Urban Road Safety in India :
Current scenario, Opportunities
and Challenges
Dr.G.Gururaj
Professor and Head
WHO CC for Inj...
Everyday, roads / vehicles are used by millions
of people for number of activities. These people
are in different states o...
9th September 2013 13th September 2013 8th September 2013
9th September 2013
8th September 2013
11th September 2013
Changing patterns of population, infrastructure, motor
vehicles and income levels in India
36.00
38.00
40.00
42.00
44.00
4...
Number of registered vehicles in metro
cities of India until 2012
0
1,000,000
2,000,000
3,000,000
4,000,000
5,000,000
6,00...
703761
1682111
737740
803007
280,615
4,156,132
828,569
1,058,408
3,767,294
1,386,129
7,350,120
461,923
444,685
524,971
2,0...
RTI deaths in India, 1980-2012 (in 000’s)
In 2012, 1,39,091 road deaths and 469900 persons injured as per official report...
0
50000
100000
150000
200000
250000
300000
350000
1980
1981
1993
1992
1991
1990
1988
1987
1986
1985
1984
1983
1982
1994
19...
India RTI pyramid
Deaths (1) 175000
Serious
Injuries (40)
7,000,000
Minor
Injuries
(70)
12,250,000
Leading causes of death among males in Bangalore, 2010
Sl No 0- 4 yrs 5 - 14 yrs 15 - 24 yrs 25 - 34 yrs 35 - 44 yrs 45 - ...
Impact of RTIs
 Health. Social, psychological
 Economic
 Human suffering
 Rehabilitation needs and
services
 Speed of...
Urban road crashes
• Transport, safety, infrastructure, enforcement
independent and fragmented issues
• Greater presence o...
The rising vehicle numbers in the city have not only led to frayed
nerves and road rage, but also resulted in a host of pr...
Urban vs. Rural
In 2012, The 53 mega cities accounted for
 All crashes 17.48%
 Persons Killed 11.8%
 Persons Injured 14...
0
2.5
4.9 5.1
6.4
6.9 7.1 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.5 7.8 8 8.2
9
9.7
10.2
10.8
11.511.5
1212.212.3
12.813.1
13.814.1
15.715.816.1...
Road deaths in select major cities of India, 2000-2012
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
2000 2005 2009 2012
Age and sex wise RTI death rate per lakh
population (2012)
0.44
3.06
3.43
2.03
0.81
0.15
0.46 0.52
0.35
0.21
0
0.5
1
1.5
2...
Road user categories (%)
Road user category in Epidemiological studies
0 20 40 60 80 100
Jammu
New Delhi
Bangalore' 98
Bangalore'04
Bangalore '11
P...
Collision of vehicles with Pedestrians
Urban
30.9
19.4
3.7
11.7
17.4
2.3
13.1
4 Wheeler 2 Wheeler 3 Wheeler Truck / Lorry
...
62.4
6.6
5.5
25.4
Standing on the Road Unspecified
Crossing the Road Walking on the Road
Pedestrian activity at the time o...
Location of fatal pedestrian crashes,
40.9
7.5
6.1
5.5
3.9
3.3
3
2.8
2.5
2.2
1.7
0.8
0.6
19.3
0 10 20 30 40 50
Middle of t...
Road crossing behavior among pedestrians
: Results of observational study (%)
Crossing at the
right time, 43.1
Crossing du...
Pedestrian safety
• 63% follow traffic signals (wherever /
whenever present)
• 80% prefer to use footpaths (20% do
not)
0 ...
Understanding mechanism of RTIs -
Indian Scenario
More than 90 % of crashes are believed
to be due to human errors
Consequ...
57
19
3
33
2
12
Road
environment
Road
user
Vehicle
27
6
6
6
3
7
1 18
573 2
Road
environment
Road
user
Vehicle
27 6
3
Evans...
57
19
3
33
2
12
Road
environment
Road
user
Vehicle
27
6
6
6
3
7
1
18
1933 12
Road
environment
Road
user
Vehicle
6 6
7
18
S...
