0
Role of Technology Enhancing Transport Korea’s Case!

!   Presented at Transforming Transportation 2014!
! Gyeng Chul KIM ...
Role	
  of	
  Technology	
  Enhancing	
  Transport	
  
	
  Korea’s	
  Cases:	
  ICT	
  based	
  transport	
  reform.	
  	
...
Shanty Towns

After the Korean War
(1953-1970)
(1,000 Persons)
12,000

1992, 10.92M
1988, 10M

10,000

8,000
1976, 7M

6,000
1970, 5M

4,000
1963, 3M
1959, 2M
2,000
1942...
Bus	
  	
  and	
  Tram	
  Sta@ons	
  :	
  	
  Insufficient	
  capacity	
  
Gyengbu Expressway
opened in 1970

of vehicles in Korea
! 127,000 in 1970

l  Number

7
§ 	
  Registered	
  vehicles:	
  50	
  @mes	
  

	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  1970:	
  60	
  thousand	
  	
  !	
  	
  ...
From 7am to 11pm
Entire area of Seoul
Air Pollution
Cancer Occurrence
Energy Consumption Increase
Discomfort
Deaths	
  per	
  year:	
  13,000	
  (1992)	
  	
  
→	
  5,200	
  (2012)	
  
1) Severe	
  car	
  congestion:	
  Public	
  transpor
t	
  improvement	
  -­‐	
  BMS,	
  BIS,	
  Bus	
  rerouting,	
  
Bus...
Integration	
  for	
  modes	
  and	
  fare	
  system
PUSH	
  &	
  PULL	
  Strategy
-­‐	
  Transit	
  System:	
  Integratio...
KOTI-WPI

	
  Public	
  transport	
  improvement	
  -­‐	
  BMS	
  

Take Transit, Enjoy More Time for Life

26Jan12

GCKIM...
KOTI-WPI

26Jan12

Public	
  transport	
  improvement	
  	
  
-­‐	
  Bus	
  Interval	
  Management	
  	
  

Take Transit, ...
KOTI-WPI

	
  Public	
  transport	
  improvement	
  	
  
-­‐	
  T-­‐	
  Money	
  Card	
  Data	
  

Take Transit, Enjoy Mor...
KOTI-WPI

26Jan12

Scientific Administration
Public	
  transport	
  improvement	
  	
  
-­‐	
  Scienti]ic	
  Administratio...
Connectivity:	
  Bus	
  Rerouting

Increase
-­‐ Network	
  Capacity	
  (new	
  Bus	
  R
oute	
  &	
  BRT)	
  
-­‐ 	
  Bus	...
Priority Connectivity:	
  BRT
Median Bus Lane
–  Introduced	
  in	
  2004	
  by	
  the	
  Seoul	
  Metropolitan	
  Governm...
Connectivity:	
  	
  

Fare	
  integration	
  	
  
§  Distance based fare
	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  Subway	
  single	
  tri...
Result of (Fare) Integration by ICT
Transport Right : Equity
Before

Close to Station
- High Price of Asset: Richer
- Lowe...
Payment	
  for	
  Public	
  transport	
  

Mobile Phone

Credit card

22
Public	
  transport	
  improvement	
  	
  
-­‐	
  Real-­‐Time	
  Based	
  BIS	
  
Information Displayed at Bus Stops

Smar...
High	
  ICT-based Safety Cameras	
  &Korea
Fatalities:	
  Speed	
   Policies in 	
  Intersect
ion	
  Cameras	
  
Total	
  ...
High	
  Fatalities:	
  Car	
  black	
  box	
  
	
  (Drive	
  recorder)	
  
!   All Korean company taxis have instal
led ca...
High	
  Fatalities:	
  Car	
  black	
  box	
  
	
  (Drive	
  recorder)	
  
Outcome	
  of	
  	
  ICT	
  based	
  Reform	
  	
  
Outcome	
  1) 	
  Saving	
  fuel	
  consumption	
  
2003

2004

2005

Diesel

Usage(1,000ℓ)

