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How to Plan and Develop Information Literacy Programmes in Schools
 

How to Plan and Develop Information Literacy Programmes in Schools

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Presentation by Prof. Dr. Serap Kurbanoglu ...

Presentation by Prof. Dr. Serap Kurbanoglu
Hacettepe University
Department of Information Management
Venue: Empatic International Workshop - Schools Sector in Krakow, Poland
Date: 8 June 2011

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  • Setting up IL programs: managerial issues ???
  • (Lau, 2004; (Rockman, 128-129) ; (Snavely, 2001) ; (Iannuzzi, 1997)
  • Best practices; Lau, 2004 Statement of purpose: Articulate the mission, goals and objectives of the program; Actions: List the actions required to achieve the goal s Environmental scan: Perform an environmental scan. Incorporate findings from environmental scans; Opportunities and challenges: Address current and future opportunities and challenges. Resources: Describe the resources required Budget: Estimate your budget Administrative and instutional support: Acquire adminisrative support Integration with the curriculum: Include mechanisms for articulation/coordination with the curriculum; BUDGET: Figures determine how much funding the IL program needs . Budget information determines the feasibility of the IL objectives and goals should clearly present program ’s mission, goals, and objectives should address current and future opportunities and challenges should be tied to library and institutional information technology planning and budgeting cycles should take into account social, economic, and political trends that may affect organization ’s future should involve students, faculty, librarians, administrators Should establishe formal and informal mechanisms for communication and ongoing dialogue with the members of the institute Should establishe the means for implementation and adaptation Should address, with clear priorities, human, technological and financial resources, current and projected, including administrative and institutional support; Should include mechanisms for coordination with the curriculum Should include a program for professional, faculty, and staff development; a Should establishes a process for assessment at the outset, including periodic review of the plan to ensure flexibility formal and informal mechanisms Formal mechanisms may include official reports or documentation, meetings, forums etc. Informal may include e-mail, phone, hallway conversations, websites for running threaded conversations, etc.
  • Best practices; Lau, 2004 Collaboration and partnership: Establish collaboration and partnership among teachers/faculty, librarians, technology coordinators, administrators, curriculum planners and learning facilitators Pedagogy: Build your program on pedagogical foundation Outreach and Promotion: Promote your program for support and success Assessment and evaluation: Establish a process for assessment, including periodic review of the plan to ensure flexibility Characteristics of the learner: Examine characteristics of the user Mode of instruction: Select the most appropriate mode of instruction
  • At all levels of the educational institutions, librarians and administrators can encourage the inclusion of IL concepts and standards into their institution ’s strategic vision and planning process This could include institution’s mission or vision statement, the strategic plan, institutional goals and other documents that set the overall tone and direction of the institution The library’s own documents should also include these concepts (Snavely, 2001) Other important policies and documents that relate to (undergraduate) education, such as general education definitions and requirements, teaching and learning guidelines, etc. are appropriate places for information literacy concepts to appear. In many cases existing institutional documents contain language that incorporates principles of information literacy without it being labeled as such.It is important for librarians to help expose those connections and build upon themExample: One of the goals for the strategic vision of Penn State University is to “develop world-class teachers and learners ” (it can only be achieved through IL (Snavely, 2001) 1.includes a definition of information literacy; 2.is consistent with the “Information Literacy Competency Standards 3.corresponds with the mission statements of the institution; articulates its purpose for the instruction program in the context of the educational mission of the institution and the needs of the learning community; 4.corresponds with the format of related institutional documents; 5.clearly reflects the contributions of and expected benefits to all institutional constituencies; 6.appears in appropriate institutional documents; recognizes that instruction programs prepare learners not only for immediate curricular activities, but also for experiences with information use beyond the classroom-in work settings, careers, continuing education and self-development, and lifelong learning in general; and 7.assumes the availability of and participation in relevant lifelong learning options for all—faculty, staff, and administration; and 8.is reviewed periodically and, if necessary, revised.(best) reflects changes in the institution and learning community through regular review and revision when appropriate. (ACRL, 2003, guidelines) recognizes the diverse nature of the learning community, including the varieties of learning theory, attitudes, educational levels, life experiences, cultures, technology skill levels involves its institutional community in the formulation of campus-wide information literacy goals and general outcomes; aligns its goals with the Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education, and clearly states a definition of information literacy; recognizes the diverse nature of the learning community, including the varieties oflearning theory, attitudes, educational levels, life experiences, cultures, technology skill levels, and other learner variables such as proximity to the campus itself (distance learning students);
  • Make sure that goals for your information literacy program: are consistent with the mission, goals, and objectives of the institution; are consistent with the mission statement of the IL program establish measurable outcomes for evaluation for the program; reflect sound pedagogical practice; accommodate input from various constituencies; articulate the integration of information literacy across the curriculum; accommodate student growth in skills and understanding throughout the school years; apply to all learners, regardless of delivery system or location; reflect the desired outcomes of preparing students for their academic pursuits and for effective lifelong learning; are evaluated and reviewed periodically
  • SWOT and TOWS analysis helps you get a better understanding of your strategic choices. It helps you ask and answer how you can: - Make the most of your strengths Circumvent your weaknesses Capitalize on your opportunities Manage your threats Useful when you need to understand your own competitive advantages Provides information helpful in matching your organization’s resources and capabilities to the environment in which it operates Sometimes can be too inward
  • If you were in charge… How would you apply this competitor’s resources? How has the organization expanded? How has it financed and managed its growth? Does it have the resources to expand internationally? Use online?
