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Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
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Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint

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  • 1. Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint
    Darío Hidalgo, PhD
    Senior Transport Engineer
    EMBARQ, The World Resources Institute Center forSustainable Transport
    May 2010
  • 2. A successful urban transport system involves…
    Low travel times and travel costs for people and goods
    Equal access to urban life opportunities (social services, education, health, recreation)
    Adequate support to desired form, size and density of the city-region
    Limited impact on the environment: air/noise pollution; CO2 emissions
    Reduced impact on public health: injuries, fatalities, respiratory disease, obesity
    London, England
    London, England
  • 3. This implies a huge challenge as
    City population increases…
    Source: United Nations Population Division, World Urbanization Prospects, The 2005 Revision
  • 4. Urban population in India is expected to double in a 30 year period
    India’s urban population will double in just 30 years
    Projected
    Source: O.P. Agarwal and S. Zimmerman “Towards Sustainable Mobility in Urban India”, Presented in the Annual TRB Meeting, Washington D.C. January 2008
  • 5. and also…
    Number of vehicles increases faster than population following economic development
    Source: Lee Schipper, University of California at Berkeley, 2009
  • 6. The number of motor vehicles is growing twice as fast as the population in India – mainly two wheelers (71%)
    Source: O.P. Agarwal and S. Zimmerman “Towards Sustainable Mobility in Urban India”, Presented in the Annual TRB Meeting, Washington D.C. January 2008
  • 7. However, Financial, institutional, physical resources are constrained
  • 8. A very large burden is imposed on the society, especially the low income population
    Percent of the Gross Regional Product in Transport Externalities
    Source: World Business Council on Sustainable Development, 2001.
  • 9. ¿What to do?
    Alternative 1:
    Capital intensive solutions
    Give greater capacity to the road network to relieve congestion
    Build massive rail transport systems (light rail- metro)
    USA Highway
    Photo: FPPQQ
    Alternative 2:
    Change paradigms
    Give priority to non motorised transport and bus-based public transport
    Restrict indiscriminate automobile use
    Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Photo: FPPQQ
  • 10. Capital & Land intensive solutions: highways
  • 11. Capital intensive solutions: highways
    Use great amount of resources
    Generate permanent needs of maintenance and subsidies
    Privilege the minority using private vehicles
    Result in urban expansion, consuming agricultural land and protected areas
    Do not generate local development: resources and equipment are mostly imported to the region
    Have long implementation times (5-10+ years before seeing any result)
    They do not solve the problem: it is like attacking obesity with larger pants
    They are not sustainable in financial, environmental, social or urban aspects
  • 12. Infrastructure solutions lead to greater automobile dependence
    Greater use of automobile doesn’t mean greater economic productivity…
    Automobile dependence and Regional Economy
    Regional GDP per person (USD 1990)
    Automobile Use (Km/year per person)
    Source: INDICATORS OF TRANSPORT EFFICIENCY IN 37 GLOBAL CITIES, Jeff Kenworthy, Felix Laube, Peter Newman and Paul Barter, World Bank, 1997
  • 13. Automobile dependent cities spend more on infrastructure
    UnitedStatescitiesspendanaverage of US$122 MORE per year per personthan a peer cities in Australia, Europe and Canada and US$201 MORE than Hong Kong
    Road Infrastructure Expenses
    Annual road infrastructure budget per person (US 1990)
    Automobile Use (Km/year per person)
