOR4.1 Problems, questions and potential benefitsThe main ...
Initiative             Problem/potential benefit              Matching features                                           ...
SECTION 5: CASE STUDIES IN THE ADULT EDUCATION LEARNING SECTORThe main issues raised from the Adult Education workshop of ...
learning about the world and ways of participating productively in it” (Stevens         &Campbell, 2006)3In view of this s...
SECTION 6: LINKS TO KEY IL RESOURCES ACROSS EUROPESchool Learning SectorInformation Literacy in the classroom: secondary s...
Lifelong Learning Sector: Adult Education – Vocational EducationInformation Literacy Competency Standards for Journalism S...
REFERENCESAmerican Library Association (ALA). (1998). Information literacy standards for student learning: standards andin...
Candy, P. (2002). Lifelong Learning and Information Literacy. White paper prepared for UNESCO, the US NationalCommission o...
Urquhart, D.J. (1975). Developing a National Information Policy. A NATIS guideline. UNESCO, 24 pp: The issue ofuser educat...
http://empat-ic.eu/eng/                Project funded by the European Commission                   under the Lifelong Lear...
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Transcript of "Report on Finalised Information Literacy Case Studies"

  1. 1.                      Report  on  Finalised  Information  Literacy  Case  Studies  Authors:  Carla  Basili             This  project  has  been  funded  with  support  from  the  European  Commission    
  2. 2. EXECUTIVE SUMMARYThe present report constitutes the delivery D6.1 of the Work Package 6: Resourcedevelopment of the EMPATIC project.Within the work plan of EMPATIC, the Work Package 6 is aimed at: − providing finalised good practice case studies of Information Literacy in action at each level of education; − providing links to key IL resources across Europe.In view of the above, in its Section 1, the deliverable explains how and why the methodologyof case studies is of central importance to the goals of the Empatic project, as an awareness-raising tool of immediate impact. It is also explained the basic criteria applied for the selectionof the 20 case studies over the 87 identified in the Desk Research WP1 (see deliverable D1.1).In order to provide a more up to date picture, a number of more recent initiatives havereplaced some of those originally identified.The section also explains the rationale of the whole report and the reasons of its articulation insections, each devoted to a single learning sector (Schools, Higher Education, VocationalEducation and Adult Education) with the relative case studies.According to the above, the sections of the report provide illustrative case studies of eachlearning sector, focussing on their relevance with respect to one or more problematic orbeneficial dimensions of Information Literacy of that learning sector.More specifically, section 2 of the report is devoted to Higher Education, section3 to Schools,section 4 to Vocational Education and section 5 to Adult Education.Section 6 includes a set of links to key IL resources across Europe and worldwide.
  3. 3. Table  of  Contents  EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ................................................................................................... 1  SECTION 1: INTRODUCTORY METHODOLOGICAL REMARKS: THE ROLE OF CASE STUDIESWITHIN EMPATIC ACTIVITIES ........................................................................................ 3  1.1. CASE STUDIES AS METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH TO RAISING POLICY AWARENESS ............................. 3  SECTION 2: CASE STUDIES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION LEARNING SECTOR ....................... 5  2.1 PROBLEMS, QUESTIONS AND POTENTIAL BENEFITS .................................................................. 5  2.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF CASE STUDIES MATCHING THE ISSUES ...................................................... 5  SECTION 3: CASE STUDIES IN THE SCHOOL LEARNING SECTOR ........................................ 7  3.1 PROBLEMS, QUESTIONS AND POTENTIAL BENEFITS .................................................................. 7  3.2. CHARACTERISTICS OF CASE STUDIES MATCHING THE ISSUES ..................................................... 8  SECTION 4: CASE STUDIES IN THE VOCATIONAL EDUCATION LEARNING SECTOR ................ 9  4.1 PROBLEMS, QUESTIONS AND POTENTIAL BENEFITS .................................................................. 9  CASE STUDIES ....................................................................... