A Feasible Challenge: Upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport

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By Tom Godefrooij, Senior Policy Adviser, Dutch Cycling Embassy. Presented at Transforming Transportation, January 26, 2012, Washington, D.C.

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A Feasible Challenge: Upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport

  1. 1. A feasible challenge…Upscaling the role of cycling in urban transportTom Godefrooij > Washington DC, January 26, 2012
  2. 2. Overview> Where do we stand> Upscaling, what does it entail> The Netherlands: a reference?> Challenges> Dutch Cycling Embassypagina 2 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  3. 3. Where do we stand? Growing interest in cycling but also ongoing motorisationpagina 3 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  4. 4. Where do we stand?> Growing recognition importance of cycling> North-west European experience > The Netherlands: 27% cycling > Denmark: 20% > Germany: 10%> Increasing number of cities have cycling projectspagina 4 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  5. 5. Bicycle share in European countries 30% 27% 25% 20% 19% 15% 10% 10% 9% 9% 8% 7% 5% 5% 5% 2% 0% s nd k um y en a ce ly in nd ar an ri Ita i ta la ed an st i m la lg m er Au Br en Sw Fr Be r er he i tz at D G Sw et re N G ethpagina 5 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  6. 6. Promising initiatives worldwide> Bogotá> Cape Town> Santiago de Chile> Sevilla> Eskişehir> Public bicycles schemespagina 6 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  7. 7. Bogotá> 350 km cycle routes> Increase cycling share from 0,5 to 4%> Improved quality of public spacepagina 7 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  8. 8. pagina 8 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  9. 9. pagina 9 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  10. 10. Cape Town> Revised Bicycle Master Plan> Implementation cycling infrastructure in 4 regions> Most popular routes> Connected with BRT> Role of civil society > Bicyle distribution > Training > Educationpagina 11 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  11. 11. pagina 12 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  12. 12. Santiago de Chile> Full participation in all segments of society> Adoption of ‘cycling’ law> Plan for 690 km cycling routes> 250 km implemented> Cycling a presidential prioritypagina 13 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  13. 13. Sevilla> Implemented 120 km cycling network> Increase modal share from 0,2 to 6,6% in 4 years> Target 2015: share of 15%pagina 15 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  14. 14. Turkish citiesSakarya, Antalya & Eskişehir> Developing pilot projects> First step towards cycling-inclusive policiespagina 18 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  15. 15. Public Bicycle schemes> Decades of marginal projects (Amsterdam 1960s)> Break through with Velib and Bicing (Paris and Barcelona)> Now very fashionable> But how relevant?pagina 20 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  16. 16. Beijing> 20.000 public bicycles> 4,5 million private cars…just to contemplate!pagina 21 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  17. 17. …but can contribute> Opportunity to find out usefulness> Filling the gap between pioneers and mainstreampagina 22 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  18. 18. We aren’t there yet!> In most cities bicycle use still low> Many cities didn’t even start!> Bicycle use in Asian countries threatened by ongoing motorisationpagina 23 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  19. 19. After having made the first step Upscaling the role of cycling: what does it entail?pagina 24 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  20. 20. Conditions for up scaling> Gone through a pioneer stage> Early adapters should be there> It is time for the majority…Up scaling = mainstreamingpagina 25 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  21. 21. Up scaling> From isolated projects to an integrated and comprehensive approach> Acceptance by all segments of society> Resulting in substantial share of cyclingpagina 26 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  22. 22. At which level are we looking?> At a city level > Successful pilots? > Enough bicycle use for next stage?> At a regional / global level > Enough cities to make more cities follow suit?pagina 27 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  23. 23. What are the challenges??> Avoid, shift, improve> Utilising the full potential of cycling > Substantial share of cycling (10 – 20%) > Most trips are short!! > Dutch (and Danish) cities as reference?> Fully integrated in urban & transport planningpagina 28 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  24. 24. Transport planning> To meet transport needs > Accommodating social participation > Individuals & society> Maximising contribution of transport to social & economic well being> Minimising adverse effects > Road safety > Liveability > Environment > Climate > …pagina 29 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  25. 