  • TOWS Strategic Alternatives Matrix An extension of the SWOT analysis Analyze the external environment (threats and opportunities) and your internal environment (weaknesses and strengths) to help you think about the strategy of your organization Useful for marketing campaigns Threats and opportunities External environmental factors over which you do not have control (changing demographics) Weaknesses and strengths Internal factors (poor location; not enough capital; good reputation) List your internal strengths and weaknesses; external threats Suggest strategies that use your strengths to take advantage of opportunities (by overcoming weaknesses) Suggest strategies that use your strengths to avoid threats (or minimize weaknesses) How can you use your strengths to take advantage of these opportunities? How can you take advantage of your strengths to avoid real and potential threats? How can you use your opportunities to overcome the weaknesses you are experiencing? How can you minimize your weaknesses and avoid threats? (Defensive strategies to protect yourself from loss)
  • Include librarians, faculty, administrators, program coordinators, graphic designers, teaching/learning specialists, and others as needed in your team ?? Bu egzersiz olabilir Few librarians receive special training in/on pedagogy within existing LIS curriculum. Human Resources To achieve the goals set forth in the library ’s mission statement for instruction programs, the library should employ, develop , or have access to sufficient personnel with appropriate education, experience, and expertise to: teach individuals and groups in the institutional community; use instructional design processes and design a variety of instruction programs and services; promote, market, manage, and coordinate diverse instruction activities; collect and interpret assessment data to evaluate and update instruction programs and services; integrate and apply instructional technologies into learning activities when appropriate; produce instructional materials using available media and electronic technologies; collaborate with faculty and other academic professionals in planning, implementing, and assessing information literacy programming; and respond to changing technologies, environments, and communities. Many instruction programs will have a designated program manager, or a coordinating/oversight group, with expertise in pedagogy, instructional design, assessment, and other instructional issues. Those with primary managerial/coordination oversight for instructional programs should have clearly written and delineated position descriptions setting forth the scope of their responsibilities. (ACRL, 2003, guidelines)
  • are adequate in number and skills to support the program ’s mission; Make sure that the staff serve as role models, exemplifying and advocating IL and lifelong learning; develop experience in instruction/teaching and assessment of student learning; develop experience in curriculum development and expertise to develop, coordinate, implement, maintain, and evaluate information literacy programs; use instructional design processes and design a variety of instruction programs; promote, market, manage, and coordinate diverse instruction activities; collect and interpret data to evaluate and update instruction programs and services; integrate and apply instructional technologies into learning activities when appropriate; produce instructional materials using available media and electronic technologies; employ a collaborative approach to working with others actively engaged in systematic and continual professional development and training; respond to changing technologies, environments, and communities; receive regular evaluations about the quality of their contribution to the program
  • (ACRL, 2003, guidelines)
  • Leadership: Leadership refers to who is in charge of the program, how the leadership fits into the organizational structure of the institution, and who is expected to participate in the program, including any support staff. other program staff: In this instance, program staff refers to an information literacy program ’s staff, and could include any of the academic support units or centers on campus, such as learning centers, teaching centers, and IT units. Rewards: In many institutions this would mean that such involvements and achievements would be acknowledged as important in the awarding of tenure and/or promotion. In most, it would certainly count for yearly performance assessments and salary increases. Support for Instructional facilities The library should have, or should have ready access to, facilities of sufficient size and number that are equipped to meet the goals of the instruction program and reach the instructional learning community. The instructional setting(s) should duplicate the equipment and technology available to users. At minimum, the facilities should allow the instructor to demonstrate information systems in a designated teaching space, with the appropriate technology, to a variety of audiences. It is desirable that the facilities provide individual hands-on experience for those being instructed. It should be flexible enough to accommodate active learning and student collaboration when appropriate. (ACRL, 2003, guidelines) Instructional support facilities The library should provide convenient access to the equipment and services necessary to design, produce, reproduce, and update instructional materials in a variety of formats. There should be sufficient space for the preparation and storage of instructional materials. (ACRL, 2003, guidelines) C. Financial support The instructional program should have adequate funds identified to attain the stated goals of the program. The funding for an instruction program should cover all personnel costs connected with the program, including but not limited to student, clerical, and technical assistance. The funding should cover supplies and materials; equipment or access to equipment; design, production, reproduction, and revision of materials; promotion and evaluation of the instruction program, as well as other identified costs. The budget allocation process should allow for equipment and software replacement and enhancement as changes occur. The funding should provide for training and continuing education of those involved in the instruction program. Collaborative instructional projects with other campus units should involve sharing of budgetary responsibilities when appropriate. Whenever possible, instructional personnel should use the expertise of development officers and those institutional staff persons with external fundraising responsibilities to further expand or enhance the program . (ACRL, 2003, guidelines) D. Support for continuing education, training, and development Support for continuing professional development helps to establish an atmosphere conducive to innovation and high morale. It is recommended that the library: provide a structured program for orientation and training of new instruction personnel; develop a program of continuing education or make available continuing education opportunities; and whenever appropriate, identify opportunities for release time for staff to engage in continuing education and/or project development in technology applications, surveys, and other instruction-related projects . (ACRL, 2003, guidelines)
  • Disseminate information literacy widely; Emphasize student-centered learning; Embedding and integrating IL into curricula Where possible IL training should be embedded within the subject curriculum to maximise relevance, timeliness and student motivation Stand-alone sessions are less effective; it can be difficult for a learner to transfer a skill practised in a generic environment into a subject-specific context Ideally, your session/s will be timetabled within the module. IL should be included in the learning outcomes of the module A ssessment should incorporate an element of testing IL skills governance structures Governance structures are the bodies in an institution that have authority over the decision-making process of that institution.
