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Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank
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Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank

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Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank

Role of technology enhancing transport Korea’s case - Gyeng Chul Kim - Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) - transforming transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank

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  • 1. Role of Technology Enhancing Transport Korea’s Case! !   Presented at Transforming Transportation 2014! ! Gyeng Chul Kim Ph.D., P.E., Prof.! !   President, Korea Transport Institute! Transforming Transportation 2014!
  • 2. Role  of  Technology  Enhancing  Transport    Korea’s  Cases:  ICT  based  transport  reform.     World  Bank,  Transforming  Transportation  Jan.  2014     Korea's  Challenges:        ICT-­‐based  Transport  Transforming   Gyeng Chul KIM Ph.D., P.E., Prof. President, Korea Transport Institute k1004@koti.re.kr, gckim1004@gmail.com
  • 3. Shanty Towns After the Korean War (1953-1970)
  • 4. (1,000 Persons) 12,000 1992, 10.92M 1988, 10M 10,000 8,000 1976, 7M 6,000 1970, 5M 4,000 1963, 3M 1959, 2M 2,000 1942, 1M 1915 1925 1935 1945 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005
  • 5. Bus    and  Tram  Sta@ons  :    Insufficient  capacity  
  • 6. Gyengbu Expressway opened in 1970 of vehicles in Korea ! 127,000 in 1970 l  Number 7
  • 7. §   Registered  vehicles:  50  @mes                  1970:  60  thousand    !      2010  :  2.98  million   [Registered Vehicles in Seoul] 3,500,000     3,000,000     !  Seoul’s  challenges?   2,500,000     2,000,000        -­‐  Vehicles  :  Up  by  50x   1,500,000     1,000,000        -­‐  Road  :  4  %/y  only   500,000     0     1970   1975   1980   Year   1985   1990   1995   2000   2005   No.  of  Registered  Vehicles   2010  
  • 8. From 7am to 11pm Entire area of Seoul
  • 9. Air Pollution Cancer Occurrence Energy Consumption Increase Discomfort
  • 10. Deaths  per  year:  13,000  (1992)     →  5,200  (2012)  
  • 11. 1) Severe  car  congestion:  Public  transpor t  improvement  -­‐  BMS,  BIS,  Bus  rerouting,   Bus  Median  Lane,  etc. 2) Poor  Connectivity:  Integration  for  mod es  and  fare  system,  Bus  rerouting 3) High  Fatalities:  Black  box,  surveillance   camera
  • 12. Integration  for  modes  and  fare  system PUSH  &  PULL  Strategy -­‐  Transit  System:  Integration  for  Multi-­‐Modal   l  Physical  (between  modes  (Station  +  Stop))   l  Network  (Railway,  Bus,  and  others)   l  Fare  (Equity,  Providing  incentives  )   l  Information  (Seamless  transfer)   l  Institutional  (Custom-­‐based)  
  • 13. KOTI-WPI  Public  transport  improvement  -­‐  BMS   Take Transit, Enjoy More Time for Life 26Jan12 GCKIM Korea Transport Institute(KOTI)
  • 14. KOTI-WPI 26Jan12 Public  transport  improvement     -­‐  Bus  Interval  Management     Take Transit, Enjoy More Time for Life GCKIM Korea Transport Institute(KOTI)
  • 15. KOTI-WPI  Public  transport  improvement     -­‐  T-­‐  Money  Card  Data   Take Transit, Enjoy More Time for Life 26Jan12 GCKIM Korea Transport Institute(KOTI)
  • 16. KOTI-WPI 26Jan12 Scientific Administration Public  transport  improvement     -­‐  Scienti]ic  Administration   Take Transit, Enjoy More Time for Life GCKIM Korea Transport Institute(KOTI)
  • 17. Connectivity:  Bus  Rerouting Increase -­‐ Network  Capacity  (new  Bus  R oute  &  BRT)   -­‐   Bus  ridership   -­‐   Bus  Frequency  (Keep  Interval )   -­‐   Bus  Company  Revenue                 Decrease -­‐   Total  Bus  Operation  Cost   -­‐   Subsidy  of    SMG
  • 18. Priority Connectivity:  BRT Median Bus Lane –  Introduced  in  2004  by  the  Seoul  Metropolitan  Government   –  Provides  faster  and  reliable  travel │Before │AVer  the  Priority    Bus  Lane