How safe are our roads and urban
Infrastructure?
One can only see outside
If traffic separation is a
solution, is it possi...
How strong is our enforcement – eg.,
Bangalore city
• 4 million adults in city – 30 % regular
drinkers
• Nearly 2000 alcoh...
Issues in Trauma care
• An emerging urban phenomena
• Absence of immediate or early first aid
• Transportation problems
• ...
The Road safety paradigm shift
ROAD INJURY PREVENTION AND CONTROL- THE NEW UNDERSTANDING
Road crashes are largely predicta...
Denmark
Safe system approach
Source: Towards zero: ambitious road safety targets and the Safe System approach. Paris, Organization...
We know some solutions for India
• Uniform implementation of helmet laws
• Implementation of drink drive laws
• Implementa...
Some Unclear – controversial issues ( ? )
 Speed and extent of motorisation
 Design of national and state highways
 Urb...
MAJOR Challenges
 Road safety not a priority
 Political barriers – 6 yrs after Sundar Committee
 Economic -Alcohol as a...
• Road safety is Science and needs
professional approaches
• Solutions need to be evidence based
and driven by data and re...
People need not die and become disabled
in road crashes. We need to make our
roads and environments safe for
everyone
Urban road safety in India - Current scenario, opportunities & challenges
Urban road safety in India - Current scenario, opportunities & challenges
Urban road safety in India - Current scenario, opportunities & challenges
Urban road safety in India - Current scenario, opportunities & challenges
Urban road safety in India - Current scenario, opportunities & challenges
Urban road safety in India - Current scenario, opportunities & challenges
Urban road safety in India - Current scenario, opportunities & challenges
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Urban road safety in India - Current scenario, opportunities & challenges

  1. 1. Urban Road Safety in India : Current scenario, Opportunities and Challenges Dr.G.Gururaj Professor and Head WHO CC for Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion Centre for Public Health National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences Bangalore 560 029 Epiguru@yahoo.com
  2. 2. Everyday, roads / vehicles are used by millions of people for number of activities. These people are in different states of mind, who are in a hurry, who are preoccupied, whose behaviour is uncertain, who are sick / accompany sick, who are disabled, who are unfamiliar with road environment, who are elderly, who come from rural areas, who use different vehicles, who travel varying distances, who are inexperienced, who are adventurous, who are in sorrow ……
  3. 3. 9th September 2013 13th September 2013 8th September 2013 9th September 2013 8th September 2013 11th September 2013
  4. 4. Changing patterns of population, infrastructure, motor vehicles and income levels in India 36.00 38.00 40.00 42.00 44.00 46.00 48.00 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Road Length 1020.00 1040.00 1060.00 1080.00 1100.00 1120.00 1140.00 1160.00 1180.00 1200.00 1220.00 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Population in million 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 80000 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Income levels (Rs) 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000 140000 160000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Motor vehicles (In Thousands)
  5. 5. Number of registered vehicles in metro cities of India until 2012 0 1,000,000 2,000,000 3,000,000 4,000,000 5,000,000 6,000,000 7,000,000 8,000,000 Bengaluru Chennai Delhi Gr Mumbai Hyderabad Kolkota total registered vehicles till 2012 total two wheelers registered till 2012 Source: MORTH. Road Transport year book 2011-12. Available from: http://morth.nic.in/showfile.asp?lid=1131
