Learning How to Learn: Information Literacy for Lifelong Meaning
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Learning How to Learn: Information Literacy for Lifelong Meaning

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EMPATIC International Workshop - Vocational Sector
Presentation by: Mersini Moreleli-Cacouris
Assistant Professor
Dept. of Library Science and Information Systems
Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki

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  • 1. Learning How to LearnInformation Literacy for Lifelong Meaning
    MersiniMoreleli-Cacouris
    Assistant Professor
    Dept. of Library Science and Information Systems
    Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki
  • 2. Education
    Our net conclusion is that life is development, and that developing, growing, is life. Translated into its educational equivalents, that means
    (i) that the educational process has no end beyond itself; it is its own end; and
    (ii) that the educational process is one of continual reorganizing, reconstructing, transforming (Dewey 1916, as cited in Hall, 2010).
  • 3. Lifelong Learning
    All learning activity undertaken throughout life, with the aim of improving knowledge, skills and competences within a personal, civic, social and/or employment-related perspective(EU, 2001)
  • 4. Lifelong learning
    • Concept developed in early ’70s
    • 5. Lifelong Learning, Recurrent Education, Éducation Permanente
    • 6. Emphasis that learning is a lifelong process and all education should be organized around this principle
  • Lifelong Learning
    Lifelong learning has been defined as “the systematic acquisition, renewal, upgrading and completion of knowledge, skills and attitudes made necessary by the constantly changing conditions in which people now live” (Candy et al., 1994)
    The concept of lifelong learning implies a cycle where the learner contributes prior learning into a new learning environment and sees that learning upgraded (Pitman & Broomhall, 2009)
  • 7. Lifelong learning
    Lifelong learning or Adult education traditionally concerned
    more with social, political, personal, and cultural development
    than with economic development and employability
  • 8.
  • 9. Learning to be
    The world of education
    today and tomorrow
    Edgar Faure
    Felipe Herrera
    Abdul-RazzakKaddoura
    Henri Lopes
    Arthur V. Petrovsky
    MajidRahnema
    Frederick Champion Ward
    Paris: Unesco, 1972
    http://www.unesco.org/education/information/pdf/15_60.pdf
  • 10. Lifelong learning
    The Faure report formulated the philosophical–political concept of a humanistic, democraticand emancipatory system of learning opportunities for everybody, independent of class, race or financial means, and independent of the age of the learner
  • 11. Lifelong Learning
    • More international organizations embrace concept, i.e. European Council, Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development, World Bank, International Labor Office
    • 12. Main and common principle: education and organized learning should no longer be limited to a person’s youth, nor should education be exclusive domain of educational institutions
  • Lifelong learning
    • Idea of Lifelong Learning re-emerges in 1990s
    • 13. Propagated by international organizations again
    • 14. Different rationale: emphasis on it as human capital
    • 15. Espoused both by governments of Western industrialized countries and industry
  • UNESCO
    Education conceived as being related to personal development,
    democracy and the need of the society
    In Delors Report principles as ‘learning to be’ and ‘learning to
    live together’ central in discussions on lifelong learning
    International conference on adult education emphasizes social
    dimension of education, mentioning a right to education throughout
    life
  • 16. Learning: The Treasure within. Report to UNESCO of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-first Century, 1999
  • 17.
  • 18.