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.  4.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF CASE STUDIES MATCHING THE ISSUES ...................................................... 9  SECTION 5: CASE STUDIES IN THE ADULT EDUCATION LEARNING SECTOR ....................... 11  5.1 PROBLEMS, QUESTIONS AND POTENTIAL BENEFITS .................................................................11   THE LACK OF NATIONAL POLICY ON THE LIBRARIES COOPERATION. .............................................. 11   THE CENTRAL ROLE OF THE LIBRARIANS. ............................................................................. 11  5.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF CASE STUDIES MATCHING THE ISSUES .....................................................12  SECTION 6: LINKS TO KEY IL RESOURCES ACROSS EUROPE ............................................ 13  SCHOOL LEARNING SECTOR ................................................................................................13  HIGHER EDUCATION LEARNING SECTOR ..................................................................................13  LIFELONG LEARNING SECTOR: ADULT EDUCATION – VOCATIONAL EDUCATION .....................................14  GENERAL PURPOSE RESOURCES ............................................................................................14  REFERENCES ............................................................................................................. 15  
  4. 4. SECTION 1: INTRODUCTORY METHODOLOGICAL REMARKS: THE ROLE OF CASE STUDIES WITHINEMPATIC ACTIVITIES1.1. Case studies as methodological approach to raising policy awarenessCase study approach is a methodology largely used to generate convincing evidence of theimportance and potential value of neglected issues. The case study methodology also results inan immediate impact, particularly when addressed to people not specifically acquainted withthe matter to be promoted.In the case of Empatic, main aim of the whole project is to raise policy awareness of thepotential benefits of Information Literacy among policy makers and stakeholders.Previous deliverables of the Empatic project provided stakeholders with essential theoreticalbackground to the Information Literacy international scenario, in terms of definitions, modelsand strategies, in order to demonstrate how the ratio of the dissemination activities carried outby Empatic relies on sound bases.A part from libraries – whose historical role as “ambassadors” of the Information Literacymessage has been already acknowledged in previous deliverables of the project – most of thestakeholders addressed by Empatic lack of a specialised knowledge of Information Literacyand, of utmost importance, have few time to spend in improving it.For such a target audience, therefore, higher levels of attention could be reached throughmethodologies of immediate impact – like exactly the case studies approach.To summarise, in order to spread over the awareness about Information Literacy, it seemsreasonable to rely on a process in which the attention of decision makers is firstly capturedthrough case studies and then consolidated through sound background information. To thisrespect, it has been already noticed that Empatic project provides both the elements of theenvisaged process.According to the definition of Süßmann (2005)1 a case study can be defined as: Accounts which present what is depicted as a case; that is to say, they make it into something concrete and specific, something that points beyond itself to an abstract and general phenomenon (this may be a concept, a norm, a rule, a habitus, or a case structure).In our case, it describes an Information Literacy initiative, which is representative of a learningsector among those encompassed by the EC Lifelong Learning Programme (Schools, HigherEducation, Vocational Education, Adult Education). A set of 20 Information Literacy initiativeswas chosen out of the set of 87 identified by Empatic’s Desk Research Work Package (seedeliverable D1.1) according to specific criteria.Initially, it was considered to base the best practices selection on the guidelines from ACRL(Characteristics of Programs of Information Literacy that Illustrate Best Practices: A Guideline.Best Practices Initiative. Institute for Information Literacy- Draft Revision – January 2011)2Nevertheless, this approach was discarded for various reasons, principally because it applies1 Süßmann, Johannes (2005) ‘Fallstudien: Theorie-Geschichte-Methode’. Conf. on Fallstudien: Theorie-Geschichte-Methode. Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität, Frankfurt am Main. 15.9.2005 as cited by Apitzsch, U. and Siouti, S.“Interdisciplinarity, Research Policies and Practices: Two Case Studies in Germany”. The University of York, 20062 http://www.ala.org/acrl/sites/ala.org.acrl/files/content/standards/characteristics_rev_.pdf