148,059

126,485

118,783

CN...
Outcome	
  2) 	
  Air	
  Pollution	
  Reduction	
  
2003

2004

2005

Ratio
(’03 -> ’05)

CO(Ton)

748.3

623.8

488.0

34...
Outcome	
  3) 	
  Public	
  Transport	
  Ridership	
  
□ PT mode share : 65%,Trend of Ridership

	
  7,000	
  	
  

Number...
Outcome	
  4) 	
  Lessened	
  Bus	
  Accidents	
  
The number of accidents in July, 2004 decreased 26.9%
than the July of ...
Outcome	
  4) 	
  Lessened	
  Children	
  Fatalities	
  
Remarkable children fatality decrease from 1,566/year
to 83/year ...
Socio-economic Consequences of Collisions
In 2013, KOTI researchers* surveyed 188 disabled traffic crash victims

!   Job ...
 Lessons	
  from	
  Korea:	
  	
  

How	
  do	
  we	
  make	
  the	
  ICT-­‐based	
  transport
	
  transforming	
  to	
  w...
Lessons	
  from	
  Korea:	
  	
  	
  
Building	
  capacity
ICT	
  vocational	
  training	
  (1980s)	
  	
  
ICT	
  industr...
1)	
  Lessons	
  from	
  Korea:	
  Capacity	
  Building	
  	
  
<The	
  Korea	
  Transport	
  Institute	
  (KOTI)>
l 

Ro...
1)	
  Lessons	
  fTransport Institute Building	
  	
  
The Korea rom	
  Korea:	
  Capacity	
  
KOTI’s	
  	
  Relationship	...
1)	
  Lessons	
  from	
  Korea:	
  Capacity	
  Building	
  	
  
l 

Highway

l 

Logistics

l 

l 

Railway

Public Tr...
2)	
  Lessons	
  from	
  Korea:Political	
  Leadership	
  
	
  Innovation	
  Leaders	
  in	
  KOREA	
  

Junghee	
  Park	
...
Transforming	
  Transport

Solution for :
GHG, Air Pollution, Car-Crash, Congestion
Transforming	
  Transport

Before	
  

AVer	
  (Sep.	
  2005)	
  

Restoration of Cheong-gye-cheon (6km)
Decrease	
  of	
 ...
□ Restoration of Cheong-gye-cheon
Demonstration Against CRP, November, 2003
It took leadership, broad communication progra...
Transforming	
  Transport

People	
  oriented	
  policy should	
  not	
  deprive	
  
We	
  
,	
  not	
  car	
  
our	
  chi...
Transforming	
  Transport
Thermal image

July 27, 2005

37o	
  
28o	
  

36o	
  

36o	
  

Average	
  32.7oC	
  
Cheonggye...
I am very SORRY!

45
1955,	
  After	
  Korean	
  war	
  
Extreme	
  Poverty	
  	
  

2012,	
  	
  Seoul	
  

Thanks	
  to	
  IBRD/WB	
  
-­‐  T...
Aug.	
  20	
  –	
  Sep.	
  27,	
  2014	
  

(Workshop	
  	
  
	
  	
  Sep.	
  21-­‐27)

http//:english.koti.re.k
r/lutp201...
Break the pattern, Think differently

NOT for Vehicles, BUT

for People

What time is it for …..
?
It is TIME to change
to...
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Role of Technology Enhancing Transport Korea’s Case - Gyeng Chul Kim - KOTI Korea Transport Institute - Transforming Transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank

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Technology in South Korea to enhance transport. Presented by Gyeng Chul Kim from KOTI, Korea's Transport Institute at Transforming Transportation 2014.

