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Keys to Success in Bus Systems

              Dario Hidalgo, PhD
          Senior Transport Engineer
                   EM...
Agenda

The challenge
The importance of Bus Systems
Recent Examples
 Delhi, India
 Guadalajara, Mexico
 Ahmadabad, India
C...
Urban population in India is
                        expected to double in a 30 year
                                    p...
The number of motor vehicles is
growing twice as fast as the population
 in India – mainly two wheelers (71%)
            ...
Financial, institutional, physical
   resources are constrained


            Congestion
             Accidents
          ...
Sustainable Urban Transport
Pedestrian and
Bicycles

Public
Transportation

Transit Oriented
Development

Disincentives to...
Total Energy Use By Mode
                            7
                                       Rail                        ...
Bus systems are fundamental in
      sustainable transport
Reduce travel time and cost, improve convenience
to transit com...
Any city needs a good bus system
   Indore is well advanced in having a
   good bus system – improvements are
   underway ...
Bus Rapid Transit (BRT)
                       Centralized Control



                                             Large B...
Agenda

The challenge
The importance of Bus Systems
Recent Examples
 Delhi, India
 Guadalajara, Mexico
 Ahmadabad, India
C...
Delhi Bus Corridor
Delhi Bus Corridor
Initial Operation:     April 2008
Length:                5.6 Km
Stations:              9
Ridership:    ...
Delhi Bus Corridor
The bus corridor also includes the
construction of segregated facilities for
       pedestrians and bicycles




  High Us...
Delhi Bus Corridor
Chirag Delhi Junction
The Bus Corridor has reduced the
      average travel time
       People Delay - Morning Peak Hour - In Hours

6000
      ...
Component                   Advances                            Elements to Improve
Running       •   Strong Longitudinal ...
Component                   Advances                         Elements to Improve
Running       •Strong Longitudinal Segreg...
Component                Advances                     Elements to Improve
   User        • High Bus User Acceptance       ...
Component                Advances                    Elements to Improve
   User        • High Bus User Acceptance       •...
Component                   Advances                      Elements to Improve
                • Bus shelters provide bette...
Component                   Advances                      Elements to Improve
                • Bus shelters provide bette...
Lessons from Delhi

The bus corridor has improved people mobility along
the initial stretch, but requires significant perf...
Key Recommendations for Delhi
Establish a Performance Monitoring System with
the participation of external stakeholders in...
Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico
             Area:
             - City 151 km2
             - Metro 2,734 km2
             Po...
Macrobus Guadalajra, Mexico
16 Km, 27 Stations, 41 Articulated Buses + 103 Feeder Buses
Macrobus, Guadalara, Mexico
Initial Operation:           March 10, 2009
Corridor:                    16 kms, 27 stations
B...
Macrobus, Guadalajara, Mexico
Component                   Advances                            Elements to Improve
              • Strong longitudinal se...
Component                   Advances                            Elements to Improve
              • Strong longitudinal se...
Component                    Advances                         Elements to Improve
                                        ...
Component                    Advances                         Elements to Improve
                                        ...
Component                    Advances                          Elements to Improve

                • Bus stations provide...
Component                    Advances                          Elements to Improve

                • Bus stations provide...
Lessons from Guadalajara

The BRTS has been a successful project: rapid
implementation, relative low cost, high quality, g...
Delhi Bus Corridor:
                             Requires significant
                             performance, safety and...
Janmarg Ahmadabad, India
Component                  Advances                           Elements to Improve
              • Strong longitudinal segr...
Component                               “High End” BRT
Quality of Service   • High User Acceptance
                     • ...
Delhi Bus
                            Guadalajara BRTS Ahmadabad BRTS
      Corridor
                            Strong le...
A good BRTS is the result of:
      Strong leadership
      Adequate coordination among stakeholders
      Good technical ...
EMBARQ, The WRI Center for
 Sustainable Transport, catalyzes
 and helps implement sustainable
 transport solutions than en...
Andes
Thank you!



         Global Strategic Partners

                       CATERPILLAR FOUNDATION


          India Program ...
Keys to Success in Bus Systems
Keys to Success in Bus Systems
Keys to Success in Bus Systems
Keys to Success in Bus Systems
Keys to Success in Bus Systems
Keys to Success in Bus Systems
Keys to Success in Bus Systems
Keys to Success in Bus Systems
Keys to Success in Bus Systems
Keys to Success in Bus Systems
Keys to Success in Bus Systems
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Keys to Success in Bus Systems

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By Dario Hidalgo, EMBARQ Senior Transport Engineer, EMBARQ - The WRI Center for Sustainable Transport (Washington, D.C.) Presentation to CEPT University, Ahmedabad, India, July 2009