  5. 5. only to the Higher Education sector, and also because the guidelines are mainly focused toInformation Literacy programmes carried out by libraries.On the contrary, the declared goal of individual projects/initiatives to support and enhancelifelong learning was among the most relevant selection criteria.Alongside the lifelong learning commitment, selection criteria were also based on the diverseproblematic dimensions of Information Literacy – as they came out through the four Empaticworkshops - in each of the four learning sectors considered in the project.More specifically, each learning sector (Schools, Higher Education, Vocational Education, AdultEducation) addressed by the project presents a number of specific issues – both problems andpotential benefits - as identified and described in other deliverables of the Empatic project (seeD1.1, D5.1, D5.2, D5.3, D5.4 etc). Based on these problems and potential benefits, the 20case studies were thus selected as they solve or exploit at least one of those issues. In orderto provide a more up to date picture, a number of more recent initiatives have replaced someof those originally identified.The next sections of this report, for each learning sector, will illustrate the results of thismethodological approach through first recall the major problems or potential benefits ofInformation Literacy in the sector, and then underlining those characteristics of each selectedinitiative that constitute an answer or recipient to those problems/potential benefits.An empty “problem/benefit area” means that the case study goal is auto-explicative.
  6. 6. SECTION 2: CASE STUDIES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION LEARNING SECTOR2.1 Problems, questions and potential benefitsThe main issues raised from the Higher Education workshop of Empatic (see deliverable D5.2)con be summarised in a series of issues, as follows.Connotation of Information Literacy as a discipline of studyA strong assumption underlying the institutionalisation of IL is to recognise it as a discipline inits own, to be conceived mainly as "knowledge" then as mere "ability", independent from anysubject discipline, except for its applicative component, which can be related to a specialised ILcompetency level.This point was the first addressed since it is the base for further analysis on how IL could beinserted into the Bologna process. A debate started as to consider IL a discipline or simply askill.Information Literacy vs Computer LiteracyA major problem with IL is a diffused degree of misconception of the distinction between ILand Computer Literacy. The idea of replicating – mutatis mutandis – an institutionalconfiguration path similar to that of Computer Literacy can be suggested. Both disciplines, infact, are transversal and useful to every course of study.Information Literacy insertion into the Bologna processThe EU Higher Education landscape is governed by the Bologna Process, a process started in1999 and aimed at creating a European Higher Education Area, in which students can choosefrom a wide and transparent range of high quality courses and benefit from smooth recognitionprocedures.Responsibility for teachingThis point is also linked to the (still open) question of credit assignment or not to the discipline.Among the best practices, the MA in Information Literacy was an example of a curricularinitiative, while the SWIM tutorial constitutes an example of library initiative.Teaching the “teachers”The need to promote Information Literacy among both the teachers and the students wasrecognised as a need, but quite difficult to reach, given the hard task of make academics being“receivers of education”.2.2 Characteristics of case studies matching the issuesThe ALFIN-EEES case study was appreciated as an example of high level policy awarenesssince it implies the involvement of the Ministry of Education as supporting body, and a varietyof public and private stakeholders as promoters.The Graduate Information Literacy represents a case of a joint initiative of three universities.This constitutes a significant step towards implementing Information Literacy within theNational Higher Education System of a country.EMPATIC suggestion is to include IL among the set of learning outcomes, specifically amongthe generic competencies defined by the Tuning project for the Bologna process.
