Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint

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Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint

  1. 1. Sustainable Transport: The EMBARQ Footprint<br />Darío Hidalgo, PhD<br />Senior Transport Engineer<br />EMBARQ, The World Resources Institute Center forSustainable Transport<br />May 2010<br />
  2. 2. A successful urban transport system involves…<br />Low travel times and travel costs for people and goods<br />Equal access to urban life opportunities (social services, education, health, recreation)<br />Adequate support to desired form, size and density of the city-region<br />Limited impact on the environment: air/noise pollution; CO2 emissions<br />Reduced impact on public health: injuries, fatalities, respiratory disease, obesity<br />London, England<br />London, England<br />
  3. 3. This implies a huge challenge as<br />City population increases…<br />Source: United Nations Population Division, World Urbanization Prospects, The 2005 Revision<br />
  4. 4. Urban population in India is expected to double in a 30 year period<br />India’s urban population will double in just 30 years<br />Projected<br />Source: O.P. Agarwal and S. Zimmerman “Towards Sustainable Mobility in Urban India”, Presented in the Annual TRB Meeting, Washington D.C. January 2008<br />
  5. 5. and also…<br />Number of vehicles increases faster than population following economic development<br />Source: Lee Schipper, University of California at Berkeley, 2009<br />
  6. 6. The number of motor vehicles is growing twice as fast as the population in India – mainly two wheelers (71%)<br />Source: O.P. Agarwal and S. Zimmerman “Towards Sustainable Mobility in Urban India”, Presented in the Annual TRB Meeting, Washington D.C. January 2008<br />
  7. 7. However, Financial, institutional, physical resources are constrained<br />
  8. 8. A very large burden is imposed on the society, especially the low income population<br />Percent of the Gross Regional Product in Transport Externalities<br />Source: World Business Council on Sustainable Development, 2001.<br />
  9. 9. ¿What to do?<br />Alternative 1: <br />Capital intensive solutions<br />Give greater capacity to the road network to relieve congestion<br />Build massive rail transport systems (light rail- metro)<br />USA Highway<br />Photo: FPPQQ<br />Alternative 2: <br />Change paradigms<br />Give priority to non motorised transport and bus-based public transport<br />Restrict indiscriminate automobile use<br />Amsterdam, The Netherlands<br />Photo: FPPQQ<br />
  10. 10. Capital & Land intensive solutions: highways<br />
  11. 11. Capital intensive solutions: highways<br />Use great amount of resources<br />Generate permanent needs of maintenance and subsidies<br />Privilege the minority using private vehicles<br />Result in urban expansion, consuming agricultural land and protected areas<br />Do not generate local development: resources and equipment are mostly imported to the region<br />Have long implementation times (5-10+ years before seeing any result)<br />They do not solve the problem: it is like attacking obesity with larger pants<br />They are not sustainable in financial, environmental, social or urban aspects<br />
  12. 12. Infrastructure solutions lead to greater automobile dependence<br />Greater use of automobile doesn’t mean greater economic productivity…<br />Automobile dependence and Regional Economy<br />Regional GDP per person (USD 1990)<br />Automobile Use (Km/year per person)<br />Source: INDICATORS OF TRANSPORT EFFICIENCY IN 37 GLOBAL CITIES, Jeff Kenworthy, Felix Laube, Peter Newman and Paul Barter, World Bank, 1997<br />
  13. 13. Automobile dependent cities spend more on infrastructure<br />UnitedStatescitiesspendanaverage of US$122 MORE per year per personthan a peer cities in Australia, Europe and Canada and US$201 MORE than Hong Kong<br />Road Infrastructure Expenses<br />Annual road infrastructure budget per person (US 1990)<br />Automobile Use (Km/year per person)<br />Source: INDICATORS OF TRANSPORT EFFICIENCY IN 37 GLOBAL CITIES, Jeff Kenworthy, Felix Laube, Peter Newman and Paul Barter, World Bank, 1997<br />