    Source: INDICATORS OF TRANSPORT EFFICIENCY IN 37 GLOBAL CITIES, Jeff Kenworthy, Felix Laube, Peter Newman and Paul Barter, World Bank, 1997
  • 14. Automobile dependent cities have more accidents
    Cities of United States have 66% more deaths in traffic accidents per person than peer cities in Europe and Asia, and 123% more than Toronto
    Road Safety
    Fatalities in Road Accidents per 100,000 population (1990)
    Automobile Use (Km/year per person)
    Source: INDICATORS OF TRANSPORT EFFICIENCY IN 37 GLOBAL CITIES, Jeff Kenworthy, Felix Laube, Peter Newman and Paul Barter, World Bank, 1997
  • 15. Automobile dependent cities generate more atmospheric pollutants
    In United States cities, 3.5 times more CO2 per person is emitted than in Hong Kong, 2.4 times more than European cities, 1.9 times more than in Toronto and 1.6 times more than in Australian cities
    Greenhouse Gas Emissions
    CO2 Emissions
    (1990)
    Automobile Use (Km/year per person)
    Source: INDICATORS OF TRANSPORT EFFICIENCY IN 37 GLOBAL CITIES, Jeff Kenworthy, Felix Laube, Peter Newman and Paul Barter, World Bank, 1997
  • 16. Automobile dependent cities have low densities (occupy large extensions)
    Persons/Hectare (1995)
    Automobile Use (Km/year per person 1995)
  • 17. Alternative Solutions for Sustainable Urban Transport
    Pedestrian and Bicycles
    Public Transportation
    Transit Oriented Development
    Disincentives to Car Use
    Cleaner and Cooler Fuels and Vehicles
    http://www.nyc.gov/html/dot/images/sidewalks/ps_rendering01.JPG
  • 18. Alternative solutions for sustainable transport
    Low cost
    High impact: reduction of accidents, pollution and travel times
    More compact cities, socially integrated
    Development of local industry
    Fast implementation (3-5 years from the idea to implementation)
    More attractive cities that ease location of businesses and professionals and urban development
    Santiago
    Manila
    London
    Sao Paulo
  • 19. 1. Non motorised transport
    Pedestrian and bicycle priorities
    Recovery of invaded public space
    Infrastructure construction
    Promotion and incentives
    Safe bicycle parking
    Road safety
    LONDON
    Photos: DHG
    UTRTECH, THE NETHERLANDS
    Photo: FPPQQ
  • 20. 1. Non motorised transport
    CARRERA 15, BOGOTA
    Photos: IDU
    ALAMEDA EL PORVENIR, BOGOTA
    Photos: FPPQQ
  • 21. 2. Disincentives to indiscriminate car use
    Congestion charging: Singapore, London, Sweden, Santiago
    Administrative measures (plate restrictions)
    Parking controls
    Taxes (fuel, property)
    Citizens’ culture
    London
    Bogota, Sunday Ciclovía
    Bogota, no car day
  • 22. 3. Transit- oriented development (TOD)
    Local scale:
    Nodes around stations
    Joint development: residental + commercial + education + entertainment
    Dense Housing (3-4 floors) with generous public space
    Helsinki
    Photo J. Kenworthy
    Zurich
    Photo J. Kenworthy
    Vancouver
    Photo J. Kenworthy
  • 23. 3. Transit- oriented development (TOD)
    Copenhagen map
    Urban and regional scale:
    General principles
    Limits to urban expansion and generation of protected areas (zones that cannot be developed - ecological structure)
    Obligatory consistency between local detailed plans and transport plan
    Provision of public space in every new development and renovation
    Occupation indexes favorable to public transport use
    Incentives and bonuses for development of desired uses (instruments)
    Obligation to balance growth of employment and housing
  • 24. 3. Transit- oriented development (TOD)
    Source: IPUCC Curitiba, Brazil
  • 25. 3. Transit- oriented development (TOD)
    Curitiba, Brazil
    Source: http://www.curitiba-parana.com/arquitetura-urbanismo.htm
  • 26. 4. Bus Systems
  • 27. 4. Bus Systems
    High quality
    User oriented
    Fast
    Reliable
    Low cost
    Leeds, UK
    Sao Paulo
    Curitiba
  • 28. Components of a High Quality Bus System
    Road Infrastructure and Priority
    Stations and bus stops