25. Travel market Transport (trips) market (transport Traffic • Activity patterns market • Spatial systems) distribution • Availability (flows) • Routes • Spread in time • Effectiveness • Speeds • … • Efficiency • Manoeuvres • Status • Congestion • Costs • Safety • … • …pagina 30 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  26. 26. Role of various modes> Analysis of strengths and weaknesses> Assess appropriateness modes / transport systems for types of trips > i.e. utilise strengths> Provide alternatives for problematic use > Not fit for the trip > Too many adverse effects for societypagina 31 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  27. 27. Tactical goals> Goals on travel market > Minimise need for (long distance) travelling> Goals on transport market > Optimal mode choice > Short trips: Cycling and Walking > Longer trips: Public transport> Goals on traffic market > Adequate road design to accommodate cyclingpagina 32 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  28. 28. Most trips are short> UK: > 1/3 all trips < 1 mile > Average trip length = 7 mile > Average car trip length = 8,5 mile> USA: > ¼ all trips < 1 mile > Almost ½ < 3 mile> India > 56-72% urban trips < 5 km > Delhi: 45% car trips and 38% PT < 5 kmpagina 33 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  29. 29. Looking for the optimal mixpagina 34 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  30. 30. Looking at the competitive position Make other Make modes preferred less modes attractive more attractivepagina 35 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  31. 31. Which arguments to use?Distinguish between> Society > Policy makers / politicians> Individualspagina 36 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  32. 32. Politicians & policy makersSocietal goals> Road safety> Health> Air quality> Climate change mitigation> Equity>…pagina 37 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  33. 33. Individuals> …dont cycle for the environment!!> Practical, efficient and convenient (and fun!)> Health and fitness> (Cheap)> Safety perception> Status perception > Might both be an obstaclepagina 38 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  34. 34. What it takes…Many good reasons for promoting cycling…> Environment> Health> Equity… but ultimately people only will do so if it is> Safe> Practical> Convenientpagina 39 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  35. 35. The Netherlands A reference for upscaling?pagina 40 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  36. 36. pagina 41 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  37. 37. pagina 42 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  38. 38. Dutch context> Traditional high levels of cycling> Decrease of cycling 1950 – 1975> Revaluation of cycling from 1970’s on> National transport strategy 1989 > Equilibrium accessibility, safety and liveability > Bicycle Master Plan> Cycling inclusive planning > Integral part of local and regional transport planning > (Re-confirmed in National transport strategy 2006)pagina 43 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  39. 39. Cycling in European cities in the 20th century
  40. 40. Mobility in the NetherlandsNetherlands, high car density/km2On average 3.2 trips per day:> 1 trip car driver> 0.8 trip bicycle> 0.6 trip walking> 0.5 trip car passenger> 0.2 trip public transport> 0.1 trip otherIn Top-5 most road-safe countriespagina 45 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  41. 41. Mobility in The Netherlands 50 45 40 35 30 25 Netherlands 20 Delft 15 Amsterdam 10 5 0 Car Public Bicycle Walking Transport46 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  42. 42. Modal split development in Amsterdampagina 47 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  43. 43. Modal split trips according to distance (km’s) < 7,5 7,5-15 > 15 overall Car driver 35% 74% 79% 48% Driver 23% 50% 54% 32% Passenger 12% 24% 25% 16% Public Transport 2% 7% 14% 5% Train 0% 1% 9% 2% Bus/tram/metro 2% 6% 5% 3% Bicycle 35% 15% 3% 27% Walking 26% 0% 0% 18% Other 2% 3% 4% 2% Share distance 70% 12% 18%pagina 48 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  44. 44. Mode choice bicycle / car (< 7,5 km) Never Sometimes Never car car, bicycle sometimes bicycle Shopping 12% 59% 30% Transporting 6% 70% 24% children Sports & visits 28% 41% 30% Going out 12% 48% 39% Commuting 29% 40% 31%pagina 49 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  45. 45. Faqs and figures > NetherlandsModal split according to distances Source: RWS/AVV 2005 /MON 2005pagina 50 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  46. 46. Safety and bicycle use 1975 - now: 1800 Development in time - Suburbanisation - Car use 50 1600 + Transport policy + Clean & Healthy 1400 40 Cycle fatalities per billion bicycle km 1200 Bicycle km pppy 1000 30 800 20 600 1950 –1975: •400 - Suburbanisation - Car use 10 - Transport policy •200 - Old fashioned •0 0 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Bicycle usepagina 51 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport Bicycle fatalities
