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Promoting Sustainable Transport in Bogota
Promoting Sustainable Transport in Bogota
Promoting Sustainable Transport in Bogota
Promoting Sustainable Transport in Bogota
Promoting Sustainable Transport in Bogota
Promoting Sustainable Transport in Bogota
Promoting Sustainable Transport in Bogota
Promoting Sustainable Transport in Bogota
Promoting Sustainable Transport in Bogota
Promoting Sustainable Transport in Bogota
Promoting Sustainable Transport in Bogota
Promoting Sustainable Transport in Bogota
Promoting Sustainable Transport in Bogota
Promoting Sustainable Transport in Bogota
Promoting Sustainable Transport in Bogota
Promoting Sustainable Transport in Bogota
Promoting Sustainable Transport in Bogota
Promoting Sustainable Transport in Bogota
Promoting Sustainable Transport in Bogota
Promoting Sustainable Transport in Bogota
Promoting Sustainable Transport in Bogota
Promoting Sustainable Transport in Bogota
Promoting Sustainable Transport in Bogota
Promoting Sustainable Transport in Bogota
Promoting Sustainable Transport in Bogota
Promoting Sustainable Transport in Bogota
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Promoting Sustainable Transport in Bogota

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By Camilo Zea. Presented on Day Two of Transforming Transportation. Washington, D.C. January 15, 2010.

By Camilo Zea. Presented on Day Two of Transforming Transportation. Washington, D.C. January 15, 2010.

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  • 1.
  • 2. Transforming Transportation 2010
    Next Steps after Copenhagen: Opportunities and Challenges in the Transport Sector
    Promoting Sustainable Transport in Bogota
     