  • 19. European Union
    European Union launched activities in LLL in early 1990s
    An economic agenda followed, beginning by green and white papers in the
    1990s, later by the European Employment Strategy and the Lisbon Strategy
    Placed lifelong learning and the importance of updating skills close to the
    target of becoming a competitive knowledge economy, in line with a neoliberal
    approach to education (Borg & Mayo, 2005)
  • 20. OECD
    Initially included social aspects like personal development, in line with
    organization’s emphasis on social objectives in 1970s
    Influenced by Sweden, develops concept further, by suggesting that
    education beyond compulsory schooling should be organized in recurrent
    pattern, alternating with phases of work and other social activities
    ‘Recurrent Education’ is seen as a strategy for making Lifelong Learning a
    reality (OECD, 1973)
  • 21. OECD
    Since 1980s, emphasis towards economic concerns
    Based on meeting on ‘Lifelong Learning for All’ in 1996, works on
    specific elements of lifelong learning, like financing or
    qualification frameworks
    Mainly conceives lifelong learning as important economic corner
    stone for knowledge economies (OECD, 1996)
  • 22. World Bank
    Underlines importance of lifelong learning for development,
    favors private educational investments and provision beyond
    basic education and restricts the state to a coordinating role
  • 23. International Labor Office
    Still pursues a more social democratic agenda, conceiving lifelong learning as an important means for the development of worker’s skills, even if its current approach also acknowledges not only governmental, but also private and individual responsibility for continuing learning
  • 24. International Labor Office
    Paid educational leave introduced--Mechanism to permit workers engage in LLL activities, without losing jobs and getting paid
    ILO passes a convention on paid educational leave in 1974 (Schuetze, 1992)
  • 25. Lifelong learning
    Criticism from researchers that all international efforts, not being associated with national plans, more on theoretical level than providing a realistic framework
    Lifelong and recurrent education concepts imply extensive changes in entire education system, but also in enterprises, labor markets, social insurance and income transfer policies
  • 26. Lifelong learning
    • developing a culture of lifelong learning must be motivated by more than the economic rationale that currently dominates policy thinking
    • 27. despite persistent efforts at bridging the differences between general education and vocational education and training, the gap remains
    • 28. the level of employer involvement in lifelong learning programs clearly remains inadequate, and
    • 29. new resources are needed if implementation of policies for lifelong learning is to become affordable
  • How can Lifelong Learning become lasting experience?
    Need for restructuring the learning process
    Active student participation in learning
    Learning experiences building a lifelong habit of library use
    Critical use of available information resources
    Problem solving and association with real life situations
    More specifically
    - knowing when there is a need for information
    - identifying information needed to address a given problem or issue
    - finding needed information and evaluating the information
    - organizing the information
    - using the information effectively to address the problem or issue at hand
  • 30. Libraries
    “In the …. library setting, librarians can enhance social capital by collaborating with … and other … constituencies, immersing themselves in … and community life, bridging the gaps …, and working … to create authentic learning experiences in which individuals’ development of information literacy competencies is inextricably linked to learning about the world and ways of participating productively in it” (Stevens &Campbell, 2006)
  • 31. Libraries
    “…libraries as ‘cultural agencies’ create the conditions for the generation of social capital, lifelong learning, and the productive relationship between the two” (Stevens &Campbell, 2006)
  • 32. Adult learning
    Adults learn best when they:
    • Know the specific, practical reason or purpose for what they are being asked
    • 33. Can use their previous experiences as are relevant and supportive foundation for their new learning
    • 34. Take responsibility for making decisions about the learning, such as what form it will take and how they will be evaluated
    • 35. Understand the relevance of the learning to their job, life, family, country, or values
    • 36. Are allowed to actively learn using problem-based or activity-based learning rather than memorization of abstract ideas or content
    • 37. Can use their internal motivation to learn rather than an external, teacher-based motivation (Stern & Kaur, 2002)
  • Adult learning
    • Moving from pedagogy to andragogy (Hiemstra & Sisco, 1990)
    • 38. Malcolm Knowles: apostle of andragogy (Carlson, 1989)
    • 39. Andragogy and adult learning theory (Adams, 2003)
    • 40. Andragogical and Pedagogical Training Differences for Online Instructors (Gibbons andWentworth, 2001)
    • 41. Andragogy (Thompson, 2003)
    • 42. Dewald, Nancy H. (2003). “Pedagogy and andragogy.” In Elizabeth A Dupuis, ed. Developing web-based instruction : planning, designing, managing, and evaluating for results. New York : Neal-Schuman Publishers.