  • 19. Connectivity:     Fare  integration     §  Distance based fare            Subway  single  trips:              fare  by  distance-­‐traveled                (base  of  800  KRW  up  to  12km,                addi@onal  100  won  per  6km)    Bus  single  trips:  single  fare  of  800  KRW       §  Free of charge for transfers            For  transferring  trips:            accumulated  distance-­‐based  fare                →  basic  fare  up  to  10km;                              addi@onal  fare  per  5km   20
  • 20. Result of (Fare) Integration by ICT Transport Right : Equity Before Close to Station - High Price of Asset: Richer - Lower Fare for Transport After New Fare System - Distance-based - Unified among modes Away from Station - Low Price of Asset: more poor - Double Fare for Transport Equity BMS
  • 21. Payment  for  Public  transport   Mobile Phone Credit card 22
  • 22. Public  transport  improvement     -­‐  Real-­‐Time  Based  BIS   Information Displayed at Bus Stops Smart Phone Application
  • 23. High  ICT-based Safety Cameras  &Korea Fatalities:  Speed   Policies in  Intersect ion  Cameras   Total  4,901  cameras  installed   nationwide  (2010)   Total  9.97  million  tickets  issue d  in  2010                -­‐  Speeding:  82%              -­‐  Traf]ic  light  violation:  17%                -­‐  Others:  Bus  lane,  Shoulder  lane    
  • 24. High  Fatalities:  Car  black  box    (Drive  recorder)   !   All Korean company taxis have instal led car black boxes between 2008~2 012 (total 91,532 taxis) !   Accidents: decreased by 17.2%, fata lities by 22.0% !   Local gov. subsidize 50% of the taxi black box cost !   Insurance companies reduce prices by 3~5%
  • 25. High  Fatalities:  Car  black  box    (Drive  recorder)  
  • 26. Outcome  of    ICT  based  Reform    
  • 27. Outcome  1)  Saving  fuel  consumption   2003 2004 2005 Diesel Usage(1,000ℓ) 148,059 126,485 118,783 CNG Usage(1,000㎥) 33,955 41,731 44,671 Total Fuel Cost (KRW M) 64,816 58,685 56,033 Difference of Cost(%) - 9.5 4.5
  • 28. Outcome  2)  Air  Pollution  Reduction   2003 2004 2005 Ratio (’03 -> ’05) CO(Ton) 748.3 623.8 488.0 34.8% NOx(Ton) 2,074.6 1,799.7 1,694.1 18.3% HC(Ton) 356.6 358.6 332.4 6.8% PM(Ton) 45.1 36.2 27.3 39.5%
  • 29. Outcome  3)  Public  Transport  Ridership   □ PT mode share : 65%,Trend of Ridership  7,000     Number  of  Passengers   (thousand  people/day)  6,500      6,000      5,500     Subway   Bus    6,437      6,286      6,239      6,218      6,213      6,267      6,282      6,112      6,162      5,911      5,000      5,174      4,500      4,544      4,655      4,583      4,615      4,605      4,595      4,000      4,293      4,192      4,180      4,006      3,992      3,500     14% ↑  3,000     2000   2001   2002   2003   2004   2005   2006   2007   2008   2009   2010   Year   ※ Subway ridership excludes free-pass holders. Source : Seoul Year Book
  • 30. Outcome  4)  Lessened  Bus  Accidents   The number of accidents in July, 2004 decreased 26.9% than the July of 2003 2003 2004 (Number of Accidents) 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 658 516 142 accidents per month has been decreased
  • 31. Outcome  4)  Lessened  Children  Fatalities   Remarkable children fatality decrease from 1,566/year to 83/year (95% decrease in 10years) Fatalities under 14 years of age 932 83 2010 80 2005 126 2000 154 1995 161 0 1990 202 200 276 284 296 394 468 400 489 588 600 572 592 800 753 809 890 1000 998 1200 1180 1400 1566 1600 1537 1800 2015
  • 32. Socio-economic Consequences of Collisions In 2013, KOTI researchers* surveyed 188 disabled traffic crash victims !   Job Loss: 70.7% !   Income Reduction: 71.8% !   Housing Change**: 49.5% !   Divorce: 21.8% World Bank’s goal: En ding poverty To end poverty, traffic safety should be cons idered with a top prio rity. !   Diminishing of social life: 53.2% * This research was conducted by Dr. Jae-Hoon Seol and Dr. Namji Jung **Owner-occupied housing / lease → monthly rental / welfare house Source:  Global  Status  Report  on  Road  Safety  2009  (WHO)
  • 33.  Lessons  from  Korea:     How  do  we  make  the  ICT-­‐based  transport  transforming  to  work?
