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Sustainable urban transport and urban development can save lives - Claudia Adriazola-Steil - EMBARQ - U.S. Department of Transportation, International Policy Council Meeting, Washington, DC - Thu 18-Apr-2013
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Sustainable urban transport and urban development can save lives - Claudia Adriazola-Steil - EMBARQ - U.S. Department of Transportation, International Policy Council Meeting, Washington, DC - Thu 18-Apr-2013

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  • 1. EMBARQThe World Resources Institute Center for Sustainable TransportClaudia Adriazola – SteilDirector, Health & Road Safety ProgramU.S. Department of Transportation,International Policy Council MeetingApril 18, 2013 – Washington, DC
  • 2. Agenda- Background- Rationale: How Sustainable Urban Transport Can SaveLives- Strategy- New indicators: incorporating public health- Recent outcomes
  • 3. The EMBARQ Network
  • 4. 14% in 19003% in 180030% in 1950Over 50% in 2007Meta-Trends affecting sustainable citiesThe transition to an urban millenniumThe Global Population
  • 5. 20111 billion
  • 6. 10 years later….1 billion +1 billion
  • 7. OMSFoto: RPP Noticias2 million people
  • 8. OMS1.3 million people
  • 9. BRT / Busways and Road SafetyBackground20041 Ischaemic heart disease2 Cerebrovascular disease3 Lower respiratory infections4 Pulmonary disease5 Diarrhoeal disease6 HIV / AIDS7 Tuberculosis8 Lung cancers9 TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS10 Low birth weight20301 Ischaemic heart disease2 Cerebrovascular disease3 Pulmonary disease4 Lower respiratory infections5 TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS6 Lung cancers7 Diabetes8 Hypertensive heart disease9 Stomach cancer19 HIV / AIDSLeading causes of premature death in the world:90% of traffic fatalities occur in low and middle-income countries andinvolve 70% of vulnerable users of the roadIn cities, the majority of crashes are concentrated on urban arterials,where BRTs and Busways are usually located
  • 10. 3.2 million peopleSource: WHO
  • 11. Agenda- Background- Rationale: How Sustainable Urban Transport Can SaveLives- Strategy- New indicators: incorporating public health- Recent outcomes
  • 12. Sustainable Urban TransportandUrban DevelopmentCan Save Lives
  • 13. avoidshiftimprove
  • 14. avoidshiftimprove
  • 15. StrategyAvoid/Shift: Reduce driving (VMT) via high-quality sustainable transportImprove: Mainstream “road safety” intosustainable transport policy & solutionsSustainable Transport Saves LivesSource: FHWA Highway Statistics, 2008Regression Analysis: EMBARQU.S. statesR² = 0.69-5.0010.0015.0020.0025.0030.0035.0010 20 30 40 50Trafficfatalitiesper100,000people(urbanroads)Daily VMT per person(urban roads)8.4 fatalities permillion miles driven
  • 16. Automobile dependent cities have more accidentsCities of United States have 66% more deaths in traffic accidents per personthan peer cities in Europe and Asia, and 123% more than TorontoAccidentalidadR2= 0.57480.05.010.015.020.025.00 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 14,000Uso de Automóvil (Km por año por Persona)MuertesenAccidentedeTránsitopor100,000HabitantesAustraliaEEUUTorontoEuropaAsiaTendenciaRoad SafetyFatalitiesinRoadAccidentsper100,000population(1990)Automobile Use (Km/year per person)Source: INDICATORS OF TRANSPORT EFFICIENCY IN 37 GLOBALCITIES, Jeff Kenworthy, Felix Laube, Peter Newman and Paul Barter,World Bank, 1997
  • 17. Increased transit use, walking and bikingResidents are more physically activeMore destinations closer to transitLower car useLower speedsURBAN DEVELOPMENTTransit Oriented Development
  • 18. avoidshiftimprove
  • 19. BRT & ROAD SAFETYMacrobús, Guadalajara500031941 BRT lane2 general traffic lanesPassenger per hour per direction(peak)67261 BRT lane2 general traffic lanesCrashes per year
  • 20. Guadalajara: introduction of BRT reduced trafficcrashes on the corridor0500100015002000250030003500400045005000050100150200250Monthlycitywidecrashes(excludingtheBRTcorridor)MonthlycrashesontheBRTcorridorCitywide crashesCrashes on the BRT corridorBefore BRTDuring BRTconstruction During BRT operation
  • 21. More bikers means safer biking0.80.850.90.9511.051.11.151.260801001201401601802001998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009Cycling volumes (million km)Cyclist injuries andfatalities per million kmCycling volumes and cycling risk in Copenhagen, 1998 – 2009(Source: computed from data provided by Consia Consultants)
  • 22. More bikers means safer biking0501001502002503003504000501001502002503003504004502000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010Cycling commuting indicatorCycling risk indicatorComparison of cycling commuting indicator and cycling risk in New YorkCity (Source: New York City Department of Transportation, or NYC DOT)The cycling commuting indicator is a measure of the change in cyclingcommuter volumes, using 2000 as a base year (i.e. the indicator is equalto 100 in the year 2000). The cycling risk indicator is a ratio of cyclinginjuries to cyclist commuters. Both indicators were developed by New YorkCity DOT.