  7. 7. The Information Literacy project at Staffordshire University is a very important example of howInformation Literacy can be part of a university policy strategy. The most meaningful part ofthe initiative includes: a Statement of Good Practice; its Implementation Plan; a set ofLearning Outcomes encompassing also Information Literacy; a Student handbook Texts. Allthese documents could be used as guidelines by other universities wishing to institutionaliseIL.The Master in Information Literacy at the University of Sheffield represents a form ofinstitutionalization as a stand alone disciplinary domain, in line with the conception ofInformation Literacy as a discipline of study (Basili, 2008a).The Streaming Web-based Information Modules (SWIM) - as an example of library tutorial -represents a case in which the library plays the role of promoter organisation. Initiative Problem/potent. benefit Matching features − supported by the Spanish ALFIN-EEES − Policy awareness Ministry of Education and − Institutionalisation Spanish IL EHEA − joint initiative of three universities − supported by Higher Education Authority (a member of GRADUATE − Policy awareness international organization INFORMATION − Institutionalisation ENQA - the European LITERACY MODULE Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education and National Department Plan (NDP) INFORMATION − Campus policy − IL statement of good practice LITERACY PROJECT initiative − disciplinary − Curriculum integration MA IN INFORMATION − Credit bearing discipline LITERACY connotation − Institutionalisation SWIM tutorial − Teaching responsibility − Library managed solution
  8. 8. SECTION 3: CASE STUDIES IN THE SCHOOL LEARNING SECTOR3.1 Problems, questions and potential benefitsThe main issues raised from the School workshop of Empatic (see deliverable D5.1) con besummarised in a series of issues, as follows.European goals vs national strategiesThe first and essential issue identified and discussed was if a Europe-wide, one d e t a i l e dInformation Literacy strategy is really needed. The workshop participants observed that theeducational systems, information culture, and experiences with IL development in every EUcountry are different, so what works in one part of Europe may not in the other. As a result itmight be better to formulate the all-European Information Literacy standards in terms ofl e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s , the set of IL goals to be achieved in different appropriate ways andby various means within formal, informal and non-formal learning environments. In otherwords, the proper direction in the area of Information Literacy development is not “centralplanning”, but setting common European goals, to be accomplished in each country in theirown way.    Central vs. local responsibilityAnother important question has been: who is to be responsible for the introduction anddevelopment of Information Literacy in any of the European countries? Should it be the centralnational body or central goals? The answer is not simple. Generally, participants spoke outagainst the central body for the method of “small steps” and cooperative work of all interestedparties/stakeholders on the l o c a l level, in local communities where real work is or can bedone.  "Digital natives" and Information LiteracyYoung generation, so-called “digital natives” do not necessarily have the “inherent” culture ofinformation; they also must undergo education and training in the field of Information Literacy.  Teaching the teachersTeachers must be aware of what Information Literacy is, why it is so important and how tolearn/teach IL in schools (the methodology). In other words, the school management andteachers are the most important stakeholders.      Cooperation of different stakeholdersDiscussed examples of Information Literacy good practices show that the development of ILcompetencies cannot be a unilateral effort of librarians. Modern education of IL competenciesrequires extensive cooperation of different stakeholders: schools, libraries, cultural institutions,local authorities, teachers, parents and students.Information Literacy and contiguous competenciesThe analysed examples also showed a trend to combine “pure” IL education withteaching/learning of other skills, such as media or digital literacy competencies. Also, using awide range of innovative methods and tools to make IL education more interesting andeffective has been characteristic for all concerned projects.  