  14. 14. Automobile dependent cities have more accidents<br />Cities of United States have 66% more deaths in traffic accidents per person than peer cities in Europe and Asia, and 123% more than Toronto<br />Road Safety<br />Fatalities in Road Accidents per 100,000 population (1990)<br />Automobile Use (Km/year per person)<br />Source: INDICATORS OF TRANSPORT EFFICIENCY IN 37 GLOBAL CITIES, Jeff Kenworthy, Felix Laube, Peter Newman and Paul Barter, World Bank, 1997<br />
  15. 15. Automobile dependent cities generate more atmospheric pollutants<br />In United States cities, 3.5 times more CO2 per person is emitted than in Hong Kong, 2.4 times more than European cities, 1.9 times more than in Toronto and 1.6 times more than in Australian cities<br />Greenhouse Gas Emissions<br />CO2 Emissions <br /> (1990)<br />Automobile Use (Km/year per person)<br />Source: INDICATORS OF TRANSPORT EFFICIENCY IN 37 GLOBAL CITIES, Jeff Kenworthy, Felix Laube, Peter Newman and Paul Barter, World Bank, 1997<br />
  16. 16. Automobile dependent cities have low densities (occupy large extensions)<br />Persons/Hectare (1995) <br />Automobile Use (Km/year per person 1995)<br />
  17. 17. Alternative Solutions for Sustainable Urban Transport<br />Pedestrian and Bicycles<br />Public Transportation<br />Transit Oriented Development <br />Disincentives to Car Use<br />Cleaner and Cooler Fuels and Vehicles<br />http://www.nyc.gov/html/dot/images/sidewalks/ps_rendering01.JPG<br />
  18. 18. Alternative solutions for sustainable transport<br />Low cost<br />High impact: reduction of accidents, pollution and travel times<br />More compact cities, socially integrated<br />Development of local industry<br />Fast implementation (3-5 years from the idea to implementation)<br />More attractive cities that ease location of businesses and professionals and urban development<br />Santiago<br />Manila<br />London<br />Sao Paulo<br />
  19. 19. 1. Non motorised transport<br />Pedestrian and bicycle priorities<br />Recovery of invaded public space <br />Infrastructure construction<br />Promotion and incentives<br />Safe bicycle parking<br />Road safety<br />LONDON<br />Photos: DHG<br />UTRTECH, THE NETHERLANDS<br />Photo: FPPQQ<br />
  20. 20. 1. Non motorised transport<br />CARRERA 15, BOGOTA<br />Photos: IDU<br />ALAMEDA EL PORVENIR, BOGOTA<br />Photos: FPPQQ<br />
  21. 21. 2. Disincentives to indiscriminate car use<br />Congestion charging: Singapore, London, Sweden, Santiago<br />Administrative measures (plate restrictions)<br />Parking controls<br />Taxes (fuel, property)<br />Citizens’ culture<br />London<br />Bogota, Sunday Ciclovía<br />Bogota, no car day<br />
  22. 22. 3. Transit- oriented development (TOD)<br />Local scale:<br />Nodes around stations<br />Joint development: residental + commercial + education + entertainment<br />Dense Housing (3-4 floors) with generous public space<br />Helsinki <br />Photo J. Kenworthy<br />Zurich<br />Photo J. Kenworthy<br />Vancouver <br />Photo J. Kenworthy<br />
  23. 23. 3. Transit- oriented development (TOD)<br />Copenhagen map<br />Urban and regional scale: <br />General principles<br />Limits to urban expansion and generation of protected areas (zones that cannot be developed - ecological structure)<br />Obligatory consistency between local detailed plans and transport plan<br />Provision of public space in every new development and renovation<br />Occupation indexes favorable to public transport use<br />Incentives and bonuses for development of desired uses (instruments)<br />Obligation to balance growth of employment and housing<br />
  24. 24. 3. Transit- oriented development (TOD)<br />Source: IPUCC Curitiba, Brazil<br />
  25. 25. 3. Transit- oriented development (TOD)<br />Curitiba, Brazil<br />Source: http://www.curitiba-parana.com/arquitetura-urbanismo.htm<br />
  26. 26. 4. Bus Systems<br />
  27. 27. 4. Bus Systems<br />High quality<br />User oriented<br />Fast<br />Reliable<br />Low cost<br />Leeds, UK<br />Sao Paulo<br />Curitiba<br />
  28. 28. Components of a High Quality Bus System<br /> Road Infrastructure and Priority<br />Stations and bus stops <br />Differentiated services (local, accelerated, express)<br />Integrated services (feeder and other modes)<br />Integrated tickets, affordable by users<br />Advanced technologies – user information, fare collection and control<br />Good quality buses, multiple doors, low emissions<br />Metrobus Insurgentes, Mexico DF<br />Trolebus, Quito<br />