  • 34. Lessons  from  Korea:       Building  capacity ICT  vocational  training  (1980s)     ICT  industry  promotion   Establishing  knowledge  hubs  (i.e.  KOTI,  1986)   -­‐  R&D  investment  (World’s  second  ratio)   Political  Leadership Promoting  ICT  industries  (1990s)   Seoul  Bus  Reform  (2004) Zeroing  Traf]ic  Fatalities
  • 35. 1)  Lessons  from  Korea:  Capacity  Building     <The  Korea  Transport  Institute  (KOTI)> l  Role:  National  Think  Tank       Funding:  100%  government-­‐established  institute   l  Staff:  300  personal  (93  Ph.D.,  200  MA  &  MSc)   l  Contribution:                                                  Economic  Growth    and  Transport    Strategies                                                Infrastructure  Master  Plans                                                Transport  and  Logistics  Technology  Development         l 
  • 36. 1)  Lessons  fTransport Institute Building     The Korea rom  Korea:  Capacity   KOTI’s    Relationship  with  the  Korean  Government   Prime Mini ster’s Offi ce Policy Support NRCS Commissioned Research MOLIT Commissioned Research KOTI Policy Support Local Government
  • 37. 1)  Lessons  from  Korea:  Capacity  Building     l  Highway l  Logistics l  l  Railway Public Transport l  Aviation l  ITS
  • 38. 2)  Lessons  from  Korea:Political  Leadership    Innovation  Leaders  in  KOREA   Junghee  Park   M.B.  Lee   Ken  Livingst one,   London  
  • 39. Transforming  Transport Solution for : GHG, Air Pollution, Car-Crash, Congestion
  • 40. Transforming  Transport Before   AVer  (Sep.  2005)   Restoration of Cheong-gye-cheon (6km) Decrease  of  car-­‐traffic  volume:  125,000  veh/day  
  • 41. □ Restoration of Cheong-gye-cheon Demonstration Against CRP, November, 2003 It took leadership, broad communication program to resolve conflicts It was not easy! Political support and communications were critical
  • 42. Transforming  Transport People  oriented  policy should  not  deprive   We   ,  not  car   our  children  of  their  fut ure  
  • 43. Transforming  Transport Thermal image July 27, 2005 37o   28o   36o   36o   Average  32.7oC   Cheonggye  Cheon   -­‐3.6oC   Average  36.3oC   Nearby  street  
  • 44. I am very SORRY! 45
  • 45. 1955,  After  Korean  war   Extreme  Poverty     2012,    Seoul   Thanks  to  IBRD/WB   -­‐  To  developing  countries  –  Can-­‐DO  spirit     -­‐  We  are  ready  to  share  our  experience  
  • 46. Aug.  20  –  Sep.  27,  2014   (Workshop        Sep.  21-­‐27) http//:english.koti.re.k r/lutp2014/    
  • 47. Break the pattern, Think differently NOT for Vehicles, BUT for People What time is it for ….. ? It is TIME to change to sustainable Transport Mike  Gyeng  Chul  Kim,  Ph.D.,  P.E.,  Prof.,   President   The  Korea  Transport  Institute k1004@koti.re.kr gckim1004@gmail.com  (Take  Transit,  Enjoy  more  2me  of  your  Life) 48

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