Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint Darío Hidalgo, PhD Senior Transport Engineer EMBARQ, The World Resources Institute Center forSustainable Transport May 2010
A successful urban transport system involves… Low travel times and travel costs for people and goods Equal access to urban life opportunities (social services, education, health, recreation) Adequate support to desired form, size and density of the city-region Limited impact on the environment: air/noise pollution; CO2 emissions Reduced impact on public health: injuries, fatalities, respiratory disease, obesity London, England London, England
This implies a huge challenge as City population increases… Source: United Nations Population Division, World Urbanization Prospects, The 2005 Revision
Urban population in India is expected to double in a 30 year period India’s urban population will double in just 30 years Projected Source: O.P. Agarwal and S. Zimmerman “Towards Sustainable Mobility in Urban India”, Presented in the Annual TRB Meeting, Washington D.C. January 2008
and also… Number of vehicles increases faster than population following economic development Source: Lee Schipper, University of California at Berkeley, 2009
The number of motor vehicles is growing twice as fast as the population in India – mainly two wheelers (71%) Source: O.P. Agarwal and S. Zimmerman “Towards Sustainable Mobility in Urban India”, Presented in the Annual TRB Meeting, Washington D.C. January 2008
However, Financial, institutional, physical resources are constrained
A very large burden is imposed on the society, especially the low income population Percent of the Gross Regional Product in Transport Externalities Source: World Business Council on Sustainable Development, 2001.
¿What to do? Alternative 1: Capital intensive solutions Give greater capacity to the road network to relieve congestion Build massive rail transport systems (light rail- metro) USA Highway Photo: FPPQQ Alternative 2: Change paradigms Give priority to non motorised transport and bus-based public transport Restrict indiscriminate automobile use Amsterdam, The Netherlands Photo: FPPQQ
Capital intensive solutions: highways Use great amount of resources Generate permanent needs of maintenance and subsidies Privilege the minority using private vehicles Result in urban expansion, consuming agricultural land and protected areas Do not generate local development: resources and equipment are mostly imported to the region Have long implementation times (5-10+ years before seeing any result) They do not solve the problem: it is like attacking obesity with larger pants They are not sustainable in financial, environmental, social or urban aspects
Infrastructure solutions lead to greater automobile dependence Greater use of automobile doesn’t mean greater economic productivity… Automobile dependence and Regional Economy Regional GDP per person (USD 1990) Automobile Use (Km/year per person) Source: INDICATORS OF TRANSPORT EFFICIENCY IN 37 GLOBAL CITIES, Jeff Kenworthy, Felix Laube, Peter Newman and Paul Barter, World Bank, 1997
Automobile dependent cities spend more on infrastructure UnitedStatescitiesspendanaverage of US$122 MORE per year per personthan a peer cities in Australia, Europe and Canada and US$201 MORE than Hong Kong Road Infrastructure Expenses Annual road infrastructure budget per person (US 1990) Automobile Use (Km/year per person) Source: INDICATORS OF TRANSPORT EFFICIENCY IN 37 GLOBAL CITIES, Jeff Kenworthy, Felix Laube, Peter Newman and Paul Barter, World Bank, 1997
Automobile dependent cities have more accidents Cities of United States have 66% more deaths in traffic accidents per person than peer cities in Europe and Asia, and 123% more than Toronto Road Safety Fatalities in Road Accidents per 100,000 population (1990) Automobile Use (Km/year per person) Source: INDICATORS OF TRANSPORT EFFICIENCY IN 37 GLOBAL CITIES, Jeff Kenworthy, Felix Laube, Peter Newman and Paul Barter, World Bank, 1997
Automobile dependent cities generate more atmospheric pollutants In United States cities, 3.5 times more CO2 per person is emitted than in Hong Kong, 2.4 times more than European cities, 1.9 times more than in Toronto and 1.6 times more than in Australian cities Greenhouse Gas Emissions CO2 Emissions (1990) Automobile Use (Km/year per person) Source: INDICATORS OF TRANSPORT EFFICIENCY IN 37 GLOBAL CITIES, Jeff Kenworthy, Felix Laube, Peter Newman and Paul Barter, World Bank, 1997
Automobile dependent cities have low densities (occupy large extensions) Persons/Hectare (1995) Automobile Use (Km/year per person 1995)
Alternative Solutions for Sustainable Urban Transport Pedestrian and Bicycles Public Transportation Transit Oriented Development Disincentives to Car Use Cleaner and Cooler Fuels and Vehicles http://www.nyc.gov/html/dot/images/sidewalks/ps_rendering01.JPG
Alternative solutions for sustainable transport Low cost High impact: reduction of accidents, pollution and travel times More compact cities, socially integrated Development of local industry Fast implementation (3-5 years from the idea to implementation) More attractive cities that ease location of businesses and professionals and urban development Santiago Manila London Sao Paulo