    Differentiated services (local, accelerated, express)
    Integrated services (feeder and other modes)
    Integrated tickets, affordable by users
    Advanced technologies – user information, fare collection and control
    Good quality buses, multiple doors, low emissions
    Metrobus Insurgentes, Mexico DF
    Trolebus, Quito
  • 29. Components of a High Quality Bus System
    User information systems
    Good access to pedestrians and cyclists
    Sustainable economic rules (performance based contracts with operators – no subsidies, or clearly defined subsides)
    Land use management (densification, mixed uses around stations – transit oriented development)
    Full accessibility (old age, children, people with disabilities)
    Excellence in user service
    Marketing (Image)
    Optibús, León, Guanajuato
    MetrobusInsurgentes, Mexico DF
  • 30. Bus systems are critical for energy independence in India
    27% Less Energy as compared with 2030 BAU
    Schipper L. Banerjee I. and Ng W.S. “CO2 Emissions from Land Transport in India Scenarios of the Uncertain”, TRB Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, January 2009
  • 31. It is possible for any city to transform itself into a sustainable city…
    Bogotá, Colombia, 1998
  • 32. Bogotá has applied integrated policies for sustainable transport
    Slides developed originally by Dario Hidalgo
  • 33. Results are extraordinary…
    Total Public Transport
    Traditional Public Transport
    TransMilenio BRTS
    Fuentes: EncuestaAnual “Bogotá ¿CómoVamos?” www.eltiempo.com;
    Private (Car, Two Wheeler)
    Active Transport (Walking, Bicycle)
    Mainmode of transport 1998-2009
  • 34. Our Footprint
  • 35. “The EMBARQ global network catalyzes environmentally and financially sustainable transport solutions to improve quality of life in cities.”
  • 36.
  • 37. Mexico City’s Metrobús is one of the largest bus rapid transit systems in the world.
  • 38. The mayor of Mexico
    City campaigned on
    a platform of
    expanding Metrobús
    from a one-line
    operation to a
    citywide network
    of 10 lines.
  • 39. 45 Km BRT System
    450,000 passengers per day
  • 40. “It’s nothing
    like driving,
    especially at
    rush hour when
    everyone’s
    leaving the
    office.”
  • 41. MacrobúsGuadalajara reduces travel times, prevents traffic accidents, and helps combat climate change.
  • 42. Macrobús Guadalajara, México
    16 Km, 127,000 passengers/day
  • 43. MEDEC is a roadmap for CO2 reductions in Mexico’s transport sector.
  • 44. MEDEC Scenario for road transport
    44
  • 45. Potential and cost of emission reductions (Independent Implementation)
    45
  • 46. The key to
    solving the
    problem is
    getting people
    out of their cars
    and into mass
    transit.
  • 47. Transit-oriented development aims to create easy connections to where people work, live and play in a city.
  • 48. The retrofit pilot
    project demonstrated
    that diesel particulate
    filters, when combined
    with clean diesel, can
    reduce over 90 percent
    of the particulate
    matter emitted from
    Mexico City’s buses.
  • 49. EMBARQ’s study helped guide
    Mexico City officials
    in purchasing
    the most cost-
    effective buses
    for their fleet.
  • 50.
  • 51. Brazil contains
    numerous
    burgeoning cities
    that are now
    suffering from the
    standard problems
    of growth.
  • 52. “Portais da Cidade” is the flagship BRT system in Brazil, designed to revitalize downtown Porto Alegre, improve public transit and reduce pollution.
  • 53. Porto Alegre has received support from several organizations thanks to EMBARQ
  • 54. EMBARQ’S innovative financing partnership with CAF will help improve daily life for millions of people in Latin American cities.
  • 55. The EMBARQ BRT Simulator shows how small changes can make a big impact on cities planning new
    BRT corridors.
  • 56. Rio de Janeiro used EMBARQ software to evaluate a proposed BRT system for carrying potential visitors to the 2016 Olympic Games.