  9. 9.  3.2. Characteristics of case studies matching the issues     Initiative Problem/potential benefit Matching features UNESCO MIL − formal teacher Curriculum for − lack of teacher IL education education teachers integration − Timely awareness − project strt date within − early reaction the period 1994-1998 CHILIAS − early awareness of the − funded by the Commission, but almost European Commission isolated initiative under FP4 Information literacy skills – the link between − gap among different level of − education continuity secondary and tertiary education education − disciplinary connotation − Institutionalisation Informatyka+ − Institutionalisation (regional level) − Library oriented VERITY solution
  10. 10. SECTION 4: CASE STUDIES IN THE VOCATIONAL EDUCATION LEARNING SECTOR4.1 Problems, questions and potential benefitsThe main issues raised from the Vocational Education workshop of Empatic (see deliverableD5.3) con be summarised in a series of issues, as follows.Lack of Information Literacy Awareness in the SocietyOne of the most significant problems about VET in Turkey is the lack of awareness ininformation literacy on the level of society. The society has not conceived the importance ofinformation literacy yet. They do not think that the problems they face about utilizinginformation and communication technologies in social life are caused by the lack of informationliteracy.Lack of Information Literacy Awareness by Politicians and UsersThe lack of awareness in information literacy on the level of society is also seen for decisionmakers, politicians and users in Turkey. They are not aware sufficiently of how muchinformation literacy is important for society. Moreover, they have not completely realized thatpeople outside formal education can gain the competence of information literacy via VET.No Relationship between Vocational Education and Information LiteracyThe fact that information literacy is or should be a part of vocational education (VET) is notknown in Turkey. In other words, information literacy has not been regarded as the field ofVET yet.Lack of Cooperation between the Institutions Connected with Vocational EducationThere is not sufficient coordination and cooperation within and between related formal and civilinstitutions on VET. This leads to unproductiveness and extravagance in VET activities.Lack of National Policy in the Subject of Vocational EducationThe other significant problem about VET in Turkey is lack of national policy in the subject ofvocational education. That is why, the VET activities cannot discipline and continued neatly,the cooperation between institutions cannot be established, and the fields’ lack of educationcannot be determined and VET activities on national level cannot be realized.General Vocational Education Problems in TurkeyThe following points have been considered as problematic for the vocational education systemin Turkey : • institutional arrangements of vocational education is a complex process; • the VET sector is the least understood and most poorly defined education sector, facing also a status and image problem; • quality is still an open problem with the VET system • different levels of policy operate on VET from different points of view, thus generating decisions not as coherent as they should be.4.2 Characteristics of case studies matching the issuesGiven the problematic picture of the whole VET system just described, not surprisingly themost meaningful Information Literacy initiatives selected for this sector come frominternational organisations like Unesco.
  11. 11. Initiative Problem/potential benefit Matching features − development of a transnational SEEKS – Adult validated taxonomy of Information Seeking ICT-related Strategies in the information-seeking Information Society behaviour (ISB) among adult learners − system of staffSzkolenia – to się opłaca − Lack of Information Literacy training with the - Database of training Awareness in the Society needs of modern offers/PARP economy − a first step to raiseTraining of Information awareness in Professionals education − Lack of CooperationTraining of Information between the Institutions − Filling the gapProfessionals/UNESCO Connected with Vocational Education Training-the- − No Relationship between − a first step to raise Trainers in Vocational Education and awareness in Information Information Literacy education Literacy/UNESCO