  6. 6. 703761 1682111 737740 803007 280,615 4,156,132 828,569 1,058,408 3,767,294 1,386,129 7,350,120 461,923 444,685 524,971 2,028,500 489,516 3,386,575 1,337,956 605,488 1,871,049 682,077 868,451 1,067,440 480,338 496,306 952,531 1,314,705 1,336,866 679,510 419,941 1,237,099 444,389 742,889 2,267,123 578,519 759,573 729,146 201,006 1,145,492 521,378 838,750 587,533 553,413 683,355 0 1000000 2000000 3000000 4000000 5000000 6000000 7000000 8000000 total registered transport vehicles total registered non transport vehicles total registered vehicles (both transport and non-transport) Number of registered vehicles in million plus cities of India until 2012 Source: MORTH. Road Transport year book 2011-12. Available from: http://morth.nic.in/showfile.asp?lid=1131
  7. 7. RTI deaths in India, 1980-2012 (in 000’s) In 2012, 1,39,091 road deaths and 469900 persons injured as per official reports. Estimated deaths 175,000 deaths in 2011 More than 2,00,000 deaths as per GSRRS and GBD 2010. 24.6 28.4 30.7 32.8 35.1 39.2 40 44.4 46.6 50.7 54.1 56.4 57.2 60.7 64 70.6 74.6 77 79.9 82 78.9 80.9 84.7 86 92.5 98.4 105.2 109.3 112.6 126.9 133.9 136.9 139 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
  8. 8. 0 50000 100000 150000 200000 250000 300000 350000 1980 1981 1993 1992 1991 1990 1988 1987 1986 1985 1984 1983 1982 1994 1995 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2019 2020 1989 3% 5% 8%
  9. 9. India RTI pyramid Deaths (1) 175000 Serious Injuries (40) 7,000,000 Minor Injuries (70) 12,250,000
  10. 10. Leading causes of death among males in Bangalore, 2010 Sl No 0- 4 yrs 5 - 14 yrs 15 - 24 yrs 25 - 34 yrs 35 - 44 yrs 45 - 54 yrs 55 - 64 yrs Above 65 yrs All ages 1 Perinatal deaths Neoplasms Transport crashes Transport crashes Liver Diseases Ischemic heart diseases Ischemic heart diseases Ischemic heart diseases Ischaemic heart diseases 2 Congenital malformations CNS infections Poisoning Liver Diseases Transport crashes Liver Diseases Neoplasms Neoplasms Neoplasms 3 Diarrhoeal diseases Viral diseases Burns Tuberculosis Ischemic heart diseases Neoplasms Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes Mellitus Respiratory diseases 4 Neoplasms Congenital malformations Tuberculosis Burns Tuberculosis Diabetes Mellitus Liver Diseases Hypertensive diseases Liver diseases 5 CNS infections Transport crashes Suicide Ischemic heart diseases Neoplasms Tuberculosis Hypertensive diseases Cerebrovascular diseases Diabetes mellitus 6 Viral diseases Other CNS disorders Rheumatic heart diseases Poisoning Burns Transport crashes Cerebrovascular diseases Pulmonary heart diseases Hypertensive diseases 7 Rheumatic heart diseases Rheumatic heart diseases Neoplasms Suicide Hypertensive diseases Cerebrovascular diseases Tuberculosis Lower respiratory diseases Transport crashes 8 Pneumonia Haemopoeitic disorders Viral diseases Neoplasms Diabetes Mellitus Pulmonary heart diseases Pulmonary heart diseases Urinary system disorders Cerebrovascular diseases 9 Transport crashes Diarrhoeal diseases CNS infections Urinary system disorders Urinary system disorders Hypertensive diseases Lower respiratory diseases Tuberculosis Tuberculosis 10 Other CNS disorders Pneumonia Other CNS disorders CNS infections Pulmonary heart diseases Urinary system disorders Urinary system disorders Liver Diseases Pulmonary heart diseases 11 Tuberculosis Tuberculosis Other bacterial diseases Diabetes Mellitus Pneumonia Lower respiratory diseases Transport crashes Pneumonia Perinatal deaths 12 Haemopoeitic disorders Other bacterial diseases Haemopoeitic disorders Pneumonia Suicide Pneumonia Pneumonia Other CNS diseases Urinary System disorders 13 Urinary system disorders Liver diseases Diarrhoeal diseases Rheumatic heart disease Diarrhoeal diseases CNS infections Other CNS diseases Transport crashes Other CNS disorders 14 Burns Suicide Malaria Pulmonary heart disease Viral diseases Other CNS diseases Other bacterial diseases Other circulatory diseases Burns 15 Miscellaneous Miscellaneous Miscellaneous Miscellaneous Miscellaneous Miscellaneous Miscellaneous Miscellaneous Miscellaneous Total 959 144 690 1410 2071 2941 3741 7970 21373