  • The cornerstone of an IL program is the powerful partnership between faculty and librarians Faculty have governance of the curriculum, a steady influence on students, and mastery of their discipline Librarians have exceptional information research skills, knowledge of student searching behavior, and a commitment to the importance of IL in the lives of students. Faculty and librarians together can make a formidable team that can sustain an IL program that results in information literate students Incorporating information literacy across curricula, in all programs and services, and throughout the administrative life of the university, requires the collaborative efforts of faculty, librarians, and administrators. Through lectures and by leading discussions, faculty establish the context for learning. Faculty also inspire students to explore the unknown, offer guidance on how best to fulfill information needs, and monitor students ’ progress. (ACRL, 2000 – standards). Academic librarians coordinate the evaluation and selection of intellectual resources for programs and services; organize, and maintain collections and many points of access to information; and provide instruction to students and faculty who seek information. Administrators create opportunities for collaboration and staff development among faculty, librarians, and other professionals who initiate information literacy programs, lead in planning and budgeting for those programs, and provide ongoing resources to sustain them. (ACRL, 2000 – standards). Well-designed assignments are central to student learning, because they provide opportunities for active engagement with subject content, challenging students to Think critically, reflect on their processes for finding and using information, and take the Necessary steps to take charge of their own learning. Library and faculty can work together to create assignments that demostrate how well Have learned, applied, and communicated IL principles (Rockman, 18) Davis suggests that assignments for first-year students be divided into sequential steps, with specific Due dates and checkpoints for each piece – identifying a topic; starting the paer ’s title, purpose, and Major points; gathering sources; developing an outline; writing the first draft, revising the paper; and submitting the final paper. These stapes provide opportunities for instructional intervention and reflect important components of IL (Rockman, 18)
  • The question is: How to develop a successful partnership between faculty and librarians, and how to use that partnership to teach IL Focusing faculty attention on IL, let alone creating an enduring partnership, can present challenges: Faculty have many competing interests (they must teach their classes. They must publish. They must make presentations and atend conferences. They must contribute to the welfare of the university. They must advise students. Most faculty feel that they have established a partnersip with librarians when they requested a one-hour bibliographic instruction session for their students and given class reading lists to the bibliographers Forming a long-term partnership with librarians to teach IL is not at the top of the faculty ’s agenda (Rockman, 30) Determine the partners on the target Academic senate Faculty engaged with center on teaching and learning Part-time faculty members Academic administrators Department chairs Individual professors who may be doing work that would benefit from an IL program
  • 3. reports, updates, bulletins, presentations, and many conversations are necessary over an extended period of time topenetrate the collective consciousness of campus faculty and to allow IL rise to the top of the long list of issues confronting campuses today. (Rockman, 34) Alt maddeler Many faculty will not think of IL as requiring much attention. Much of IL seemsbasic to them and so much a part of their academic life that they take it for granted. However, faculty are very involved in teaching critical thinking andİn producing students who are critical thinkers. Critical thinking is the best platformFor a meeting of minds between faculty and librarian. Make a powerful link betweenCritical thinking and IL as part of the conversation to interest faculty in the need for student IL skills (Rockman, 33). 2. students, living in a world of abundant information, need IL. It gives students a Strategic advantage. IL is particularly important in disciplines, like the sciences or engineering, where the knowledge base can change dramatically every few years. Since faculty want their students to be successful throughout life, they will appreciateThat students who graduate with IL skills can keep learning throughout life and keep contributing to their profession and to society. (Rockman, 33). 3. If faculty are not happy with the quality of papers and other assignments turned in,They may want to influence the process of information reserach. This is wehere the ILProgram comes in. 4. Students need ILskills , as well as literacy, mathematical literacy, visual literacy, media literacy, computer literacy skills, in order to be successful in their academic endeavors 5. Faculty do respect data. It is one thing to talk about IL as an important skill; it is quite another to demonstrate to the faculty the skill levels of their own students by showing assessment data. They will see the immediate impact and understand the consequences of underskilled students. Showing assessment data to faculty is not without its own problems. Librarians should be prepared to Discuss the standards on which the assessment is based and discuss how he test measured those standardsç Faculty will want to know how they will know when students are information literate. Carrying out an assessment does open up another arena of partnership. Some librarians might want to involve faculty early by asking their assistance in designing the assessment tools for IL:
  • Introduction: Not every partnership goes smoothly. Any group of people have conflicting agendas, different orientations andexperiences, and different priorities and interests. Some upsets and conflict is inevitable in any partnership, but many problems can be avoided by knowing in advance the most common pitfalls in faculty-librarian partnerships that address the issue of IL (Rockman, 35) Librarians can advice, recommend, and urge but cannot dictate or control the curriculum. Librarians should be very cautious and avoid awakening the territoriality of the faculty regarding the curriculum. 2. Most IL programs fail because they are parochial (limited) and eventually come to beSeen as only a library effort. To prevent this, librarians will deploy a strategy thatMakes the IL program part of the educational strategy of the university, not just part of the service program of the library. To catch the attention of faculty and academic administrators, IL must be part of the academic effort rather than just a toolbox of skills that students learn in order to use the library. 3. All too often, librarians lay out the goals for IL in a canned way to the faculty. But faculty have not spent years reading about IL and libraries. They are not so ready to accept the IL standards. They first seek understanding and then, from that understanding, seek to create their own goals. People who share in the creation of goals are moreCommitted to a program than people who have goals delivered to them. Even if it feels to librarians like they are traversing well-traveled roads, it is worth spending time with the faculty to create mutual goals for the program. 4. Many librarians claim ownership of the domain of IL and are focused on making sure that it remainsWithin library control. Faculty are busy with their own agendas. When they hear a message of exclusiveness, they are only too willing to let it happen elsewhere. The result of a message of exclusiveness is that the librarians will eventually have to go it alone, without the backing and support of the faculty. Instead, librarians should send a message of inclusiveness and should seek every avenue for creating the program with joint faculty-librarian authority 5. Many disciplines are very information-intensive, and many faculty cannot get through all that they want the students to know. If librarians demand too many IL sessions, then faculty, feeling under pressure, may simply reject the entire effort. Remember That IL supports the curriculum; it does not drive it. (Rockman, 36) 6. Keep things simple. More detail can come later. But keeping things simple will keep the faculty engaged, and an engaged faculty means engaged students. Three essetial skills are enough to start with: the ability to articulate the search, the ability To develop a search strategy, the ability to understand the concept of valid information. 7. Librarians should also be attentive to the timing of the conversations about IL. If there are much higher priorities – for example budget cuts or a conflict between faculty and administration – this is not the time to launch an IL program. 8. Despite all that has been written and said about IL, be prepared to defin it. Most faculty have heard the term but not the definition. Many may have heard the definition but still wonder what it is all about. There are many more who confuse IL with computer literacy. Before any program is started, faculty should be educated about what IL is what it is not. If the faculty do not have a clear definition of IL from the start, there will be a lot of confusion and goal misdirection when the IL program begins.(Rockman, 37) Once the partners have been identified, awareness created, and pitfalls avoided, librarians are ready to use the partnership to teach IL
  • media resources Media resources may include films or videos, audio programs, or any other type of media that can facilitate instruction.
  • (Best practices; HILT, 4) Outreach: Bring services to people at where they spend time media channels Media channels may include radio, television, student newspapers, faculty newsletters, and any other such news sources for the institution. It could also include media channels directly connected to the library such as library newsletters and websites. formal and informal Formal channels include radio, television, student newspapers, faculty newsletters, library newsletters and websites. Informal channels include department meetings, signage, billboards, e-mail, classes.