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Transcript of "Role of Technology Enhancing Transport Korea’s Case - Gyeng Chul Kim - KOTI Korea Transport Institute - Transforming Transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank"

  1. 1. Role of Technology Enhancing Transport Korea’s Case! !   Presented at Transforming Transportation 2014! ! Gyeng Chul KIM Ph.D., P.E., Prof.! !   President, Korea Transport Institute! Transforming Transportation 2014!
  2. 2. Role  of  Technology  Enhancing  Transport    Korea’s  Cases:  ICT  based  transport  reform.     World  Bank,  Transforming  Transportation  Jan.  2014     Korea's  Challenges:        ICT-­‐based  Transport  Transforming   Gyeng Chul KIM Ph.D., P.E., Prof. President, Korea Transport Institute k1004@koti.re.kr, gckim1004@gmail.com
  3. 3. Shanty Towns After the Korean War (1953-1970)
  4. 4. (1,000 Persons) 12,000 1992, 10.92M 1988, 10M 10,000 8,000 1976, 7M 6,000 1970, 5M 4,000 1963, 3M 1959, 2M 2,000 1942, 1M 1915 1925 1935 1945 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005
  5. 5. Bus    and  Tram  Sta@ons  :    Insufficient  capacity  
  6. 6. Gyengbu Expressway opened in 1970 of vehicles in Korea ! 127,000 in 1970 l  Number 7
  7. 7. §   Registered  vehicles:  50  @mes                  1970:  60  thousand    !      2010  :  2.98  million   [Registered Vehicles in Seoul] 3,500,000     3,000,000     !  Seoul’s  challenges?   2,500,000     2,000,000        -­‐  Vehicles  :  Up  by  50x   1,500,000     1,000,000        -­‐  Road  :  4  %/y  only   500,000     0     1970   1975   1980   Year   1985   1990   1995   2000   2005   No.  of  Registered  Vehicles   2010  
  8. 8. From 7am to 11pm Entire area of Seoul
  9. 9. Air Pollution Cancer Occurrence Energy Consumption Increase Discomfort
  10. 10. Deaths  per  year:  13,000  (1992)     →  5,200  (2012)  
  11. 11. 1) Severe  car  congestion:  Public  transpor t  improvement  -­‐  BMS,  BIS,  Bus  rerouting,   Bus  Median  Lane,  etc. 2) Poor  Connectivity:  Integration  for  mod es  and  fare  system,  Bus  rerouting 3) High  Fatalities:  Black  box,  surveillance   camera
  12. 12. Integration  for  modes  and  fare  system PUSH  &  PULL  Strategy -­‐  Transit  System:  Integration  for  Multi-­‐Modal   l  Physical  (between  modes  (Station  +  Stop))   l  Network  (Railway,  Bus,  and  others)   l  Fare  (Equity,  Providing  incentives  )   l  Information  (Seamless  transfer)   l  Institutional  (Custom-­‐based)  
  13. 13. KOTI-WPI  Public  transport  improvement  -­‐  BMS   Take Transit, Enjoy More Time for Life 26Jan12 GCKIM Korea Transport Institute(KOTI)
  14. 14. KOTI-WPI 26Jan12 Public  transport  improvement     -­‐  Bus  Interval  Management     Take Transit, Enjoy More Time for Life GCKIM Korea Transport Institute(KOTI)
  15. 15. KOTI-WPI  Public  transport  improvement     -­‐  T-­‐  Money  Card  Data   Take Transit, Enjoy More Time for Life 26Jan12 GCKIM Korea Transport Institute(KOTI)
  16. 16. KOTI-WPI 26Jan12 Scientific Administration Public  transport  improvement     -­‐  Scienti]ic  Administration   Take Transit, Enjoy More Time for Life GCKIM Korea Transport Institute(KOTI)
  17. 17. Connectivity:  Bus  Rerouting Increase -­‐ Network  Capacity  (new  Bus  R oute  &  BRT)   -­‐   Bus  ridership   -­‐   Bus  Frequency  (Keep  Interval )   -­‐   Bus  Company  Revenue                 Decrease -­‐   Total  Bus  Operation  Cost   -­‐   Subsidy  of    SMG
  18. 18. Priority Connectivity:  BRT Median Bus Lane –  Introduced  in  2004  by  the  Seoul  Metropolitan  Government   –  Provides  faster  and  reliable  travel │Before │AVer  the  Priority    Bus  Lane