  11. 11. Impact of RTIs  Health. Social, psychological  Economic  Human suffering  Rehabilitation needs and services  Speed of interventions
  12. 12. Urban road crashes • Transport, safety, infrastructure, enforcement independent and fragmented issues • Greater presence of vehicles and extent of travel • Congested and chaotic traffic • Heterogeneous traffic environments of nearly 25 types of vehicles • Road infrastructure – limited and unsafe • Risk of exposure high • Limited enforcement of road safety laws • Violations galore
  13. 13. The rising vehicle numbers in the city have not only led to frayed nerves and road rage, but also resulted in a host of problems such as choked roads and increased travelling time
  14. 14. Urban vs. Rural In 2012, The 53 mega cities accounted for  All crashes 17.48%  Persons Killed 11.8%  Persons Injured 14.7% In most of the major metros, there has been a slow reduction or plateauing of road crashes due to increase in population and vehicles and decrease in travel speeds. RTIs are only shifting to Grade B and C cities and into districts and highways.
  15. 15. 0 2.5 4.9 5.1 6.4 6.9 7.1 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.5 7.8 8 8.2 9 9.7 10.2 10.8 11.511.5 1212.212.3 12.813.1 13.814.1 15.715.816.116.5 17.117.517.7 23.8 0 5 10 15 20 25 Lakshadweep Nagaland Andaman&… Bihar Manipur WestBengal Sikkim Chandigarh Tripura UttarPradesh Assam Mizoram Jharkhand Meghalaya Uttharakhand Orissa Delhi Daman&Diu Arunachal… India MadhyaPradesh Jammu&… Maharashtra Kerala Chattisgarh Gujarath Rajasthan Dadra&Nagar… Karnataka Puducherry Himachal… Goa Punjab AndhraPradesh Haryana Tamilnadu Road traffic deaths (State/UT-Wise) per Lakh Population during 2012
  16. 16. Road deaths in select major cities of India, 2000-2012 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2000 2005 2009 2012
  17. 17. Age and sex wise RTI death rate per lakh population (2012) 0.44 3.06 3.43 2.03 0.81 0.15 0.46 0.52 0.35 0.21 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 Upto 14 yrs 15-29 30-44 45-59 Above 60 RTIdeathrateperlakhpopulation Age MALE FEMALE
  18. 18. Road user categories (%)
  19. 19. Road user category in Epidemiological studies 0 20 40 60 80 100 Jammu New Delhi Bangalore' 98 Bangalore'04 Bangalore '11 Pedestrian Motorcyclist Bicyclists Car Occupants Public TV Others
  20. 20. Collision of vehicles with Pedestrians Urban 30.9 19.4 3.7 11.7 17.4 2.3 13.1 4 Wheeler 2 Wheeler 3 Wheeler Truck / Lorry Bus Tractor Unknown 26.1 0.7 48.3 10.1 3.6 6.1 1.4 3.8 4 Wheeler Cycle 2 Wheeler 3 Wheeler Truck / Lorry Bus Tractor Unknown Fatal Non Fatal
  21. 21. 62.4 6.6 5.5 25.4 Standing on the Road Unspecified Crossing the Road Walking on the Road Pedestrian activity at the time of crash
  22. 22. Location of fatal pedestrian crashes, 40.9 7.5 6.1 5.5 3.9 3.3 3 2.8 2.5 2.2 1.7 0.8 0.6 19.3 0 10 20 30 40 50 Middle of the Road Walking on straight Road T-Junction Cross Road Round about At Signal light Bridge / culvert Sudden narrowing of road Y-Junction Road inside campus Curved road Bus stop Road humps / rumble strips Unspecified
  23. 23. Road crossing behavior among pedestrians : Results of observational study (%) Crossing at the right time, 43.1 Crossing during red light, 33.9 Did not cross during green light, 6.2 Crossing at all locations, 16.8
  24. 24. Pedestrian safety • 63% follow traffic signals (wherever / whenever present) • 80% prefer to use footpaths (20% do not) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Others No control by traffic police Vehic1e parked on foot path Lack of traffic rules knowledge Absence of foot path Careless They are in hurry Uneven footpath Encroachment of foot path Reasons for not using footpaths
  25. 25. Understanding mechanism of RTIs - Indian Scenario More than 90 % of crashes are believed to be due to human errors Consequently, we aim at providing information HOPING that people change their behaviors