    January, 2010
    Camilo Zea
    Metro Project
  • 3. Bogotá in figures
    • Demographic data
    • 4. Central Administration’s Finances
    • 5. Public Transport System
    • 6. Transport Policy
  • Demographic data
    • 7 million inhabitants, 15% of Colombia
    • 7. Covers an area of 37,414 Ha
    • 8. High density (310 Hab/Ha)
    • 9. 1.2 million of private vehicles
    • 10. 18.000 buses
    • 11. Public transport’s average speed 18 Km/hr
    • 12. BRT system begun a decade ago
  • Urban Transformation
    Density: 222 hab/ha.
    Density: 250 hab/ha
    Density: 222 hab/ha.
    Density: 276hab/ha.
    Density: 157hab/ha.
    Density: 306 hab/ha.
    Density: 156 hab/ha.
    Density: 310 hab/ha.
    1970
    1960
    1980
    1950
    1940
    1990
    1912 - 1939
    2008
    During the last 100 years Bogotá’s population has multiplied by 50, duplicating as a consequence its density
    Density: 149 hab/ha.
    Density: 310hab/ha.
    1538 - 1912
    2038
  • 13. Urban Transformation Forecast 2008-2038
    Population 2008: 7.155.052 Hab
    Population 2038:9.312.689 Hab
  • 14. Public Transport Trips’ Distribution
    THE FORECAST FOR 2018 SHOWS THAT THE EASTERN BORDER OF THE CITY WILL ATRACT MORE THAN 1.500.000 DAILY TRIPS
  • 15. Bogota’s Economy
    Economic Growth
    Contribution to National GDP
    Economy Structure
    GDP Comparisons
    Source: International Monetary Fund, World Economic Outlook Database, October 2009
  • 16. Bogotá’s Expenditures
    • During the past half decade the city has made an effort to prioritize investments over expenditures
    Operational expenses vs. Investment - Central Administration
    Operational Expenses
    Investment
  • 17. Central Administration - Income Evolution
    1992-2009
    12%
    2%
    28%
    Transferencias
    58%
    Ingresos Corrientes
  • 18. Bogotá’s Public Transport System
    Traditional public transport system (colectivo)
    • Over supply (more than 18,000 buses on service)
    • 19. High-demand corridors close to saturation
    • 20. 580 routes without hierarchy
    • 21. Overlapping routes: on-the-street competition for passengers, known as “penny war”
    • 22. Inadequate operational scheme
    • 23. High rates of emissions and accidents
    TransMilenio
    • TransMilenio has improved the mobility of 28% of the public transport system. Today, it mobilizes more than 1.5 million passengers per day.
    Source: Observatorio de Movilidad de Bogotá y la Región. CCB Nº 1. December 2007
  • 24. Public Transport Fares Comparisons
    Source: International Monetary Fund, World Economic Outlook Database, October 2009
  • 25. Bogotá’s Transport Policy - City’s Masterplan 2006
  • 26. TransMilenio
    • 10 years of achievements
    • 27. Contribution to the environment
  • TransMilenio: 10 years of achivements
    The TransMilenio system replaced 1,500 obsolete buses on major corridors with newer and larger vehicles (Euro II technology). The result has been a more efficient system that has improved the mobility of millions of people without operating subsidies
    TransMilenio was also part of an urban renewal program bringing other improvements to the city such as new public spaces, pedestrian streets, and about 150 miles of bicycle paths connecting with the TransMilenio system (Vincent, 2007).
  • 28. TransMilenio: 10 years of achivements
    • Travel time reductions (12 min average)
    • 29. 88% fatalities reduction
    • 30. Deteriorated urban sectors recovered
    • 31. Land value increase around trunk corridors and stations
    • 32. Creation and consolidation of strategic sectors in the city
    • 33. Public space generation
    • 34. Real estate developments
    • 35. Green house effect reduction. Significant drops in CO2 s, PM10, NOx, SOx, emissions
    Average travel time reduction in minutes
    Travel time (min)
    Socio-economic strata
    Startegic areas
  • 36. TransMilenio: Contribution to the environment
    230.000 (avg.) CO2 tons savings per year
    • TransMilenio is the first big scale transport project in the world registered in the United nations under the Kyoto protocol, to mitigate climate change and reduce green gases effect since 2006.
  • Challenges & opportunities
  • 37. Our Challenges: Copenhagen climate change conference conclusions
    For all its limitations, however, the Copenhagen Accord is the first real step to fighting climate change in the 21st century. The real value of the summit may lie in what it teaches us about dealing with climate change. (TIME 2009)
    The negotiations at Copenhagen were so contentious because of the very real impact the proposals will have, not only for the environment, but also on national economies; therefore, the importance of promoting climate investment funds (CIF)
    Colombia is the second country from LA (after México) developing an Investment Plan (IP) for financing of Public Transport Systems through the Clean Technology Fund (CTF).
    It is fundamental to support projects (e.g.. environmentally friendly and sustainable transport projects), as tools to tackle environmental damage
    Source: http://www.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,1929071_1929070_1949054,00.html#ixzz0bm4y6US0
  • 38. Our Challenges: The shift of the technological balance'
    Bogotá’s city planners have realized how “energy and the environment” are key concepts to build our city and its transport system
    Energetic interests:
    • Petrol dependency reduction
    • 39. Rational use of energy
    • 40. To make the most of the installed electrical infrastructure
    • 41. Prices stability and low volatility
    Environmental Interests:
    • Use of renewable sources of energy
    • 42. Emissions' reduction
    • 43. Air quality improvement
    • 44. Pollution risk reduction
    World’s Prospect
    • Fuel price volatility
    • 45. Growth of car ownership rate and energy demand
    • 46. Drop of energy natural reserves
    • 47. Changes in world policies to supply fuel
    • 48. Bio fuels as a feasible option of energy
    Source:Emgesa 2009
  • 49. Our Opportunities: Clean Technology Fund (CTF)ColombiaInvestment Plan
    The Clean Technology Fund (CTF) Investment Plan is a “business plan” agreed among, and owned, by the Government of Colombia (GoC) for the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) and the International Finance Corporation (IFC) to provide support for the low-carbon objectives contained in Colombia’s National Development Plan and its National Climate Change Strategy. (Bogotá’s IPTS proposed for CTF co-financing)