  12. 12. SECTION 5: CASE STUDIES IN THE ADULT EDUCATION LEARNING SECTORThe main issues raised from the Adult Education workshop of Empatic (see deliverable D5.4)con be summarised in a series of issues, as follows.5.1 Problems, questions and potential benefitsGeneral problems of Adult Education programs in Greece • Institutional arrangements of lifelong learning projects are even now complex and bureaucratic; • lifelong learning is not widely considered as an educational branch, but as the impulsive force against unemployment; • to date, no widely accepted common quality standards for Adult Education; • The adoption of the Information Literacy outside formal education is problematic.Lack of Information Literacy Awareness in the SocietySociety is not yet persuaded on the significance of Information Literacy, while differentspecialised terms and disciplines have been identified, such as: Digital literacy, Health literacy,Computer literacy, Advanced and Basic literacy, Community literacy, Critical literacy, Culturalliteracy, Emergent literacy, Family literacy, Media Literacy, Political Literacy, Business literacy.Information Literacy requires social coherenceNational governments have a specific responsibility in determining form and content of theeducational system, in which pupils are prepared for their future lives as responsible andparticipative citizens. If we connect this to the employment, this is a good way to persuadedecision makers and people to accept IL. As things change gradually, the prerequisite is tochange the way of teaching, how libraries see themselves and the library environment.Public libraries and school libraries play a crucial roleThe most of the LLL projects, are designed without a library professionals’ involvement. This isa central problem. Public libraries should be strong enough to undertake the role andresponsibility they ought to develop, manage and implement LLL projects. The informationLiteracy should start at the primary schools, so the establishment of libraries at primaryeducational level is essential.The Lack of National Policy on the Libraries cooperation.Another significant problem is the lack of national policy in libraries’ innovative role and the IL.Actually the cooperation between different kinds of libraries is not legislated.The central role of the librarians.According to Stevens and Campbell “In the …. library setting, librarians can enhance social capital by collaborating with … and other … constituencies, immersing themselves in … and community life, bridging the gaps …, and working … to create authentic learning experiences in which individuals’ development of information literacy competencies is inextricably linked to
  13. 13. learning about the world and ways of participating productively in it” (Stevens &Campbell, 2006)3In view of this statements, librarians: • are key players in information literacy program development, • should be involved in teaching, • take into great account students’ learning needs, • should be visible in the academic community and participate in educational activities. • can play an efficient advocacy action.5.2 Characteristics of case studies matching the issues Initiative Problem/potential Matching features benefit − Exportable library ENTITLE solution Information and Media − Proliferation of mass − media education Literacy /UNESCO media − Information LiteracyIFAP – Information For All with the impact on − Digital and Programme /UNESCO Computer Literacy, information divide Digital Literacy − Statistical literacy education, Statistical Literacy promotion and activities WKLUCZAMY.PL − Digital divide − Formal Education3 Stevens, C.R. & Campbell, P.J. (2006). “Collaborating to connect global citizenship, information literacy, and lifelonglearning in the global studies classroom.” Reference Services Review, 34(4), 536-556. UNESCO (2003) UIE AnnualReport. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001493/149312e.pdf. Referred by Moreleli-Cacouris (2011).
  14. 14. SECTION 6: LINKS TO KEY IL RESOURCES ACROSS EUROPESchool Learning SectorInformation Literacy in the classroom: secondary school teachers’ conceptionshttp://www4.rgu.ac.uk/files/acf4daa.pdfInformation Literacy Standards for Teacher EducationEBSS Instruction for Educators Committee 2006-2007 – 2010-2011,Approved by the ACRL Board of Directors at the Spring Executive Committee Meeting May 11,2011http://www.ala.org/acrl/sites/ala.org.acrl/files/content/standards/ilstandards_te.pdfStandards for the 21st Century Learnerhttp://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/aasl/guidelinesandstandards/learningstandards/AASL_LearningStandards.pdfAmerican Association of School Librarians and the Association for Educational Communicationsand Technology, Information Literacy Standards for Student Learning, 1998http://www.alastore.ala.org/detail.aspx?ID=203Higher Education Learning SectorInformation Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Educationhttp://www.ala.org/acrl/standards/informationliteracycompetencySCONUL Working group on Information literacyhttp://www.sconul.ac.uk/groups/information_literacy/DISCUS (Developing Information Skills & Competence for University Students)http://discus.tu-harburg.deIL Recommendation for the Finnish Universitieshttp://www.helsinki.fi/infolukutaito/english/recommendation.pdf