1. Non motorised transport Pedestrian and bicycle priorities Recovery of invaded public space Infrastructure construction Promotion and incentives Safe bicycle parking Road safety LONDON Photos: DHG UTRTECH, THE NETHERLANDS Photo: FPPQQ
1. Non motorised transport CARRERA 15, BOGOTA Photos: IDU ALAMEDA EL PORVENIR, BOGOTA Photos: FPPQQ
2. Disincentives to indiscriminate car use Congestion charging: Singapore, London, Sweden, Santiago Administrative measures (plate restrictions) Parking controls Taxes (fuel, property) Citizens’ culture London Bogota, Sunday Ciclovía Bogota, no car day
3. Transit- oriented development (TOD) Local scale: Nodes around stations Joint development: residental + commercial + education + entertainment Dense Housing (3-4 floors) with generous public space Helsinki Photo J. Kenworthy Zurich Photo J. Kenworthy Vancouver Photo J. Kenworthy
3. Transit- oriented development (TOD) Copenhagen map Urban and regional scale: General principles Limits to urban expansion and generation of protected areas (zones that cannot be developed - ecological structure) Obligatory consistency between local detailed plans and transport plan Provision of public space in every new development and renovation Occupation indexes favorable to public transport use Incentives and bonuses for development of desired uses (instruments) Obligation to balance growth of employment and housing
3. Transit- oriented development (TOD) Source: IPUCC Curitiba, Brazil
3. Transit- oriented development (TOD) Curitiba, Brazil Source: http://www.curitiba-parana.com/arquitetura-urbanismo.htm
4. Bus Systems High quality User oriented Fast Reliable Low cost Leeds, UK Sao Paulo Curitiba
Components of a High Quality Bus System Road Infrastructure and Priority Stations and bus stops Differentiated services (local, accelerated, express) Integrated services (feeder and other modes) Integrated tickets, affordable by users Advanced technologies – user information, fare collection and control Good quality buses, multiple doors, low emissions Metrobus Insurgentes, Mexico DF Trolebus, Quito
Components of a High Quality Bus System User information systems Good access to pedestrians and cyclists Sustainable economic rules (performance based contracts with operators – no subsidies, or clearly defined subsides) Land use management (densification, mixed uses around stations – transit oriented development) Full accessibility (old age, children, people with disabilities) Excellence in user service Marketing (Image) Optibús, León, Guanajuato MetrobusInsurgentes, Mexico DF
Bus systems are critical for energy independence in India 27% Less Energy as compared with 2030 BAU Schipper L. Banerjee I. and Ng W.S. “CO2 Emissions from Land Transport in India Scenarios of the Uncertain”, TRB Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, January 2009
It is possible for any city to transform itself into a sustainable city… Bogotá, Colombia, 1998
Bogotá has applied integrated policies for sustainable transport Slides developed originally by Dario Hidalgo
Results are extraordinary… Total Public Transport Traditional Public Transport TransMilenio BRTS Fuentes: EncuestaAnual “Bogotá ¿CómoVamos?” www.eltiempo.com; Private (Car, Two Wheeler) Active Transport (Walking, Bicycle) Mainmode of transport 1998-2009
While cities are the epicenters of economic growth in China, they are also choking on the side effects.
Air quality and traffic flow will dramatically deteriorate as people trade in their bicycles for motorcycles and cars.
Like many of China’s growing cities, Xi’an is undergoing large-scale growth both in terms of motorized vehicles and population.
In 2005, Shanghai installed 26 kilometers of peak-hour bus lanes in downtown.
Global Strategic Partners Shell Foundation Caterpillar Foundation Bloomberg Philanthropies Institutional Donors The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation Andean Development Corporation BP Petroleum Ltd. Ford Motor Company FedEx
Project Sponsors Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs US AID US EPA Ford Motor Company Asian Development Bank Energy Foundation World Bank Blue Moon Fund Godrej Industries Ltd. Institute for Transport and Development Policy The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Mexico National Institute of Ecology Mexico’s Secretariat of Environment and Natural Resources Panamerican Health Organization Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership Alcoa Foundation Bipartisan Policy Center British Embassy in Brazil British High Commission in India Strategic Programme Fund ClimateWorks Foundation The William J. Clinton Foundation Environmental Defense Fund Shell Development Oman LLC Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency U.K. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs Volvo Research and Educational Foundations Wheels Inc. World Economic Forum World Health Organization Inter-American Development Bank Government of Colombia DNP Transport Research Laboratory UK