  • ASSUMPTIONS OF TEACHER-DIRECTED (PEDAGOGICAL) LEARNINGAND SELF-DIRECTED (ANDRAGOGICAL) LEARNING (Knowles, 1977)
  • 43. Concerns about Lifelong Learning
    How to make lifelong learning a practical reality -- a challenge to modern society (and to its organizations)
    Education, training and development continue to benefit those who are already well educated and those who are in employment
    As a general rule there is a direct relationship between level of education and unemployment rate: the higher the former the lower the latter (Bryans, 2001)
  • 44. Concerns about Lifelong Learning
    Two crucial tests for an education system:
    How well children can apply what they have learned outside the bounds of formal educational experience and
    How well they are prepared to continue learning and solving problems throughout the rest of their lives (Bentley, 1998)
  • 45. Information
    • A vital element for creativity and innovation
    • 46. A basic resource for learning and human thought
    • 47. A key resource in creating more knowledgeable citizens
    • 48. A factor that enables citizens to achieve better results in their academic lives, with regard to health, and at work
    • 49. An important resource for national socio-economic development
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/will-lion/2595497078
  • 50. Information--The Setting
    Increasing quantities of information to be accessed rapidly-- the
    Information explosion
    Critical evaluation of information necessary
    Individuals as critical consumers of information
  • 51. Information--The Setting
    “Sheer abundance of information and technology will not in itself create more informed citizens without a complementary understanding and capacity to use information effectively”(Bundy, 2004)
  • 52. Lifelong Learning beyond the Education process
    What of the billions of people who are not part of the higher education process? What of the people who never set foot in a library in search of information?
    I am not speaking here, necessarily, of the stereotype of children in less-developed nations whose classroom is a spot in the dust under a tree. I am speaking of the average Canadian, and their counterparts in other countries, who last used a library when they were in school and now retrieve all of their information from friends and family, experts whom they contact, the media and increasingly, Google (Campbell, 2004)
  • 53. Information Literacy
    Within today's information society, the most important learning outcome for all students is their being able to function as independent lifelong learners. The essential enabler to reaching that goal is information literacy (Breivik, 2000)
  • 54. Information Literacy
    “Information literacy forms the basis for lifelong learning. It is common to all disciplines, to all learning environments, and to all levels of education. It enables learners to master content and extend their investigations, become more self-directed, and assume greater control over their own learning” (ACRL, 2000)
  • 55. Information Literacy
    Information-literate individual able to
    determine the nature and extent of the information needed
    access needed information effectively and efficiently
    evaluate information and its sources critically
    incorporate selected information into their knowledge base
    use information effectively to accomplish a specific purpose
    understand the economic, legal and social issues surrounding the use of information, and
    use information ethically and legally (ACRL, 2000)
  • 56. Information Literacy
    • Ultimately, information literate people are those who have learned how to learn
    • 57. They know how to learn because they know how knowledge is organized, how to find information, and how to use information in such a way that others can learn from them
    • 58. They are people prepared for lifelong learning, because they can always find the information needed for any task or decision at hand(American Library Association, 1989)
  • How are Information Literacy and Lifelong Learning inter-related?
    Both concepts:
    • Largely self-motivated and self-directed
    • Self-empowering
    • Self-actuating(Unesco. Understanding Information Literacy, 2007)
  • 59. Undergraduate education
    Undergraduate education potential link in lifelong learning experiences for each individual
    Development of capacity for lifelong learning should be core for all programs in every discipline for coping with various learning opportunities
    Access to and critical use of information absolutely vital to lifelong learning; no person regarded educated unless “information literate”
    Many practices militate against development for lifelong learning attributes in graduates
  • 60. Undergraduate education
    Courses enhancing lifelong learning have following characteristics:
    provide systematic framework for viewing field of study
    offer comparative framework for viewing field of study
    seek to broaden the student and provide generic skills
    offer freedom of choice and flexibility in structure
    provide for incremental development of self-directed learning
  • 61. Undergraduate education
    Teaching methods have following characteristics:
    make use of peer-assisted and self-directed learning
    include experiential and real world learning
    make use of resource based and problem based teaching
    encourage development of reflective practice and critical self-awareness
    make use of open learning and alternative delivery mechanisms
    Assessment evaluates “what” has been learnt
  • 62.