  26. 26. 57 19 3 33 2 12 Road environment Road user Vehicle 27 6 6 6 3 7 1 18 573 2 Road environment Road user Vehicle 27 6 3 Evans 2004, (Rumar),Treat 12 93 34
  27. 27. 57 19 3 33 2 12 Road environment Road user Vehicle 27 6 6 6 3 7 1 18 1933 12 Road environment Road user Vehicle 6 6 7 18 Stigson et al 2008 43 38 64
  28. 28. How safe are our roads and urban Infrastructure? One can only see outside If traffic separation is a solution, is it possible ? Our footpaths, subways, elevate d pedestrian crossings, traffic system
  29. 29. How strong is our enforcement – eg., Bangalore city • 4 million adults in city – 30 % regular drinkers • Nearly 2000 alcohol selling outlets in city • 62,000 cases booked in 2013 • 10 – 15 days of enforcement per month • 5200 cases per month • 350 cases per day from 40 police stations • 8-10 cases per station • Probability of getting caught = ?
  30. 30. Issues in Trauma care • An emerging urban phenomena • Absence of immediate or early first aid • Transportation problems • Absence of triage • Delayed care • Lapse of time between crash and def. care • Medico legal barriers • Lack of facilities in hospitals • Referrals – Referrals – Referrals • Cost of trauma care • Several others….
  31. 31. The Road safety paradigm shift ROAD INJURY PREVENTION AND CONTROL- THE NEW UNDERSTANDING Road crashes are largely predictable and preventable A problem amenable to rational analysis and counter measures Moving beyond driver’s errors, human mistakes, crisis approaches, knee jerk reactions and adhocism – Needs scientific and systematic approaches Multisectoral issue – all sectors need to work together Vulnerability of the human body and energy transfer social equity issue- equal protection to all road users Needs proactive approaches Local knowledge needs to inform the implementation of local solutions Better understanding over time – Haddon matrix, public health model , safe systems approach
  32. 32. Denmark
  33. 33. Safe system approach Source: Towards zero: ambitious road safety targets and the Safe System approach. Paris, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2008.
  34. 34. We know some solutions for India • Uniform implementation of helmet laws • Implementation of drink drive laws • Implementation of laws- seat belts and child restraints • Speed management programmes • Improving visibility of people, vehicles and roads • Improved highway care programmes • Safe pedestrian programmes • Graduated driver licensing programmes • Effective prehospital care programmes • Better acute in hospital care programmes • Safe public transportation systems Need to find more based on good research
  35. 35. Some Unclear – controversial issues ( ? )  Speed and extent of motorisation  Design of national and state highways  Urban development issues  Impact of urban – transport – development – infrastructure policies on health and safety of people  Operational issues on implementing IMV act  Centre vs state issues  Primary or tertiary care  Responsibility and leadership for road safety  Respect, value and safety rights of people
  36. 36. MAJOR Challenges  Road safety not a priority  Political barriers – 6 yrs after Sundar Committee  Economic -Alcohol as a revenue earner  Medico legal barriers  Human, financial and technical resources  Understaffed and overworked police force  Lack of research, data and evidence  Sustainability issues  Leadership -Responsibility – Coordination ?
  37. 37. • Road safety is Science and needs professional approaches • Solutions need to be evidence based and driven by data and research • Adhocism and crisis management has not given answers anywhere in the world
  38. 38. People need not die and become disabled in road crashes. We need to make our roads and environments safe for everyone
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