  • Foster communication among the institutional community to achieve support for the program Keep track of the views and proposals on library and skills instruction of professional or vocational bodies in the subject field, and draw the links with IL to the School ’ s attention HILT, 4 Offer to deliver a session in partnership with an academic, e.g. in a session on plagiarism and referencing you could offer to demonstrate and explain the advantages of EndNote. This can effectively reinforce the relationship between your teaching and that of the academic staff. Key members of the staff: e.g. those on research, teaching and library committees, course directors, the skills co-ordinator and leaders of skills or other modules. Find out which lecturers have an interest in IL and develop these contacts.
  • HILT, 5 In order to maximise attendance: Get involved in registration week events. Give a lively 10 minute presentation . This is an ideal opportunity to highlight the importance of the IL sessions students will be attending If held in registration week, ensure that the library orientation session is included in the student ’ s registration week timetable and handbook and mentioned in the course introductory lecture If your orientation session is in week 1 and you have had no prior contact with the students, arrange with lecturing staff to advertise and promote your session through an announcement at the start of a lecture. Better still, drop by and make the announcement yourself (but obtain permission first!) U se the term ‘ l ibrary skills ’ or ‘ research skills ’ if you think that will be more readily accepted and understood. Be friendly, be approachable
  • Best practices; (ACRL, 2003, guidelines) (Rockman, 235) Faculty, librarians, and others will find that discussing assessment methods collaboratively is a very productive exercise in planning a systematic, comprehensive information literacy program. This assessment program should reach all students, pinpoint areas for further program development, and consolidate learning goals already achieved. It also should make explicit to the institution ’s constituencies how information literacy contributes to producing educated students and citizens (ACRL 2000). Many librarians feel unprepared to conduct an assessment of IL Assessment can offer an opportunity for librarians and faculty to develop learning objectives for IL, plan instruction that is an integral part of the curriculum, and construct instruments that measure the stated objectives. Test results can be used to identify weak areas of skills, to determine the efficacy of an instruction program, and to make improvements (Rockman, 207) Studies point out the importance of assessing students to determine their levels of IL, to ascertain which models of information competency instruction are effective, and to evaulate the relationship between the library ’s information competency instruction and student learning outcomes (Rockman, 246) Students will learn more if instruction and assessment are integrally related The development of specific valid and reliable instruments to measure students ’ IL skills is not/ has not been an easy task Such tools have the potential to help inform faculty, students, policymakers, and governing bodies about needed changes in the curriculum, new communication technologies, or instructional strategies to help ensure that college and university students can function successfully while in school and once they enter the ever-changing, technologically based workforce (Rockman, 246) Colleges and universities have found that outcomes-based assessment (how a student may demonstrate IL principles at the beginning of an academic career) and capstone ??? experiences (in which students demonstrate that they can integrate and apply their knowledge in the senior year with learning sustained and transferred from setting to setting) are both good assessment measures (Rockman, 247) Unfortunately, most institutions choose to assess IL skills using only pretests and posttests. Although these instruments are easy to score, they do not fully demonstrate students ’ skills and abilities, since they do not capture actual student performances. Often these tests are objective in nature (true-false, multiple-choice, short answer, matching), paper-based, and administered at the beginning and end of an academic class to indicate change over time. They are not necessarily linked to performance objectives and do not demonstrate how well a student has learned to think critically and navigate through a search strategy process to find, evaluate, use, and apply information to meet a specific need. (Rockman, 247). Tests may measure how well students have learned information, but they do not demonsrate how well students can solve problems using that information (Makii, 2002 – ben bunu Rockman ’dan aldım. S. 247) Embedded assessment – examining student work within a course – is another technique that can be useful for improving or advancing information comptence skills and abilities (Rockman, 248) Assessing outcomes is an ongoing challenge. There are three levels of assessment 1. assessment measures that can be conducted by the library independently (because they have access to the data, or can collect it)İncreased use of databases (library and its sources)Quality of questions asked at service points (quality and complexity of the questions asked at refrence desk)Competency tests / self assessment (pre and post tests) (Iannuzzi, 1997) 2. assessment methodologies that require collaboration with others (such as faculty and/or academic programs or campus wide coordination) improved student papers / assignmentsBetter research as evidenced by bibliographies (Iannuzzi, 1997) 3. campus / library interaction and reserachStudent retention / successThe assessment becomes more difficult and increasingly complex when we move outward from the inner circle (library ’s independent assessment) (Iannuzzi, 1997)
  • acknowledge differences in learning and teaching styles by using a variety of appropriate outcome measures, such as portfolio assessment, oral defense, quizzes, essays, direct observation, anecdotal, peer and self review, and experience; assessment Although in this document, the terms evaluation and assessment are used interchangeably, for educators these terms have different meanings. For example, according to Frank Hodnett, "Evaluation is to determine significance or worth or judging the effectiveness or worth of educational programs. Assessment is to determine a rate or amount and is used as an activity to measure student learning and other human characteristics. Put more simply we assess people and evaluate things or objects." (Frank Hodnett, Evaluation vs. Assessment , Spring 2001 ) student outcomes Student outcomes evaluation should not only measure how much students have learned but also the teaching processes that are used for learning. formative and summative Formative and summative and short-term and longitudinal are only two methods of evaluation. Other methods may be more appropriate for the purposes of the evaluation. process and product Student outcomes should be measured in terms of the quality of the product as well as the processes the student used to create the product. The learning outcomes are necessarily generic. However ‘information literacy manifests itself in the specific understanding of knowledge creation, scholarly activity and publication processes found in…disciplines ’. Therefore educators (teachers, librarians, staff developers, learning advisers, trainers, curriculum designers and others) should work together to develop assessment tools and strategies in the context of particular disciplines and workplaces. (Australian) Discussing assessment strategies and objectives collaboratively can also facilitate planning a developmental approach to integrating and embedding information literacy across the curriculum. . (Australian)
  • (Rockman, 72) Keeping the prospective users (their characteristics) in mind is essential in the development of instructional programs especially when considering the use of electronic teaching tools such as on-line tutorials They were born during the computer age and grew up in a technological world They are a much more technically sophisticated generation than previous generations They are referred to as Generation Y, Echo Boomers, The Plug-and-Play-Generation, Millenials, The Game Boy Generation, The-Cut-and-Paste Generation (Rockman, 72) They come to higher education ready to accept on-line tutorials that deliver specific content within a self-paced, interactive, individualized instructional environment They appreciate the fact that these tutorials can be programmed to give immediate feedback and are available twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week 3. Ability to multitask: It is not unusual to view a student speaking on a cell-phone, sending off an instant message, and completing a research paper, all at thesame time. on-line tutorial developers need to explore how best to create the diverse paths from which these students can select Librarians must also critically examine this multitasking phenomenon Can some of these new communication paradigms be integrated into on-line efforts? Are there facets of instant messaging and on-line chats that can provide a more collaborative learning experience within the tutorials? (Rockman, 73) (Because their characteristics have an impact on the (on-line) tutorials) ?? (Without this insight one can run the risk of creating a tutorial with little relevance for its intended audience. Most of the students currently entering universities were born at about the same time as the Macintosh computer They grew up with the graphical user interface, mouse, and local area networks Later, they embraced home on-line information services, chat rooms, cell phones, and school computer labs Today, they also benefit from the wireless devices (ıt is important to keep these points in mind when considering the use of electronic teaching tools such as on-line tutorials. Making the best use of digital technologies requires an accurate understanding of the habits of current students and their preferred learning styles in order to effectively design and develop technological programs that will expand and enhance their learning of IL principles, whether in teaching or research institutions (Rockman, 245) Although these students may have taught themselves how to surf the Internet, download music, or send e-mail, they have not taught themselves to be efficientin their searches, to evalute th sources of the information they are downloading, or to synthesize the information in a meaningful way. These students are computer literate, but numerous studies have shown that they are not information literate.