  • 23. 01000200030004000500060007000800090000204060801001201401993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010Bicycle commutersCycling risk indicatorBicycle commuters and cycling risk in Minneapolis MN (source: computedfrom data provided by the Minneapolis Public Works Department)The cycling risk indicator is calculated as a ratio of reported bicyclistcrashes to bicyclist commuters
  • 24. avoidshiftimprove
  • 25. Safety issues on curbside bus corridorsPedestrians and cyclists in the bus lanesAv. Caracas, TransMilenioMetrobus Line 2, Mexico City
  • 26. The global picture of safety on BRT and BuswaysCyclists using the bus lanesAv. Caracas, TransMilenioMetrobus Line 2, Mexico CityCyclists perceive the bus lanes as safer than the general traffic lanes, andoften prefer to use themBut the lanes are not designed to accommodate both buses and bicycles, andthere have been serious crashes involving BRTs and bikesMetrobus, in Mexico City, has reported a growing problem with BRT / bicyclecrashes
  • 27. Mexico CityGuadalajaraBogotaCuritibaPorto AlegreIstanbulDelhiAhmedabadVancouverBrisbaneBelo HorizontePereiraCaliGlobal researchHEALTH & ROAD SAFETYBRT and Road SafetyJinan?
  • 28. HEALTH & ROAD SAFETYRoad Safety AuditsIntersection in BrazilRecommended redesign from a roadsafety audit
  • 29. Another problem: Left turns across BRT lanes are dangerous• This is one of the most frequent crash types involving BRT
  • 30. Solution: Eliminating left turns on major streets• vehicles can make loops after intersections in order to reach their destinations• eliminating left turns can reduce crashes at one intersection by 30% or more
  • 31. BRT Safety Design GuidelinesHEALTH & ROAD SAFETYBRT and Road Safety
  • 32. Agenda- Background- Rationale: Sustainable Urban Transport Save Lives- Strategy- New indicators: incorporating public health- Recent outcomes
  • 33. 2010 - 2011StrategyDo-thankThink -thankPolicyCapacity buildingStrategy
  • 34. Policy is not enoughand neither aredemonstrationprojects, pieces ofresearch or isolatedcapacity building.The key is tocombine the four.
  • 35. Agenda- Background- Rationale: How Sustainable Urban Transport Can SaveLives- Strategy- New indicators: incorporating public health- Recent outcomes
  • 36. Traditional performance indicators- Number of passengers per day- Time saved in commutes- Public investment- Private investment- Others
  • 37. Cheonggyecheon River, Seuol, South Korea
  • 38. Indicadores tradicionales- Number of passengers per day- Time saved in commutes- Public investment- Private investment- OthersPublic health indicators- Number of deaths and injuries in traffic crashes- Physical activitity levels- Health exposure to air pollution levels
  • 39. Urban renewal projectCheonggyecheon River, Seoul, South Korea
  • 40. Agenda- Background- Rationale: How Sustainable Urban Transport Can SaveLives- Strategy- New indicators: incorporating public health- Recent outcomes
  • 41. Mexico City is world’s third largestmetropolitan areaEMBARQ has helped it develop aBRT system that now carries700,000 passengers per dayEMBARQ has since worked withother cities as well, Guadalajara,Chihuahua, Leon, Mexicali, etc.MEXICO CITYMetrobus SystemEMBARQ Photo
  • 42. EMBARQ is now advising Mexico’s national infrastructure fund on how todirect investment to transportation projectsMEXICONational Policy
  • 43. INDIAImproving public transportEMBARQ works with Indian cities toset up public transport agencies, andhelp them implement and operatepublic transport systemsEMBARQ helped in thedevelopment and implementation ofAhmedabad’s Janmarg BRTIn Jaipur, EMBARQ helped set up abus operating agency and isadvising them on bus operations
  • 44. Ensuring high quality for over 500km of BRT to be built in Brazil inanticipation of the Olympics andthe World CupConducting road safety auditsand inspectionsBRAZILImproving quality in public transportPhoto by Jefferson Bernardes
  • 45. TURKEYHistoric Peninsula PedestrianizedOver 200 streets openfor pedestrians only –UNESCO WorldHeritage SiteEMBARQ Turkey wasalso involved in theMetrobus BRT project inIstanbulRecent work hasfocused on bikinginfrastructure Photo by Clayton Lane
  • 46. WHO most polluted cities72% emissions = transportAREQUIPAHistoric Center PedestrianizedAir qualityHealthQuality of LifePhoto by Clayton LaneCTSS-Andino Photo
  • 47. WHO adopts sustainabletransport & urbandevelopment in “Decade ofAction for Road Safety” and2013 Global Status Reporton Road SafetyEMBARQ introducedconceptsLegitimizes sustainabletransport as health strategyHEALTH & ROAD SAFETYInternational Policy
  • 48. Claudia AdriazolaEMBARQ Health & Road Safety ManagerWorld Resources Institute+1.202.729.7728cadriazola@wri.orgEMBARQ.orgQuestions? Comments? Contact us at embarq@wri.orgFollow us on Twitter: @EMBARQnetworkContact