  19. 19. Connectivity:     Fare  integration     §  Distance based fare            Subway  single  trips:              fare  by  distance-­‐traveled                (base  of  800  KRW  up  to  12km,                addi@onal  100  won  per  6km)    Bus  single  trips:  single  fare  of  800  KRW       §  Free of charge for transfers            For  transferring  trips:            accumulated  distance-­‐based  fare                →  basic  fare  up  to  10km;                              addi@onal  fare  per  5km   20
  20. 20. Result of (Fare) Integration by ICT Transport Right : Equity Before Close to Station - High Price of Asset: Richer - Lower Fare for Transport After New Fare System - Distance-based - Unified among modes Away from Station - Low Price of Asset: more poor - Double Fare for Transport Equity BMS
  21. 21. Payment  for  Public  transport   Mobile Phone Credit card 22
  22. 22. Public  transport  improvement     -­‐  Real-­‐Time  Based  BIS   Information Displayed at Bus Stops Smart Phone Application
  23. 23. High  ICT-based Safety Cameras  &Korea Fatalities:  Speed   Policies in  Intersect ion  Cameras   Total  4,901  cameras  installed   nationwide  (2010)   Total  9.97  million  tickets  issue d  in  2010                -­‐  Speeding:  82%              -­‐  Traf]ic  light  violation:  17%                -­‐  Others:  Bus  lane,  Shoulder  lane    
  24. 24. High  Fatalities:  Car  black  box    (Drive  recorder)   !   All Korean company taxis have instal led car black boxes between 2008~2 012 (total 91,532 taxis) !   Accidents: decreased by 17.2%, fata lities by 22.0% !   Local gov. subsidize 50% of the taxi black box cost !   Insurance companies reduce prices by 3~5%
  25. 25. High  Fatalities:  Car  black  box    (Drive  recorder)  
  26. 26. Outcome  of    ICT  based  Reform    
  27. 27. Outcome  1)  Saving  fuel  consumption   2003 2004 2005 Diesel Usage(1,000ℓ) 148,059 126,485 118,783 CNG Usage(1,000㎥) 33,955 41,731 44,671 Total Fuel Cost (KRW M) 64,816 58,685 56,033 Difference of Cost(%) - 9.5 4.5
  28. 28. Outcome  2)  Air  Pollution  Reduction   2003 2004 2005 Ratio (’03 -> ’05) CO(Ton) 748.3 623.8 488.0 34.8% NOx(Ton) 2,074.6 1,799.7 1,694.1 18.3% HC(Ton) 356.6 358.6 332.4 6.8% PM(Ton) 45.1 36.2 27.3 39.5%
  29. 29. Outcome  3)  Public  Transport  Ridership   □ PT mode share : 65%,Trend of Ridership  7,000     Number  of  Passengers   (thousand  people/day)  6,500      6,000      5,500     Subway   Bus    6,437      6,286      6,239      6,218      6,213      6,267      6,282      6,112      6,162      5,911      5,000      5,174      4,500      4,544      4,655      4,583      4,615      4,605      4,595      4,000      4,293      4,192      4,180      4,006      3,992      3,500     14% ↑  3,000     2000   2001   2002   2003   2004   2005   2006   2007   2008   2009   2010   Year   ※ Subway ridership excludes free-pass holders. Source : Seoul Year Book
  30. 30. Outcome  4)  Lessened  Bus  Accidents   The number of accidents in July, 2004 decreased 26.9% than the July of 2003 2003 2004 (Number of Accidents) 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 658 516 142 accidents per month has been decreased
  31. 31. Outcome  4)  Lessened  Children  Fatalities   Remarkable children fatality decrease from 1,566/year to 83/year (95% decrease in 10years) Fatalities under 14 years of age 932 83 2010 80 2005 126 2000 154 1995 161 0 1990 202 200 276 284 296 394 468 400 489 588 600 572 592 800 753 809 890 1000 998 1200 1180 1400 1566 1600 1537 1800 2015