    Transport is a major contributor to the carbon footprint of the country and is a sector where emissions will be difficult to abate; it is the fastest-growing source of CO2. The transport sector represents 33% of the country’s CO2e emissions from combustion of fossil fuels.
    Source: IADB
  • 50. Challenges & Opportunities
    The sector has a great potential to reduce its carbon footprint through a wide range of low-carbon interventions
    On a general level, there are three ways of reducing GHG emissions in the transport sector (Grütter, 2007):
    • Reducing the demand for travel or transport services (e.g., by land use planning or regulatory instruments such as road taxes)
    • 51. Reducing the emissions per unit transported (e.g., by modal shift, increased occupancy rates, or use of larger units)
    • 52. Reducing the emissions per kilometer traveled (e.g., by improving driving behavior and vehicle efficiency or by switching to low-carbon fuels)
    • 53. In the case of Bogota, from the demand side, different policies to rationalize private vehicle use have been implemented since 2000, including plate number restrictions on specific days and promotion of car pooling.
    • 54. Along with this, the Integrated Public Transport System (IPTS) and Metro projects will reduce the number of vehicles-km (emissions) of the system :
    Source: IADB
  • 55. Our Projects
  • 56. Integrated Public Transport System (IPTS)
    • New scheme of routes, optimized and organized according to the city’s needs
    • 57. Operation based on defined zones
    • 58. Fleet conformed by the adequate typology of vehicles
    • 59. Fare integration and unique payment system
    • 60. Entrepreneurial scheme change
    • 61. Democratization and active participation of owners
    • 62. Gradual implementation
    • 63. Upgrading and optimization of actual fleet
    • 64. Full coverage of the city
    • 65. Quality of service enhancement
    • 66. Additional emissions reduction
    13 operational zones
  • 67. Metro Project
    • New scheme of routes, optimized and organized according to the city’s needs
    • 68. Increase productivity
    • 69. Travel time reductions
    • 70. Achieve an efficient distribution of demand vs. high levels of service quality
    • 71. Long term solution - sustainable in time
    • 72. Comfort levels improvement
    • 73. The definition of the first metro line has been consequent with the objective of improving the accessibility of citizens, specially those with low income levels-
  • TransMilenio Connections
    Railway conections
    Expected Metro Network
    A
    Santa Fé
    Chapinero
    FF.CC. Norte
    127
    170
    La Candelaria
    C
    Portal del Norte
    72
    26
    10ª
    NQS
    68
    Barrios
    Unidos
    Los Martires
    Antonio
    Nariño
    Portal de Usme
    Engativá
    Puente
    Aranda
    Portal de Suba
    TTT
    B
    A
    Portal de la 80
    BOYACÁ
    C
    Portal del Tunal
    1st Line
    2nd Line
    3rd Line
    4th Line
    CALI
    FF.CC. de Occidente
    Ciudad Bolívar
    cable
    Portal del Sur
    Portal de Las Américas
  • 74. 1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    6
    12
    13
    7
    8
    9
    10
    11
    14
    15
    16
    17
    18
    19
    20
    21
    22
    23
    24
    25
    26
    27
    28
    29
    Metro: An instrument for development
    • The metro will be part of the Integrated Public Transport System
    • 75. As a new mode, the metro will strengthen transport multi-modality
    • 76. The system optimizes land use, considering that it will be in some sections underground
    • 77. The first line must be conceived as a complement to the transport current solution at the east border of the city
    • 78. Bogota will consolidate its massive transport offer (Metro & BRT)
    • 79. Key: accessibility gains to be capitalized in the land market (value capture opportunities)
    Land value increase
  • 80. Potential Funding Sources for Metro
    Non-traditional Credits
  • 81. Environmental Benefits: SITP (IPTS) & Metro projects
    Metro + SITP
    SITP
  • 82. Fleet Optimization
    • According to detailed operational designs for the Integrated Public Transport System of Bogota, including Metro, fleet reductions will be:
    It is evident that and adjustment of the transport sector, in terms of reducing oversupply through optimization and rationalization of the transit routes and services, is the most cost-effective solution for abatement of carbon-related emissions
    To implement the IPTS it will be necessary to scrap (chatarrizar) 8,000 buses considering its life cycle has been accomplished (more than 12 years). However, to guarantee service levels it will be necessary to provide the city with 3,200 new buses (Euro III Technology)
    Source: IADB
  • 83. Conclusions
    • We must keep in mind that worldwide, it is estimated that around 75% of the projected increase in oil demand by 2030 will come from the transport sector; therefore all our efforts must be addressed in the same path for tackling this trend of emissions
    • 84. Bogota is committed to achieve a sustainable transport system and mitigate transport externalities to our environment through the implementation of an Integrated Public Transport Systems (IPTS) – Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and Metro systems, and initiatives that incorporate a coordinated urban planning strategy
    • 85. In addition to contribute to a low-carbon economy, our sustainable transport initiatives will provide significant co-benefits:
    • 86. improved air quality
    • 87. road safety
    • 88. energy supply security
    • 89. reduced congestion
    • 90. A more livable city
    • 91. The successful implementation of the IPTS in Bogota would have a multiplicative effect in other large and medium-sized cities in Colombia as well as in other emerging countries (the Transmilenio system is being replicated in several mid and low-income cities around the world). It is estimated that a national program over time, with the characteristics and scale of Bogota’s IPTS (assuming full replacement of the bus fleet with low-carbon technologies), could lead to an overall reduction of up to 24% in the carbon footprint of the transport sector. This, if achieved, and in absence of other measures, could result in a reduction of 3% of the national carbon footprint

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