  • 63.
  • 64. Teaching Information Literacy
    Information literacy is a learning issue not a library issue, classroom faculty must be responsible for students acquiring information literacy abilities
    All students must have sufficient opportunities to master the full range of information literacy abilities they will need for effective lifelong learning (Rockman, 2001)
  • 65. Teaching Information Literacy
    • Library orientation
    • 66. Single-class or “one-shot” bibliographic instruction courses
    • 67. Sessions associated with a specific assignment
    • 68. Generic library courses—for credit, required/not required
    • 69. Course integrated information literacy
  • Course integrated information literacy
    Various examples of implementation
    Mellon Faculty Institute on Undergraduate Research / University
    of California, Berkeley-The Berkeley project
    Library/Faculty Institute on Undergraduate Research / Hellenic
    Academic Libraries Link (HEAL-Link), Univ. of California, Berkeley
    and Alexander TEI of Thessaloniki
  • 70. Example of Information Literacy in the curriculum
    • “political literacy and information literacy are inextricably linked and impossible to separate”
    • 71. “become more politically literate, more information literate, and therefore better students and citizens”
    • 72. “an exercise in which they must read, listen to, and watch a variety of media sources (at least ten)”, then “review each source for content, bias, and quality of information” (Alexander, 2009)
  • An easy-to-read, non-technical overview explaining What “information literacy” means, designed for busy public policy-makers, business executives, civil society administrators and practicing professionalshttp://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0015/001570/157020e.pdf
  • 73. Information literacy and primary/ secondary education
    To assist students in information seeking and ethical use of
    information
    To protect them from possible misuses and emphasize safe use
    Not included in educational policies in most countries
  • 74. Information literacy and primary/secondary education
    G r a d e 5: Compare and contrast information obtained from subscription databases and from open-ended search engines on the Internet…
    Grades 7 & 8: Understand and communicate the ethical use of intellectual property. Use a variety of media to impart information, share opinions, and/or persuade an audience (audio, video, written).
    G r a d e s 9 t h r o u g h 12: Use a variety of specialized search engines and databases to locate relevant information. Demonstrate proper procedures and good citizenship online (Farmer, 2010)
  • 75. Research on Information Literacy skills in secondary education students
    The [American] Educational Testing Service conducted extended surveys in 2005 and 2006 to investigate students’ information fluency
    More than 10.000 students participated in the surveys
    Evidence “…of students' difficulty with ICT literacy despite their technical prowess”
    “…results reflect poor ICT literacy performance not only by students within one institution, but across participating high schools, community colleges, and four-year colleges and universities (Katz, 2007)
  • 76. Response to Changes in the digital age, the era of web 2.0 and participatory culture
    To reflect these changes the American Association of School
    Librarians published:
    TheStandards for the 21st-Century Learner (AASL, 2007)
    The Standards for the 21st-Century Learner in Action (AASL,
    2009), and
    Empowering Learners: Guidelines for School Library Media Programs (AASL, 2009)
  • 77.
  • 78. Standards for the 21st century learner
    Developed in 2007 by the American Association of School Librarians
    A new approach to education aiming at conceptual learning
    Away from rules children cannot interconnect and interpret to principles for application
    Train children in finding their own answers to real problems, based on resources and interpretation of the environment
    Assist trainers in designing learning strategies resulting in higher order learning outcomes (Standards for the 21st century, 2007)
  • 79. Standards for the 21st century learner
    Standard 1. Inquire, think critically, and gain knowledge
    Standard 2. Draw conclusions, make informed decisions, apply knowledge to new situations, and create new knowledge
    Standard 3. Share knowledge and participate ethically and productively as members of our democratic society
    Standard 4. Pursue personal and aesthetic growth
  • 80. Accompanies the standards and
    advises on their incorporation into the
    school library program
  • 81. Accompanies two previous publications
    aiming at creation of flexible environments,
    conducive to successful learning and
    acquisition of multiple literacies
  • 82. The Association of College and Research Libraries (2000). Information literacy competency standards for higher education. Chicago, IL: The Association of College and Research Libraries.
    http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/standards/standards.pdf
  • 83.