  32. 32. Socio-economic Consequences of Collisions In 2013, KOTI researchers* surveyed 188 disabled traffic crash victims !   Job Loss: 70.7% !   Income Reduction: 71.8% !   Housing Change**: 49.5% !   Divorce: 21.8% World Bank’s goal: En ding poverty To end poverty, traffic safety should be cons idered with a top prio rity. !   Diminishing of social life: 53.2% * This research was conducted by Dr. Jae-Hoon Seol and Dr. Namji Jung **Owner-occupied housing / lease → monthly rental / welfare house Source:  Global  Status  Report  on  Road  Safety  2009  (WHO)
  33. 33.  Lessons  from  Korea:     How  do  we  make  the  ICT-­‐based  transport  transforming  to  work?
  34. 34. Lessons  from  Korea:       Building  capacity ICT  vocational  training  (1980s)     ICT  industry  promotion   Establishing  knowledge  hubs  (i.e.  KOTI,  1986)   -­‐  R&D  investment  (World’s  second  ratio)   Political  Leadership Promoting  ICT  industries  (1990s)   Seoul  Bus  Reform  (2004) Zeroing  Traf]ic  Fatalities
  35. 35. 1)  Lessons  from  Korea:  Capacity  Building     <The  Korea  Transport  Institute  (KOTI)> l  Role:  National  Think  Tank       Funding:  100%  government-­‐established  institute   l  Staff:  300  personal  (93  Ph.D.,  200  MA  &  MSc)   l  Contribution:                                                  Economic  Growth    and  Transport    Strategies                                                Infrastructure  Master  Plans                                                Transport  and  Logistics  Technology  Development         l 
  36. 36. 1)  Lessons  fTransport Institute Building     The Korea rom  Korea:  Capacity   KOTI’s    Relationship  with  the  Korean  Government   Prime Mini ster’s Offi ce Policy Support NRCS Commissioned Research MOLIT Commissioned Research KOTI Policy Support Local Government
  37. 37. 1)  Lessons  from  Korea:  Capacity  Building     l  Highway l  Logistics l  l  Railway Public Transport l  Aviation l  ITS
  38. 38. 2)  Lessons  from  Korea:Political  Leadership    Innovation  Leaders  in  KOREA   Junghee  Park   M.B.  Lee   Ken  Livingst one,   London  
  39. 39. Transforming  Transport Solution for : GHG, Air Pollution, Car-Crash, Congestion
  40. 40. Transforming  Transport Before   AVer  (Sep.  2005)   Restoration of Cheong-gye-cheon (6km) Decrease  of  car-­‐traffic  volume:  125,000  veh/day  
  41. 41. □ Restoration of Cheong-gye-cheon Demonstration Against CRP, November, 2003 It took leadership, broad communication program to resolve conflicts It was not easy! Political support and communications were critical
  42. 42. Transforming  Transport People  oriented  policy should  not  deprive   We   ,  not  car   our  children  of  their  fut ure  
  43. 43. Transforming  Transport Thermal image July 27, 2005 37o   28o   36o   36o   Average  32.7oC   Cheonggye  Cheon   -­‐3.6oC   Average  36.3oC   Nearby  street  
  44. 44. I am very SORRY! 45
  45. 45. 1955,  After  Korean  war   Extreme  Poverty     2012,    Seoul   Thanks  to  IBRD/WB   -­‐  To  developing  countries  –  Can-­‐DO  spirit     -­‐  We  are  ready  to  share  our  experience  
  46. 46. Aug.  20  –  Sep.  27,  2014   (Workshop        Sep.  21-­‐27) http//:english.koti.re.k r/lutp2014/    
  47. 47. Break the pattern, Think differently NOT for Vehicles, BUT for People What time is it for ….. ? It is TIME to change to sustainable Transport Mike  Gyeng  Chul  Kim,  Ph.D.,  P.E.,  Prof.,   President   The  Korea  Transport  Institute k1004@koti.re.kr gckim1004@gmail.com  (Take  Transit,  Enjoy  more  2me  of  your  Life) 48
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