  • advice to individuals during the reference interview process; in-depth research consultations and appointments; individualized instruction; electronic or print instruction aids; group instruction in traditional or electronic classrooms; Web tutorials and Web-based instruction; asynchronous modes of instruction (e-mail, bulletin boards); synchronous modes of instruction (chat software, videoconferencing); course management software; and hybrid or distributed learning or distance learning, employing combinations of the previous methods. (ACRL, 2003, guidelines) Examples of curricular and program structures with which instruction programs can become engaged include (but are not limited to): first-year seminars, writing-across-the-curriculum programs; general education core requirements; research methods courses in disciplinary majors; capstone courses, learning communities, and cohorts; undergraduate research experiences/internships; linked credit courses; and experiential learning/service learning courses. (ACRL, 2003, guidelines)
  • The modes selected should be consistent with the content and goals of sound information literacy instruction. Where appropriate, more than one mode of instruction should be used based on knowledge of the wide variety of learning styles of individuals and groups. For suggestions and explanations of modes of instruction, see the Sourcebook of Bibliographic Instruction . When possible, instruction should employ active learning strategies and techniques that require learners to develop critical thinking skills in concert with information literacy skills. Planning such active learning strategies and techniques should be carried out collaboratively with faculty in order to increase overall student engagement in the learning process and to extend opportunities for a more reflective approach to information retrieval, evaluation, and use. For useful examples of course-specific active learning exercises, see Designs for Active Learning: A Sourcebook of Classroom Strategies for Information Education . Planning an instruction program should draw on the expertise of a wide variety of personnel, depending on local needs and available staff. Examples of available expertise may include: instructional design/teaching methods: faculty development offices, teaching/learning centers; technology integration: technology support centers; assessment, surveys: teaching/learning centers, institutional research/assessment offices; and student demographics/characteristics: institutional research, campus/student life offices. (ACRL, 2003, guidelines) . Program structures Each institution will develop its own overall approach to instruction programming, but a successful comprehensive program will have the following elements: a clearly articulated structure, described in readily available documents, showing the relationships among various components of the program; an integral relationship with key institutional curricula and initiatives (e.g., general education, writing programs, etc.) so that there is horizontal breadth to the program; and a progression of information literacy learning outcomes matched to increasingly complex learning outcomes throughout a student ’s academic career so that there is vertical integration in the program. Information literacy programming should reach beyond the first year or general education courses and be present in discipline-specific coursework or courses in the majors. To meet these general guidelines, instruction programs should identify curricular structures already in place or under development on their campuses that support an evolving, "tiered" approach to information literacy programming. Instruction librarians themselves should also seek opportunities for collaborative engagement in new institutional initiatives and redesigned curricula that allow for a deeper interplay between the library ’s instruction program and the total campus learning environment. (ACRL, 2003, guidelines)
  • The modes selected should be consistent with the content and goals of sound information literacy instruction. Where appropriate, more than one mode of instruction should be used based on knowledge of the wide variety of learning styles of individuals and groups. For suggestions and explanations of modes of instruction, see the Sourcebook of Bibliographic Instruction . When possible, instruction should employ active learning strategies and techniques that require learners to develop critical thinking skills in concert with information literacy skills. Planning such active learning strategies and techniques should be carried out collaboratively with faculty in order to increase overall student engagement in the learning process and to extend opportunities for a more reflective approach to information retrieval, evaluation, and use. For useful examples of course-specific active learning exercises, see Designs for Active Learning: A Sourcebook of Classroom Strategies for Information Education . Planning an instruction program should draw on the expertise of a wide variety of personnel, depending on local needs and available staff. Examples of available expertise may include: instructional design/teaching methods: faculty development offices, teaching/learning centers; technology integration: technology support centers; assessment, surveys: teaching/learning centers, institutional research/assessment offices; and student demographics/characteristics: institutional research, campus/student life offices. (ACRL, 2003, guidelines) . Program structures Each institution will develop its own overall approach to instruction programming, but a successful comprehensive program will have the following elements: a clearly articulated structure, described in readily available documents, showing the relationships among various components of the program; an integral relationship with key institutional curricula and initiatives (e.g., general education, writing programs, etc.) so that there is horizontal breadth to the program; and a progression of information literacy learning outcomes matched to increasingly complex learning outcomes throughout a student ’s academic career so that there is vertical integration in the program. Information literacy programming should reach beyond the first year or general education courses and be present in discipline-specific coursework or courses in the majors. To meet these general guidelines, instruction programs should identify curricular structures already in place or under development on their campuses that support an evolving, "tiered" approach to information literacy programming. Instruction librarians themselves should also seek opportunities for collaborative engagement in new institutional initiatives and redesigned curricula that allow for a deeper interplay between the library ’s instruction program and the total campus learning environment. (ACRL, 2003, guidelines)