  29. 29. Components of a High Quality Bus System<br />User information systems<br />Good access to pedestrians and cyclists<br />Sustainable economic rules (performance based contracts with operators – no subsidies, or clearly defined subsides)<br />Land use management (densification, mixed uses around stations – transit oriented development)<br />Full accessibility (old age, children, people with disabilities)<br />Excellence in user service<br />Marketing (Image)<br />Optibús, León, Guanajuato<br />MetrobusInsurgentes, Mexico DF<br />
  30. 30. Bus systems are critical for energy independence in India<br />27% Less Energy as compared with 2030 BAU<br />Schipper L. Banerjee I. and Ng W.S. “CO2 Emissions from Land Transport in India Scenarios of the Uncertain”, TRB Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, January 2009<br />
  31. 31. It is possible for any city to transform itself into a sustainable city…<br />Bogotá, Colombia, 1998<br />
  32. 32. Bogotá has applied integrated policies for sustainable transport<br />Slides developed originally by Dario Hidalgo<br />
  33. 33. Results are extraordinary…<br />Total Public Transport<br />Traditional Public Transport<br />TransMilenio BRTS <br />Fuentes: EncuestaAnual “Bogotá ¿CómoVamos?” www.eltiempo.com; <br />Private (Car, Two Wheeler)<br />Active Transport (Walking, Bicycle)<br />Mainmode of transport 1998-2009<br />
  34. 34. Our Footprint<br />
  35. 35. “The EMBARQ global network catalyzes environmentally and financially sustainable transport solutions to improve quality of life in cities.”<br />
  36. 36.
  37. 37. Mexico City’s Metrobús is one of the largest bus rapid transit systems in the world.<br />
  38. 38. The mayor of Mexico<br />City campaigned on<br />a platform of<br />expanding Metrobús<br />from a one-line<br />operation to a<br />citywide network<br />of 10 lines.<br />
  39. 39. 45 Km BRT System<br />450,000 passengers per day<br />
  40. 40. “It’s nothing<br />like driving,<br />especially at<br />rush hour when<br />everyone’s<br />leaving the<br />office.”<br />
  41. 41. MacrobúsGuadalajara reduces travel times, prevents traffic accidents, and helps combat climate change.<br />
  42. 42. Macrobús Guadalajara, México<br />16 Km, 127,000 passengers/day<br />
  43. 43. MEDEC is a roadmap for CO2 reductions in Mexico’s transport sector.<br />
  44. 44. MEDEC Scenario for road transport<br />44<br />
  45. 45. Potential and cost of emission reductions (Independent Implementation) <br />45<br />
  46. 46. The key to<br />solving the<br />problem is<br />getting people<br />out of their cars<br />and into mass<br />transit.<br />
  47. 47. Transit-oriented development aims to create easy connections to where people work, live and play in a city. <br />
  48. 48. The retrofit pilot<br />project demonstrated<br />that diesel particulate<br />filters, when combined<br />with clean diesel, can<br />reduce over 90 percent<br />of the particulate<br />matter emitted from<br />Mexico City’s buses.<br />
  49. 49. EMBARQ’s study helped guide<br />Mexico City officials<br />in purchasing<br />the most cost-<br />effective buses<br />for their fleet.<br />
  50. 50.
  51. 51. Brazil contains<br />numerous<br />burgeoning cities<br />that are now<br />suffering from the<br />standard problems<br />of growth.<br />
  52. 52. “Portais da Cidade” is the flagship BRT system in Brazil, designed to revitalize downtown Porto Alegre, improve public transit and reduce pollution. <br />
  53. 53. Porto Alegre has received support from several organizations thanks to EMBARQ<br />
  54. 54. EMBARQ’S innovative financing partnership with CAF will help improve daily life for millions of people in Latin American cities.<br />
  55. 55. The EMBARQ BRT Simulator shows how small changes can make a big impact on cities planning new<br />BRT corridors. <br />
  56. 56. Rio de Janeiro used EMBARQ software to evaluate a proposed BRT system for carrying potential visitors to the 2016 Olympic Games.<br />
  57. 57.
