TransMilenio: 10 years of achivements The TransMilenio system replaced 1,500 obsolete buses on major corridors with newer and larger vehicles (Euro II technology). The result has been a more efficient system that has improved the mobility of millions of people without operating subsidies TransMilenio was also part of an urban renewal program bringing other improvements to the city such as new public spaces, pedestrian streets, and about 150 miles of bicycle paths connecting with the TransMilenio system (Vincent, 2007).
Green house effect reduction. Significant drops in CO2 s, PM10, NOx, SOx, emissions
Average travel time reduction in minutes Travel time (min) Socio-economic strata Startegic areas
TransMilenio: Contribution to the environment 230.000 (avg.) CO2 tons savings per year
TransMilenio is the first big scale transport project in the world registered in the United nations under the Kyoto protocol, to mitigate climate change and reduce green gases effect since 2006.
Challenges & opportunities
Our Challenges: Copenhagen climate change conference conclusions For all its limitations, however, the Copenhagen Accord is the first real step to fighting climate change in the 21st century. The real value of the summit may lie in what it teaches us about dealing with climate change. (TIME 2009) The negotiations at Copenhagen were so contentious because of the very real impact the proposals will have, not only for the environment, but also on national economies; therefore, the importance of promoting climate investment funds (CIF) Colombia is the second country from LA (after México) developing an Investment Plan (IP) for financing of Public Transport Systems through the Clean Technology Fund (CTF). It is fundamental to support projects (e.g.. environmentally friendly and sustainable transport projects), as tools to tackle environmental damage Source: http://www.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,1929071_1929070_1949054,00.html#ixzz0bm4y6US0
Our Challenges: The shift of the technological balance' Bogotá’s city planners have realized how “energy and the environment” are key concepts to build our city and its transport system Energetic interests:
Our Opportunities: Clean Technology Fund (CTF)ColombiaInvestment Plan The Clean Technology Fund (CTF) Investment Plan is a “business plan” agreed among, and owned, by the Government of Colombia (GoC) for the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) and the International Finance Corporation (IFC) to provide support for the low-carbon objectives contained in Colombia’s National Development Plan and its National Climate Change Strategy. (Bogotá’s IPTS proposed for CTF co-financing) Transport is a major contributor to the carbon footprint of the country and is a sector where emissions will be difficult to abate; it is the fastest-growing source of CO2. The transport sector represents 33% of the country’s CO2e emissions from combustion of fossil fuels. Source: IADB
Challenges & Opportunities The sector has a great potential to reduce its carbon footprint through a wide range of low-carbon interventions On a general level, there are three ways of reducing GHG emissions in the transport sector (Grütter, 2007):
Reducing the demand for travel or transport services (e.g., by land use planning or regulatory instruments such as road taxes)
Reducing the emissions per unit transported (e.g., by modal shift, increased occupancy rates, or use of larger units)
Reducing the emissions per kilometer traveled (e.g., by improving driving behavior and vehicle efficiency or by switching to low-carbon fuels)
In the case of Bogota, from the demand side, different policies to rationalize private vehicle use have been implemented since 2000, including plate number restrictions on specific days and promotion of car pooling.
Along with this, the Integrated Public Transport System (IPTS) and Metro projects will reduce the number of vehicles-km (emissions) of the system :
The definition of the first metro line has been consequent with the objective of improving the accessibility of citizens, specially those with low income levels-
TransMilenio Connections Railway conections Expected Metro Network A Santa Fé Chapinero FF.CC. Norte 127 170 La Candelaria C Portal del Norte 72 26 10ª NQS 68 Barrios Unidos Los Martires Antonio Nariño Portal de Usme Engativá Puente Aranda Portal de Suba TTT B A Portal de la 80 BOYACÁ C Portal del Tunal 1st Line 2nd Line 3rd Line 4th Line CALI FF.CC. de Occidente Ciudad Bolívar cable Portal del Sur Portal de Las Américas
According to detailed operational designs for the Integrated Public Transport System of Bogota, including Metro, fleet reductions will be:
It is evident that and adjustment of the transport sector, in terms of reducing oversupply through optimization and rationalization of the transit routes and services, is the most cost-effective solution for abatement of carbon-related emissions To implement the IPTS it will be necessary to scrap (chatarrizar) 8,000 buses considering its life cycle has been accomplished (more than 12 years). However, to guarantee service levels it will be necessary to provide the city with 3,200 new buses (Euro III Technology) Source: IADB
We must keep in mind that worldwide, it is estimated that around 75% of the projected increase in oil demand by 2030 will come from the transport sector; therefore all our efforts must be addressed in the same path for tackling this trend of emissions
Bogota is committed to achieve a sustainable transport system and mitigate transport externalities to our environment through the implementation of an Integrated Public Transport Systems (IPTS) – Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and Metro systems, and initiatives that incorporate a coordinated urban planning strategy
In addition to contribute to a low-carbon economy, our sustainable transport initiatives will provide significant co-benefits:
The successful implementation of the IPTS in Bogota would have a multiplicative effect in other large and medium-sized cities in Colombia as well as in other emerging countries (the Transmilenio system is being replicated in several mid and low-income cities around the world). It is estimated that a national program over time, with the characteristics and scale of Bogota’s IPTS (assuming full replacement of the bus fleet with low-carbon technologies), could lead to an overall reduction of up to 24% in the carbon footprint of the transport sector. This, if achieved, and in absence of other measures, could result in a reduction of 3% of the national carbon footprint