  • 84. Information Literacy Standards for Science and Engineering/Technology
    Based on the ACRL Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education, five standards and twenty-five performance indicators were developed for information literacy in Science & Engineering/Technology
    Each performance indicator is accompanied by one or more outcomes for assessing the progress toward information literacy of students of science and engineering or technology at all levels of higher education
    http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/standards/infolitscitech.cfm
  • 85. Australian and New Zealand Information Literacy Framework:
    principles, standards and practice. 2n ed. Ed. By Alan Bundy. Adelaide: Australian and New Zealand Institute for Information Literacy, 2004.
  • 86.
  • 87. ANZIIL
    Standard 1. The information literate person recognises the need for information and determines the nature and extent of the information needed
    Standard 2. The information literate person finds needed information effectively and efficiently
    Standard 3. The information literate person critically evaluates information and the information seeking process
    Standard 4. The information literate person manages information collected or generated
    Standard 5. The information literate person applies prior and new information to construct new concepts or create new understandings
    Standard 6. The information literate person uses information with understanding and acknowledges cultural, ethical, economic, legal, and social issues surrounding the use of information
  • 88. Society of College, National and University Libraries, SCONUL. (2011). The Seven Pillars of Information Literacy. SCONUL Working Group on Information Literacy
    http://www.sconul.ac.uk/groups/information_literacy/publications/coremodel.pdf
  • 89.
  • 90.
  • 91. Circular nature of model
    follows similar process of
    information acquisition
  • 92.
  • 93.
  • 94.
  • 95.
  • 96. Information competencieshttp://www.ifla.org/files/information-literacy/publications/ifla-guidelines-en.pdf
  • 97. Public libraries, lifelong learning and Information literacy
    What happens to citizens when they are not affiliated with a school anymore?
    What happens to citizens who have never attended secondary/post secondary education?
    Very little activity about information literacy
  • 98. Public libraries, lifelong learning and Information literacy
    Schools and universities can provide information literacy support and
    instruction during years of formal education but do not serve
    Individuals in the subsequent years of informal or self-directed study or
    life.
    As information literacy is a lifelong skill, public libraries are perfectly
    positioned to be a ‘constant presence throughout people’s lives,’ and
    able to provide ongoing support to individuals in developing
    information literacy skills(Harding, 2008)
  • 99. Public libraries, lifelong learning and Information literacy
    Public libraries are among the most important places for the members
    of a given community to connect with information so that they may
    read, interpret, and produce information that will be appropriate and
    valuable to the community
    By making information literacy a core mission, public libraries can
    reach out to all who wish to be lifelong learners rather than just the
    institutionally educated elite and, in so doing, nurture democracies (Hall,
    2010)
  • 100. Characteristics of Programs of Information Literacy that Illustrate Best Practices
    Category 1: Mission
    Category 2: Goals and Objectives
    Category 3: Planning