  • The modes selected should be consistent with the content and goals of sound information literacy instruction. Where appropriate, more than one mode of instruction should be used based on knowledge of the wide variety of learning styles of individuals and groups. For suggestions and explanations of modes of instruction, see the Sourcebook of Bibliographic Instruction . When possible, instruction should employ active learning strategies and techniques that require learners to develop critical thinking skills in concert with information literacy skills. Planning such active learning strategies and techniques should be carried out collaboratively with faculty in order to increase overall student engagement in the learning process and to extend opportunities for a more reflective approach to information retrieval, evaluation, and use. For useful examples of course-specific active learning exercises, see Designs for Active Learning: A Sourcebook of Classroom Strategies for Information Education . Planning an instruction program should draw on the expertise of a wide variety of personnel, depending on local needs and available staff. Examples of available expertise may include: instructional design/teaching methods: faculty development offices, teaching/learning centers; technology integration: technology support centers; assessment, surveys: teaching/learning centers, institutional research/assessment offices; and student demographics/characteristics: institutional research, campus/student life offices. (ACRL, 2003, guidelines) . Program structures Each institution will develop its own overall approach to instruction programming, but a successful comprehensive program will have the following elements: a clearly articulated structure, described in readily available documents, showing the relationships among various components of the program; an integral relationship with key institutional curricula and initiatives (e.g., general education, writing programs, etc.) so that there is horizontal breadth to the program; and a progression of information literacy learning outcomes matched to increasingly complex learning outcomes throughout a student ’s academic career so that there is vertical integration in the program. Information literacy programming should reach beyond the first year or general education courses and be present in discipline-specific coursework or courses in the majors. To meet these general guidelines, instruction programs should identify curricular structures already in place or under development on their campuses that support an evolving, "tiered" approach to information literacy programming. Instruction librarians themselves should also seek opportunities for collaborative engagement in new institutional initiatives and redesigned curricula that allow for a deeper interplay between the library ’s instruction program and the total campus learning environment. (ACRL, 2003, guidelines)

How to Plan and Develop Information Literacy Programmes in Schools How to Plan and Develop Information Literacy Programmes in Schools Presentation Transcript

  • How to Pla n and Develop I nformation Literacy Program mes in Schools Prof. Dr. Serap Kurbanoglu Hacettepe University Department of Information Management
  • Our plans miscarry because they have no aim. When a man does not know what harbour he is making for, no wind is the right wind Seneca
  • Getting started
    • Don ’t reinvent the wheel:
      • Identify the IL model that works best for your institution
      • Adapt information literacy standards and practices
    • D esign a program me based on the standards and experiences
    • Work on a strategic plan
    • Identify and focus on library responsibilities toward IL and develop library instruction programs accordingly
    • Ensure to teach the research process and its concepts, and do more than introducing electronic tools and technology
    • Be prepared for challenges & be aware of planning pitfalls
    June 2010, Empatic, Krakow - Poland
  • Key planning issues
    • Plan your Information literacy program in concert with overall strategic library planning
    • Make sure that your plan is tied to library and institutional development plans
    • Review past performance and try to u nderstand reasons for past failures
    • Identify opportunities
    • Determine learner s ’ needs and preferences
    • Understand the impact of IL training on existing operations and staff function
    June 2010, Empatic, Krakow - Poland
  • Potential challenges & planning pitfalls
    • O bstacles such as limited facilities , financial and human resources
    • Inability to get management and/or teachers involved
    • Lack of clear objectives
    • A ssumptions
    • The status problems
    • Resistance towards change
    • Obstacles in communication (different vocabularies)
    • Student motivation (students don ’t want to do anything extra)
    • Perfectionism
    June 2010, Empatic, Krakow - Poland
  • Planning
    • Statement of purpose
    • Action
    • Environmental scan
    • Opportunities and challenges
    • Resources
    • Budget
    • Administrative and instutional support
    June 2010, Empatic, Krakow - Poland
  • Planning
    • Integration with the curriculum
    • Collaboration and partnership
    • Pedagogy
    • Outreach and promotion
    • Evaluation
    • Characteristics of the learner
    • Mode of instruction
    June 2010, Empatic, Krakow - Poland
  • Mission statement
    • Mission statement describes the overall purpose of the program and may reflect the values and priorities
    • Write a mission statement for your IL program
    • Make sure that the mission statement
      • includes a definition of information literacy
      • is consistent with the “Information Literacy Standards”
      • corresponds with the mission statements of the institution
      • clearly reflects the contributions of and expected benefits to institutional community
      • appears in appropriate institutional documents
      • is reviewed periodically and, if necessary, revised
    June 2010, Empatic, Krakow - Poland
  • Goals & Actions
    • Goals are the qualitative and quantitative statements of what the organization wishes to achieve over a measurable future
    • S tate the goal ( s ) t o achieve and make them specific
    • Make sure that goals for your information literacy program:
      • are consistent with the mission and goals of the institution
      • are consistent with the mission statement of the IL program
      • apply to all learners, regardless of delivery system or location
      • reflect the desired outcomes of preparing students for lifelong learning
      • are evaluated and reviewed periodically
    • List all actions required to achieve each goal
    • Write actions in the order they need to be completed
    June 2010, Empatic, Krakow - Poland
  • Enviromental scan
    • Scan both internal and external environment
      • SWOT/TOWS analysis can be used
    • Environmental scan
      • Detecs social, economic, and political trends that may affect organization ’s future
      • Detects trends and events important to your plan
      • Detecs institutional factors that can help or limit the program
      • Provides early warning of changing external conditions
      • Defines potential threats and opportunities implied by external factors
      • Promotes a future orientation in the thinking of management and staff
      • Enables to understand current and potential changes to determine organizational strategies
    June 2010, Empatic, Krakow - Poland
  • Internal & external factors
    • I nternal = Strengths and Weaknesses
      • Evaluate the weaknesses and strenghts in terms of human, economic and physical resources available in the library for the IL program
    • External = Opportunities and Threats
      • Anticipate and address current and future opportunities and challenges
    June 2010, Empatic, Krakow - Poland
  • SWOT Analysis June 2010, Empatic, Krakow - Poland Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats
  • TOWS Analysis June 2010, Empatic, Krakow - Poland External Opportunities External Threats Internal Strengths Strategies that use strengths to maximize opportunities Strategies that use strengths to minimize threats Internal Weaknesses Strategies that minimize weaknesses by taking advantage of opportunities Strategies that minimize weaknesses and avoid threats
  • Resources
    • Identify what is required to implement the program
    • Describe the human resources required for each action
    • Describe the physical requirements for each action (e.g. classroom, office space, furniture, equipment , etc.)