  58. 58. Sustainable transport not only combats climate change; it also improves public health. <br />
  59. 59. CTSS-Andino<br />helped remove<br />720 highly<br />polluting shared taxicabs from<br />the streets of Arequipa.<br />
  60. 60. By focusing<br />on people, not cars, Arequipa can preserve<br />its historic heritage. <br />
  61. 61. Arequipa’s transport<br />plan calls for a<br />15-kilometer bus<br />rapid transit corridor<br />to make more of the<br />city accessible to the<br />growing population.<br />
  62. 62.
  63. 63. Reducing transport<br />emissions is an<br />important goal<br />because they<br />negatively impact<br />public health and<br />contribute to global<br />climate change.<br />
  64. 64. EMBARQ<br />estimates that if<br />Istanbul does not<br />begin to address<br />transport-related<br />air pollution,<br />emissions could<br />double by 2015.<br />
  65. 65. The inter-continental BRT corridor<br />eases congestion along the famous Bosphorus Bridge – one of the key<br /> traffic bottlenecks<br /> in the city.<br />
  66. 66. “It seems to<br />me it would<br />help if the<br />buses could<br />have their<br />own lane.”<br />
  67. 67. Launched in<br />September 2007,<br />Istanbul’s bus rapid<br />transit corridor<br />is now one of<br />the most heavily<br />traveled BRT lines<br />in the world.<br />
  68. 68. The Historic Peninsula can protect its legacy through an integrated traffic plan.<br />
  69. 69.
  70. 70. Millions of<br />Indians will soon<br />join the middle<br />class and be in<br />a position to buy<br />their first car.<br />
  71. 71. The national policy<br />sets the guidelines<br />for cities that want<br />to receive funding<br />for bus rapid<br />transit and other<br />sustainable urban<br />transport projects.<br />
  72. 72. EMBARQ<br />conducted a<br />critical review<br />of Bangalore’s<br />traffic and<br />transport plan.<br />
  73. 73. Pune, an<br />expanding<br />university city,<br />is home to<br />India’s auto<br />industry.<br />
  74. 74. The winning<br />bid solidified Indore's position as a model city for sustainable transport. <br />
  75. 75. Delhi's new<br />bus corridor meets its key objectives,<br />but there is<br />still room for improvement. <br />
  76. 76. Bangalore<br />is poised to become the "cycling capital<br />of India." <br />
  77. 77. Janmarg Ahmedabad, India<br />
  78. 78. Next Stop: China<br />
  79. 79. While cities are<br />the epicenters<br />of economic<br />growth in China,<br />they are also<br />choking on the<br />side effects.<br />
  80. 80. Air quality and<br />traffic flow will<br />dramatically<br />deteriorate as<br />people trade in<br />their bicycles<br />for motorcycles<br />and cars.<br />
  81. 81. Like many of China’s<br />growing cities,<br />Xi’an is undergoing<br />large-scale growth<br />both in terms of<br />motorized vehicles<br />and population.<br />
  82. 82. In 2005, Shanghai<br />installed 26<br />kilometers of<br />peak-hour<br />bus lanes in<br />downtown.<br />
  83. 83. Global Strategic Partners<br /> Shell Foundation<br /> Caterpillar Foundation<br /> Bloomberg Philanthropies<br /> Institutional Donors<br />The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation<br />Andean Development Corporation<br />BP Petroleum Ltd.<br />Ford Motor Company<br />FedEx<br />
  84. 84. Project Sponsors <br />Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs<br />US AID<br />US EPA<br />Ford Motor Company<br />Asian Development Bank<br />Energy Foundation<br />World Bank<br />Blue Moon Fund<br />Godrej Industries Ltd.<br />Institute for Transport and Development Policy<br />The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation <br />Mexico National Institute of Ecology<br />Mexico’s Secretariat of Environment and Natural Resources<br />Panamerican Health Organization<br />Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership<br />Alcoa Foundation<br /> Bipartisan Policy Center<br /> British Embassy in Brazil<br /> British High Commission in India Strategic Programme Fund<br />ClimateWorks Foundation<br /> The William J. Clinton Foundation <br /> Environmental Defense Fund<br />Shell Development Oman LLC<br />Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency<br />U.K. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs<br /> Volvo Research and Educational Foundations<br /> Wheels Inc.<br /> World Economic Forum<br /> World Health Organization<br /> Inter-American Development Bank<br /> Government of Colombia DNP<br /> Transport Research Laboratory UK<br />

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