  • 57.
  • 58. Sustainable transport not only combats climate change; it also improves public health.
  • 59. CTSS-Andino
    helped remove
    720 highly
    polluting shared taxicabs from
    the streets of Arequipa.
  • 60. By focusing
    on people, not cars, Arequipa can preserve
    its historic heritage.
  • 61. Arequipa’s transport
    plan calls for a
    15-kilometer bus
    rapid transit corridor
    to make more of the
    city accessible to the
    growing population.
  • 62.
  • 63. Reducing transport
    emissions is an
    important goal
    because they
    negatively impact
    public health and
    contribute to global
    climate change.
  • 64. EMBARQ
    estimates that if
    Istanbul does not
    begin to address
    transport-related
    air pollution,
    emissions could
    double by 2015.
  • 65. The inter-continental BRT corridor
    eases congestion along the famous Bosphorus Bridge – one of the key
    traffic bottlenecks
    in the city.
  • 66. “It seems to
    me it would
    help if the
    buses could
    have their
    own lane.”
  • 67. Launched in
    September 2007,
    Istanbul’s bus rapid
    transit corridor
    is now one of
    the most heavily
    traveled BRT lines
    in the world.
  • 68. The Historic Peninsula can protect its legacy through an integrated traffic plan.
  • 69.
  • 70. Millions of
    Indians will soon
    join the middle
    class and be in
    a position to buy
    their first car.
  • 71. The national policy
    sets the guidelines
    for cities that want
    to receive funding
    for bus rapid
    transit and other
    sustainable urban
    transport projects.
  • 72. EMBARQ
    conducted a
    critical review
    of Bangalore’s
    traffic and
    transport plan.
  • 73. Pune, an
    expanding
    university city,
    is home to
    India’s auto
    industry.
  • 74. The winning
    bid solidified Indore's position as a model city for sustainable transport.
  • 75. Delhi's new
    bus corridor meets its key objectives,
    but there is
    still room for improvement.
  • 76. Bangalore
    is poised to become the "cycling capital
    of India."
  • 77. Janmarg Ahmedabad, India
  • 78. Next Stop: China
  • 79. While cities are
    the epicenters
    of economic
    growth in China,
    they are also
    choking on the
    side effects.
  • 80. Air quality and
    traffic flow will
    dramatically
    deteriorate as
    people trade in
    their bicycles
    for motorcycles
    and cars.
  • 81. Like many of China’s
    growing cities,
    Xi’an is undergoing
    large-scale growth
    both in terms of
    motorized vehicles
    and population.
  • 82. In 2005, Shanghai
    installed 26
    kilometers of
    peak-hour
    bus lanes in
    downtown.
  • 83. Global Strategic Partners
    Shell Foundation
    Caterpillar Foundation
    Bloomberg Philanthropies
    Institutional Donors
    The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation
    Andean Development Corporation
    BP Petroleum Ltd.
    Ford Motor Company
    FedEx
  • 84. Project Sponsors
    Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs
    US AID
    US EPA
    Ford Motor Company
    Asian Development Bank
    Energy Foundation
    World Bank
    Blue Moon Fund
    Godrej Industries Ltd.
    Institute for Transport and Development Policy
    The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation
    Mexico National Institute of Ecology
    Mexico’s Secretariat of Environment and Natural Resources
    Panamerican Health Organization
    Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership
    Alcoa Foundation
    Bipartisan Policy Center
    British Embassy in Brazil
    British High Commission in India Strategic Programme Fund
    ClimateWorks Foundation
    The William J. Clinton Foundation
    Environmental Defense Fund
    Shell Development Oman LLC
    Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency
    U.K. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
    Volvo Research and Educational Foundations
    Wheels Inc.
    World Economic Forum
    World Health Organization
    Inter-American Development Bank
    Government of Colombia DNP
    Transport Research Laboratory UK

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