    • Address, with clear priorities, human, technological and financial resources, current and projected
    June 2010, Empatic, Krakow - Poland
  • Human Resources
    • Build up your team
    • Employ, develop , or have access to sufficient personnel with appropriate education, experience, and expertise
    • Identify and assign leadership and responsibilities within the team
    June 2010, Empatic, Krakow - Poland
  • Human Resources
    • Make sure that the staff
    • develop experience in teaching, assessment of student learning, and curriculum development
    • develop expertise to develop, coordinate, implement, maintain, and evaluate IL programs
    • use instructional design processes
    • promote, market, manage, and coordinate diverse instruction activities
    • collect and interpret data to evaluate and update instruction programs
    • integrate and apply instructional technologies into learning activities
    • produce instructional materials
    • employ a collaborative approach to working with others
    • actively engaged in continual professional development and training
    • respond to changing technologies, environments, and communities
    June 2010, Empatic, Krakow - Poland
  • Budget
    • Tie your plan to library and institutional budgeting cycles
    • Estimate your budget. Determine how much funding the program needs
    • Be flexible in estimating costs
    June 2010, Empatic, Krakow - Poland
  • Administrative and institutional support
    • No information literacy program can be developed and sustained unless it has a strong base of support
    • Support for a successful instruction program has many interdependent facets
    • The level of support necessary will depend on
      • the scope of the program
      • the size of the program
      • its connection with other institutional units
    June 2010, Empatic, Krakow - Poland
  • Administrative and institutional support
    • Convince the administration within your institution:
    • that IL is a learning issue not a library issue and that teachers must also be responsible for students acquiring IL abilities
    • to assign information literacy leadership and responsibilities
    • to plant IL in the institution ’s mission, strategic plan, and policies
    • to provide funding to establish and ensure ongoing support for teaching facilities and resources, staffing, professional development opportunities for librarians, faculty, staff, and administrators
    • to recognize and encourage collaboration among instutional community (teachers, librarians, and other staff)
    • to communicate support for the program
    • to reward achievement and participation in the information literacy program within the institution ’s system.
    June 2010, Empatic, Krakow - Poland
  • Integration into the curriculum
    • E nsure that IL is incorporated into the curriculum
    • Use institutional decision making mechanisms to ensure institution-wide integration into programmes
    • Identify the scope (i.e., depth and complexity) of competencies to be acquired on a disciplinary level as well as at the course level
    • Sequence and integrate competencies throughout a student ’s school career, progressing in sophistication
    • Specify programs and courses charged with implementation
    • M erge the IL concepts with the course contents
    June 2010, Empatic, Krakow - Poland
  • Collaboration & partnership
    • Collaborate with teachers, librarians, other program staff and administrators
    • Establish formal and informal mechanisms for communication and ongoing dialogue across the institutional community
    • Collaborate at all stages (planning, implementation, assessment of student learning, and evaluation and refinement of the program)
    • Center your collaboration efforts around enhanced student learning and the development of lifelong learning skills
    • Work with teachers to develop curriculum, syllabi, and assignments that focus on the research
    • Collaborate with teachers to incorporate information literacy concepts and disciplinary content
    • Collaborate with teachers to identify opportunities for achieving information literacy outcomes through course content and other learning experiences
    June 2010, Empatic, Krakow - Poland
  • Developing partnership
    • Focusing teachers ’ attention on information literacy and creating a partnership can present challenges
      • Teachers have many competing interests
      • Most teachers feel that they have established a partnership with librarians
      • It is not at the top of their agenda
    • Strategies in Developing Partnership
      • Identifying the partners
      • Creating awareness of the issue of information literacy
      • Avoiding partnership pitfalls
    June 2010, Empatic, Krakow - Poland
  • Creating awareness
    • Support can only come when teachers are aware of what IL is, why it is important, and what problem it is solving
    • Creating awareness in the minds of teachers is not a one-time event
    • Teachers ’ awareness of IL can be raised in the following ways
      • Make a powerful link between critical thinking and IL
      • Talk about IL as a lifelong learning skill
      • Talk about how IL helps students with their current academic endeavors
      • Talk about IL as one of the essential skills of student academic life
      • Provide data about the current level of student IL skills
    June 2010, Empatic, Krakow - Poland
  • Avoiding partnership pitfalls
    • It is imperative that librarians respect teachers ’ authority over the curriculum
    • IL program should be introduced as an enterprise-wide solution to an enterprise-wide problem
    • IL program should have goals that are agreed on by the teachers and the librarians
    • Avoid giving the message of exclusiveness to teachers
    • Be mindful of the compactness of the curriculum
    • Do not exhaust teachers by inundating them with a full array of IL standards
    • When introducing an IL program choose the time wisely
    • Be prepared to define IL
    June 2010, Empatic, Krakow - Poland
  • Pedagogy
    • Make effective use of instructional pedagogies
      • support diverse approaches to teaching
      • make effective use of instructional technologies and media resources
      • foster critical thinking and reflection
      • support multiple learning styles
      • support student-centered learning
      • determine learning outcomes
      • assess progress against learning outcomes
      • build the program on students ’ existing knowledge
      • link information literacy to ongoing coursework and real-life experiences appropriate to program and course level
    June 2010, Empatic, Krakow - Poland
  • Outreach & promotion
    • Outreach / promotional activities for an IL program are the responsibility of all members of the institution, not simply the librarians
    • E mphasi z e the importance of IL and communicate a clear message defining and describing the program and its value to targeted audiences;
    • Gauge the method most appropriate to the institution;
    • Timing is crucial for successful promotion . Be well informed and involved with the work of the instution;