  15. 15. Lifelong Learning Sector: Adult Education – Vocational EducationInformation Literacy Competency Standards for Journalism Students and Professionals, ACRL,October 2011http://www.ala.org/acrl/sites/ala.org.acrl/files/content/standards/il_journalism.pdfInformation literacy work at CILIPhttp://www.cilip.org.uk/get-involved/advocacy/information-literacy/Pages/default.aspxInformation Literacy Sectionhttp://www.ifla.org/VII/s42/index.htmNordic Information Literacy Summer SchoolTransformation from Digital Library to Digital Learning, Korpo, Finland, 7-11 June, 2010http://www.helsinki.fi/infolukutaito/ILajankohtaista/2010summerschool.htmlGeneral purpose resourcesCharacteristics of Programs of Information Literacy that Illustrate Best Practices: A Guidelinehttp://www.ala.org/acrl/sites/ala.org.acrl/files/content/standards/characteristics_rev_.pdfThe DOTEINE ProjectDocumentation and Information Technologies for Education: Instruments for InformationLiteracy and the Organization of Educational Resourceshttp://doteine.uc3m.es/doteine_en.htmTeaching, Learning and Technology. Information Literacy Best Practiceshttp://www.tltgroup.org/InfoLit/BestPractices.htmTHE ALEXANDRIA PROCLAMATION.http://www.ifla.org/III/wsis/BeaconInfSoc.html
  16. 16. REFERENCESAmerican Library Association (ALA). (1998). Information literacy standards for student learning: standards andindicators http://www.ala.org/ala/aasl/aaslproftools/informationpower/InformationLiteracyStandards_final.pdfAmerican Library Association Presidential Committee on Information Literacy (January 10, 1989). Final report.http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/publications/whitepapers/presidential.cfmAndretta, S. (2005). Information Literacy: A Practitioners’ Guide. Oxford: Chandos Publishing, as cited in Crawford, J.(2006). The Culture of Evaluation in Library and Information Services. Chandos PublishingAssociation of College & Research Libraries (ACRL). (January 2000). Information Literacy Competency Standards forHigher Education. Chicago, IL: ACRL http://www.acrl.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/standards/standards.pdfAustralia & New Zealand Institute for Information Literacy (ANZIIL)http://www.anziil.org/resources/Infolit2ndedition.pdfBarrie, S.C. (2005). Rethinking Generic Graduate Attributes. HERDSA News [Draft, March 5, 2005]Basili, C. (2000). L’assetto disciplinare della Documentazione. Alcune riflessioni. AIDAinformazioni, 18(3/4), 30-35Basili, C. (2001). “Information literacy”: un concetto solo statunitense? (Information literacy: a issue only in theUSA?). AIDAinformazioni, 19(2)Basili, C. (2008). Information and education policies in Europe: key factors influencing information literacy academicpolicies in Europe. In: Carla Basili (ed.), Information Literacy at the crossroad of Education and Information Policiesin Europe (pp. 18-32). Roma: Consiglio Nazionale delle RicercheBasili, C. (2008a). Theorems of information literacy. In C. Basili (Ed.), Information literacy at the crossroad ofeducation and information policies in Europe (pp. 33–54). Rome: Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche.Basili, C. (ed.). (2003). Information literacy in Europe. A first insight into the state of the art of information literacy inthe European Union. Roma: Consiglio Nazionale delle RicercheBasili, C. (ed.). (2003). Information literacy in Europe. A first insight into the state of the art of information literacy inthe European Union (p. 9). Roma: Consiglio Nazionale delle RicercheBasili, C. (ed.). (2008). Information Literacy at the crossroad of Education and Information Policies in Europe. Roma:Consiglio Nazionale delle RicercheBawden, D. (2001) Information and Digital Literacies: A Review of Concepts. Journal of Documentation, 57(2), 218-259Behrens, S.J. (1994). A conceptual analysis and historical overview of information literacy. College & ResearchLibraries, 55(4), 309-322Borko, H. (1968). Information science: What is it? Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 19, 3-5Bruce, C. (2002). Information literacy as a catalyst for educational change: a background paper. White paper preparedfor UNESCO, the US National Commission on Libraries and Information Science, and the National Forum onInformation Literacy for use at the Meeting of Information Literacy Experts, Prague The Czech Republic 2002http://www.nclis.gov/libinterBruce, C.S. (2000). Information literacy programs and research: an international review. Australian Library Journal,49(3), 209-218Bundy, A. (ed.). (2004). Australian and New Zealand Information Literacy Framework. Principles, standards andpractice. Second Edition. Adelaide: Australian and New Zealand Institute for Information Literacy
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  19. 19. http://empat-ic.eu/eng/ Project funded by the European Commission under the Lifelong Learning Programme This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot beheld responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. 1

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