    Category 4: Administrative and Institutional Support
    Category 5: Articulation with the Curriculum
    Category 6: Collaboration
    Category 7: Pedagogy
    Category 8: Staffing
    Category 9: Outreach
    Category 10: Assessment/Evaluation (ACRL, 2003)
  • 101. Best Practice Characteristics for Developing Information Literacy in Australian Universities: a guideline
    A. Institutional/Strategic Planning
    Documentation and policy issues
    B. Operational/Administrative Planning
    Leadership, Cooperation, Financial, Curricular, Marketing issues
    C. Implementation/Curriculum Planning and Development
    Information Literacy Programs, Staff involved, Assessment and evaluation methods (CAUL, 2004)
  • 102. Characteristics of Programs of Information Literacy that Illustrate Best Practices: A Guideline
    Best Practices Initiative
    Institute for Information Literacy
    Draft Revision – January 2011
    http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/standards/characteristics_rev_.pdf
  • 103. Design of an Information Literacy Program
    Factors to be considered
    • Level and Educational goals of program
    • 104. Desired learning outcomes
    • 105. Adaptation of existing standards
    • 106. Tailored to the needs and background of recipients
    • 107. Content
    • 108. Teaching strategies: focus on learning, pedagogical issues, application of new technologies
    • 109. Assessment methods
  • Design of an Information Literacy Program
    Sections to be included
    1. Introduction—definition of IL/IF, scope
    2. History of similar efforts in institution
    3. Goals and objectives of program
    4. Body of the plan
    5. Oversight
    6. Methods of assessment
    7. Timeline for implementation
    8. Marketing plan (Burkhardt, 2005)
  • 110. Librarians
    • Key players in information literacy program development
    • 111. Be involved in teaching
    • 112. Cater for students’ learning needs
    • 113. Be visible in the academic community and participate in educational activities
  • Resources
    • The Learn Information Literacy Initiative of Southern Australia (LEARN Network, 2009)
    • 114. Core Information literacy of the University of Idaho (University of Idaho, 2010)
    • 115. LOEX instructional resource webpage (Library Orientation Exchange, 2004-2007)
    • 116. OWL/Purdue
    • 117. Usability.gov
  • http://infolitglobal.net/directory/en/home
    database containing information literacy materials from different parts of the world, on behalf of UNESCO
  • 118. Andragogy
    Adams, N. B. (2003). Andragogy and adult learning theory.
    Retrieved from
    http://www2.selu.edu/Academics/Faculty/nadams/etec630&665/Knowles.html
    Carlson, R. (Spring1989). Malcolm Knowles: Apostle of andragogy. Vitae Scholasticae8(1).
    Retrieved from:
    http://www.nl.edu/ academics/cas/ace/resources/malcolmknowles.
    Gibbons, H. S. & G.P. Wentworth (2001). “Andragogical and pedagogical training differences for online instructors online.” Journal of Distance Learning Administration, IV(III).
    Retrieved from:
    http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/ fall43/gibbons_wentworth43.html.
    Hiemstra, R. & B. Sisco (1990). “Moving from pedagogy to andragogy.” Individualizing instruction. San Francisco: Jossey- Bass.
    Retrieved from:
    http://www-distance.syr.edu/andraggy. html.
  • 119. Andragogy
    Knowles, Malcolm S. (1977). “Adult learning processes: Pedagogy and andragogy.” Religious Education, 72: 2, 202- 211.
    Knowles, Malcolm S. (1980). The Modern Practice of Adult Education: From Pedagogy to Andragogy. Chicago: Follett.
    Thompson, M. A. (2003). Andragogy for adult learners in higher education.