    • Provide targeted marketing and publicity to stakeholders;
    • Target a wide variety of groups;
    • Use a variety of outreach channels and media, both formal and informal;
    • Offer IL workshops and programs for teachers and staff
    June 2010, Empatic, Krakow - Poland
  • Promoting strategies
    • Make contact with key members of the staff
    • T ake advantage of available opportunities. Make links, where appropriate, to information literacy when attending meetings
    • Try to integrate an IL session into existing staff training programme
    • Offer to train teachers in an aspect of IL, e.g. the use of a particular database and its new features, and then use this as a selling point
    • Offer to deliver a session in partnership with a teacher , e.g. in a session on plagiarism and referencing
    • Invite staff to IL events
    • Tie-in discussions on IL with other school priorities such as combating plagiarism
    • Prepare a formal paper for the management
    • Bring appropriate sections of official reports by educational and library bodies to the attention of the institutional community
    June 2010, Empatic, Krakow - Poland
  • Promoting to students
    • When IL sessions are embedded in curricula, students have a strong impetus to attend
    • Otherwise , some well targeted publicity will be needed
    • In order to maximise attendance:
      • Get involved in starting the academic year events and highlight the importance of the IL sessions students will be attending
      • E nsure that the library orientation session is included in the starting the academic year events
      • Advertise training sessions on Blackboard or the s chool intranet
      • Create a promotional flyer to distribute students and display on s chool notice boards
      • Use the orientation session as a promotion opportunity to advertise further events tailored to the particular needs of the student group
    June 2010, Empatic, Krakow - Poland
  • Evaluation
    • Systematic ongoing process that should gather data regarding the progress of instruction program toward meeting its goals and objectives
    • Influences decisions, guides allocation of resources, helps to decide what to emphasize in the classroom
    • It is not an end in itself; it is a way to get answers to important questions that have to do with educating students effectively
    June 2010, Empatic, Krakow - Poland
  • Evaluation
    • Prepare an evaluation plan which addresses multiple measures (needs assessment, participant reaction, learning outcomes, teaching effectiveness, and overall effectiveness of instruction program)
    • Articulate the evaluation criteria in planning documents
    • Use multiple methods for assessment/evaluation
    • Address specific learning outcomes
    • Focuse on student performance, knowledge acquisition, and attitude appraisal
    • Assess both process and product
    • Develop assessment instruments
    • Coordinate with faculty to explore and implement performance-based assesment methods
    • Use assessment data in the revision and improvement of the program
    • Periodicaly review the assessment/evaluation methods
    June 2010, Empatic, Krakow - Poland
  • Characteristics of the learners
    • Keeping the prospective users in mind is essential in the development of instructional programs
    • Characteristics of next generation learners:
      • They were born during the computer age and grew up in a technological world
      • They are a much more technically sophisticated generation than previous generations
      • The visual image is the primary means of communication
      • Multimedia – music, graphics, and video – is the preferred learning and entertainment experience for many of them
      • They have native ability to multitask
      • They can handle the nonlinear approach (they are interactive and experiential, and learning occurs through trial and error)
      • They are computer literate, but are not information literate.
    June 2010, Empatic, Krakow - Poland
  • Modes of instruction
    • Instruction takes place in many ways, these may include, but are not limited to, providing:
    • Course-integrated instruction
    • Drop-in workshops
    • Handouts and guides (print & electronic)
    • Web based instruction
    • Stand alone courses
      • Credit / non-credit
      • Requested / elective
    • Subject specific instruction
    • Tours
    • Video presentations
    June 2010, Empatic, Krakow - Poland
  • Identification of modes of instruction
    • The modes selected should be consistent with the content and goals of IL instruction
    • Where appropriate, more than one mode of instruction should be used based on knowledge of the wide variety of learning styles of individuals and groups
    • When possible, instruction should employ active learning strategies and techniques that require learners to develop critical thinking skills in concert with IL skills
    June 2010, Empatic, Krakow - Poland
  • An example of best practice June 2010, Empatic, Krakow - Poland
  • http://old.oslis.org/index.php June 2010, Empatic, Krakow - Poland
  • OSLIS – Elementary June 2010, Empatic, Krakow - Poland
  • OSLIS – Elementary
    • http://old.oslis.org/elementary/tutorials/elementaryGeneral.htm
    June 2010, Empatic, Krakow - Poland
  • OSLIS – Middle & High School June 2010, Empatic, Krakow - Poland
  • OSLIS – Middle & High School
    • http://old.oslis.org/secondary/tutorials/MidHighGeneral.htm
    June 2010, Empatic, Krakow - Poland
  • OSLIS – Teachers & Librarians June 2010, Empatic, Krakow - Poland
  • Public domain June 2010, Empatic, Krakow - Poland
  • References
    • ACRL. (2000). Information literacy competency standards for higher education. http://www.ala.org/ala/acrl/acrlstandards/informationliteracycompetency.htm
    • ACRL. (2003). Characteristics of programs of information literacy that illustrate best practices: a guideline. http://www.ala.org/ala/acrl/acrlstandards/characteristics.cfm
    • ACRL. (2003). Guidelines for instruction programs in academic libraries. http://www.ala.org/ala/acrl/acrlstandards/ALA_print_layout_1_192693_192693.cfm
    • Gaunt, J & et al. (2007). Handbook for information literacy teaching. Cardiff: Cardiff University.
    • Iannuzzi, P. (1997). Assessing libraries in support of campus missions: the information literacy imperative. American Association of Higher Education Conference on Assessment and Quality.
    • Keiser, B. E. (2008). Designing information literacy training programmes and action plans. UNESCO IFAP Workshop, May 30-June 1. Montego Bay, Jamaica.
    • Lau, J. (2004). International guidelines on information literacy. IFLA.
    • Rockman, I. F. (2004). Integrating information literacy into the higher education curriculum: practical models for transformation . San Francisco: John Wiley.
    • Snavely, L. (2001). Information literacy standards for higher education: an international perspective. 67th IFLA Council and General Conference, August 16-25.
    June 2010, Empatic, Krakow - Poland
  • Thanks Prof. Dr. Serap Kurbanoglu [email_address] Hacettepe University Department of Information Management