  47. 47. Safety: fatalities and risk 600 60 500 50 Number of fatalities/billion km Number of fatalities 400 40 Number of cycle fatalities 300 30 Number of fatalaties/billion km 200 20 100 10 0 0 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 00 05 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20pagina 52 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  48. 48. Safety by numberspagina 53 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  49. 49. Faqs and figures > NetherlandsNumber of cycles per inhabitant 1,2 1,11 1 More cycles then people 0,83 0,8 0,77 0,67 0,63 0,6 Number of cycles per inhabitant 0,50 0,45 0,40 0,40 0,4 0,34 0,2 0,18 0pagina 54 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  50. 50. Corner stones of Dutch cycling policies> Cycling: full fledged mode of transport> Looking for the optimal mix > Utilising strengths of each mode of transport > Providing alternatives for problematic use‘> Public spending > Continued investments in cycling > Roughly € 30 per inhabitant per year > Quality is not for free!!pagina 55 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  51. 51. The Dutchpagina 56 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  52. 52. pagina 57 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  53. 53. Wide variety of accessoriespagina 58 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  54. 54. Challenges for upscaling Making cycling safe, practical, convenientpagina 59 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  55. 55. So the challenge is……to make cycling> Safe> Practical> Convenient> The preferred mode for short tripspagina 60 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  56. 56. Essential conditionBasic safety> High volumes and high speeds motor traffic incompatible with safe cycling> Segregated facilities at all arterials > 50km/h> Traffic calming at other roads> Well designed intersectionspagina 61 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  57. 57. Other conditions for upscaling> Cycling preferred mode for short distances > Competitive position (two knobs to turn!) - Travel time - Costs - Perceived convenience and safety - Status > Practicalities - Bicycle parking - Utility accessoriespagina 62 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  58. 58. More quality infra, more cycling 0 -0,2 quality of bicycle infrastructure -0,4 -0,6 -0,8 -1 -1,2 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 bicycle share (%)pagina 63 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  59. 59. Relation with public transport> More efficient option on shorter distances > Shorter travel times door-to-door > Cost-efficient (≠ cheap!!!)> Feeder mode > Enlarging catchment area PT > Improving door-to-door travel time > Requires transfer facilities> PT should not compete with cycling on short distancespagina 64 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  60. 60. Return on urban transportinvestments, bicycle versus PT With Investment Ec. Benefits 400 Social Benefits Env. Impr ovements 300 Impact (in rate units) 200 100 0 ATH BRU HEL LYON MAD VI T&W STU ZCH MAN VAL BRA DELFT metro S-Bahn tram bicycle Source: Transecon-projectpagina 65 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  61. 61. Cycling inclusiveMore than adding cycle facilities to the road systemChange of entire traffic system> Re-allocation of road space> Re-allocation of budgetspagina 66 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  62. 62. pagina 67 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  63. 63. Cycling planning at 3 levels> Overall transport planning > Integrated approach (vision!!) > Change of traditional priorities> Network planning & design > Coherent network > Connecting origins & destinations> Road design > Meeting needs of cyclists > …where the cyclists are!!!pagina 68 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  64. 64. …and> Organise public & political support> Involve stakeholders> Create a cycling culture > Awareness campaigns > Promotion> Provide services > Bicycle parking > Bicycle repair > Public bicyclespagina 69 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  65. 65. …because> Promotion of cycling contributes to the efficiency of the (urban) transport system> Investments in cycling have a profitable cost/benefit ratio> Investments in cycling serve all segments of the populationpagina 70 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  66. 66. Dutch Cycling Embassy What can we do for you?pagina 71 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  67. 67. Who we areThe Dutch Cycling Embassy is a comprehensivenetwork of:> private companies: traffic and infrastructure consultants and manufacturers> NGOs, universities and research institutions> national and local governmentspagina 72 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport
  68. 68. What can we do for you?> Access to Dutch Knowledge Base> Liaising with extensive Dutch network for: > research > planning > policy-making > product development > manufacturing > construction or building> Help you to find the best possible partners.pagina 73 > 26-01-2012 A feasible challenge... upscaling the role of cycling in urban transport

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