    Retrieved from:
    http://webcache.googleusercontent. com/ search?qZcache: HG18Jh11JhQJ :business.clayton.edu/mthompso/ 02%2520Allied%2520Academy%2520Paper%2520Final
  • 120. Journals-Lifelong Learning
    • Adult education and development
    • 121. Adult education quarterly
    • 122. Adult learning
    • 123. International journal of lifelong education
    • 124. International review of education
    • 125. Journal of continuing higher education
    • 126. New directions for adult & continuing education
    • 127. Studies in continuing education
  • Journals-Information Literacy
    Communications in Information Literacy
    http://www.comminfolit.org/index.php/cil (open access)
    Journal of Information Literacy
    http://jil.lboro.ac.uk/ojs/index.php/JIL/index (open access)
    College & Research Libraries
    Community & Junior College Libraries
    Journal of Academic Librarianship
    Research Strategies (ceased publication)
    School Library Media Quarterly
  • 128. Agencies
  • 129. In the 21st century, the need to embed the principles of lifelong learning in education and broader development policies takes on a more urgent tone than ever before Lifelong learning principles, if systematically implemented, will be able to contribute to more just and equitable societies
    http://uil.unesco.org
  • 130. National Institute for Literacy
    Equipped for the Future: Content Standards for Adult Literacy and Lifelong Learning(2003)
    http://www.nifl.gov/lincs/collections/eff/eff_standards.html
  • 131. National Institute of Adult Continuing Education (NIACE)
    Aims to encourage all adults to engage in learning of all kinds
    Began in 1921 as the British Institute for Adult Education, voluntary organization, a charity and company limited by guarantee owned by its members
    http://www.niace.org.uk/about-us
  • 132. National Institute of Adult Continuing Education (NIACE)
    • Operates across all sectors of post-compulsory education
    • 133. Promotes learning and strengths the voice of learners
    • 134. Influences, monitors and contributes to policy and practice
    • 135. Works regionally, nationally and internationally in all sectors of adult education
  • Can we reverse the goals of lifelong learning, especially in this difficult economic environment?
    “the agenda since the 1990s has definitely become devoted to servicing industry, making the population viable economic units. The idealistic purposes of adult education such as personal fulfillment and more radically democratization, civic engagement and participation appear to have taken something of a backseat”
  • 136. References
    Alexander, R.C. (2009). “Political literacy as information literacy.” Communications in Information Literacy, 3(1), 9-13.
    AACC (American Association of Community Colleges). (2008). Position Statement on Information Literacy.
    Retrieved from:
    http://www.aacc.nche.edu/About/Positions/Pages/ps05052008.aspx
    American Library Association. (1989). Presidential Committee on information literacy: Final report.
    Retrieved from: http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/publications/whitepapers/presidential.cfm
  • 137. References
    ACRL (2004). Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education.
    Retrieved from:
    http://www.ala.org/ala/acrl/acrlstandards/informationliteracycompetency.htm.
    ACRL. Institute for Information Literacy. Best Practices Initiative (2003). Characteristics of Programs of Information Literacy that Illustrate Best Practices: A Guideline.
    Retrieved from:
    http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/standards/characteristics.cfm
    ACRL. Institute for Information Literacy. Best Practices Initiative (2011). Characteristics of Programs of Information Literacy that Illustrate Best Practices: A Guideline: Draft revision.
    Retrieved from:
    http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/standards/characteristics_rev_.pdf
    Bentley, T (1998). Learning beyond the classroom. London: Routledge.
    Breivik, Patricia Senn. (2000). “Information literacy and Lifelong Learning: the Magical partneship.” Ist International Lifelong Learning, Central Queensland University, 16-19 June, 2000.
    Retrieved from:
    http://bivir.uacj.mx/dhi/DoctosNacioInter/INFORMATIONLITERACYANDLIFELONGLEARNING.htm
  • 138. References
    Bryans, P. (2001). “Family learning in the workplace: nurturing lifelong learning.”Futures 33.
    Bundy, A. (Ed.). (2004). Australian and New Zealand Information Literacy Framework: Principles, standards and practice. 2nd ed. Adelaide: Australian and New Zealand Institute for Information Literacy.
    Campbell, Sandy (2004). “Defining Information Literacy in the 21st Century.” World Library and Information Congress: 70th IFLA General Conference and Council
    Retrieved from:
    http://archive.ifla.org/IV/ifla70/papers/059e-Campbell.pdf
    Candy, Philip C., Gay Crebert & Jane O’Leary (1994). Developing lifelong learners through undergraduate education. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.
    Retrieved from:
    http://www.dest.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/AF55BDE9-B90B-466C-A7C8-E938D1515C46/3933/94_21.pdf
  • 139. References
    Candy, Philip C. (2002). "Information Literacy and Lifelong Learning," July 2002, White
    Paper prepared for UNESCO, the U.S. National Commission on Libraries and
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