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  1. 1. Keys to Success in Bus Systems Dario Hidalgo, PhD Senior Transport Engineer EMBARQ The WRI Center for Sustainable Transport Ahmadabad, India, July 31, 2009
  2. 2. Agenda The challenge The importance of Bus Systems Recent Examples Delhi, India Guadalajara, Mexico Ahmadabad, India Conclusions
  3. 3. Urban population in India is expected to double in a 30 year period 900 820 800 Projected 700 700 Population (Millions) 583 600 473 500 372 400 285 300 217 159 200 78.9 109 62.4 100 0 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 2021 2031 2041 2051 Source: O.P. Agarwal and S. Zimmerman “Towards Sustainable Mobility in Urban India”, Presented in the Annual TRB Meeting, Washington D.C. January 2008
  4. 4. The number of motor vehicles is growing twice as fast as the population in India – mainly two wheelers (71%) 80 Thousands 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2004 Total M2W Cars Buses Goods Source: O.P. Agarwal and S. Zimmerman “Towards Sustainable Mobility in Urban India”, Presented in the Annual TRB Meeting, Washington D.C. January 2008
  5. 5. Financial, institutional, physical resources are constrained Congestion Accidents Pollution Energy Consumption Reduced Competitiveness and Quality of Life
  6. 6. Sustainable Urban Transport Pedestrian and Bicycles Public Transportation Transit Oriented Development Disincentives to Car Use Bycicle Tracks and Pedestrian Facilities – Delhi BRT Corridor
  7. 7. Total Energy Use By Mode 7 Rail 27% Less Energy 6 as compared with Buses EJ Total Delivered Energy 2030 BAU 5 3 Wheelers 4 2 Wheelers Cars 3 2 1 0 1980 2000 2030: BAU 2030 Fuel 2030: 2030: SUT 2030 Extra Eff. TWW Effort Schipper L. Banerjee I. and Ng W.S. “CO2 Emissions from Land Transport in India Scenarios of the Uncertain”, TRB Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, January 2009
  8. 8. Bus systems are fundamental in sustainable transport Reduce travel time and cost, improve convenience to transit commuters Reduce the quantity and severity of accidents (fatalities, injuries, property losses) Reduce energy consumption and harmful emissions
  9. 9. Any city needs a good bus system Indore is well advanced in having a good bus system – improvements are underway (more buses, better control) High demand corridors need Bus Rapid Transit – BRT Greatly improve performance and quality of service
  10. 10. Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) Centralized Control Large Buses Multiple Doors Distinctive Image Stations with Prepayment and Level Segregated Boarding Busways
  11. 11. Agenda The challenge The importance of Bus Systems Recent Examples Delhi, India Guadalajara, Mexico Ahmadabad, India Conclusions
  12. 12. Delhi Bus Corridor
  13. 13. Delhi Bus Corridor Initial Operation: April 2008 Length: 5.6 Km Stations: 9 Ridership: Total N/A; Peak 6,500 passenger/hr/direction Frequency: 120 buses/hr Commercial Speed In corridor: 16-19 Km/hr Off corridor: 7-11 Km/hr Infrastructure Cost: Rs 14 crores/km (3 million/km) Average User Fare: Rs 1/km Rs 3.87 per passenger (USD 0.08) Source: Interviews DIMTS, IIT-Delhi, February 2008
  14. 14. Delhi Bus Corridor
  15. 15. The bus corridor also includes the construction of segregated facilities for pedestrians and bicycles High Usage 1,129 bicycles/hour peak period High level of satisfaction with the new facilities
  16. 16. Delhi Bus Corridor Chirag Delhi Junction
  17. 17. The Bus Corridor has reduced the average travel time People Delay - Morning Peak Hour - In Hours 6000 Buses MV's -19% 4000 -35% 3,186 2,078 2000 +14% 1,440 1,648 0 Without Project With Project
  18. 18. Component Advances Elements to Improve Running • Strong Longitudinal Segregation • Extend to Delhi Gate (expected) Ways • Median Busways • Short cycles, eliminate manual Traffic • Adequate Changes in Roadway operation Engineering Geometry • Improve the traffic signal technology (expected) • Protected Bus Shelters • Enhance the stations Stations • Level Boarding for a fraction of the • Introduce pre-payment at the fleet stations • Easy Boarding/Alighting Low Floor • Replace buses (expected) Vehicles Buses (13% of the fleet) • Introduce emissions post- • Low Emissions CNG Buses treatment • Introduce special service plans • Relocation of some “Blue Line” (short cycle routes, express) Services bus routes • Better match between demand and supply • Automatic Vehicle Location (GPS • Introduce real time control and in a fraction of the fleet) centralized dispatch ITS • Real time user information • Introduce automatic fare systems collection systems
  19. 19. Component Advances Elements to Improve Running •Strong Longitudinal Segregation •Extend to Delhi Gate (expected) Ways •Median Busways •Short cycles, eliminate manual Traffic •Adequate Changes in Roadway operation Engineering Geometry •Improve the traffic signal technology (expected) •Protected Bus Shelters •Enhance the stations Stations •Level Boarding for a fraction of the •Introduce pre-payment at the fleet stations •Easy Boarding/Alighting Low Floor •Replace buses (expected) Vehicles Buses (13% of the fleet) •Introduce emissions post-treatment •Low Emissions CNG Buses •Introduce special service plans •Relocation of some “Blue Line” bus (short cycle routes, express) Services routes •Better match between demand and supply •Introduce real time control and •Automatic Vehicle Location (GPS in a centralized dispatch ITS fraction of the fleet) •Introduce automatic fare collection •Real time user information systems systems
  20. 20. Component Advances Elements to Improve User • High Bus User Acceptance • Continuous monitoring of user Acceptance (88% CSE, Jun 08) perception • Good accessibility - at- grade pedestrian crossings • Reduce pedestrian wait time at signalized intersections; at pedestrian crossings, • Acceptable waiting time for • Introduce non-grade Travel Time bus services: 5 minute intersections where warranted interval during peak hour (expected) • Good Commercial speed: • Further increase the 16-19 Km/h (7-15 Km/h commercial speed for buses without the bus corridor) • Reduce the high variability in bus intervals and speeds • Automatic vehicle location (dispatch, control, signal (GPS) for a fraction of the management) Reliability bus fleet may provide • Reduce the observed bunching information to monitor this • Reduce and manage high level variable of breakdowns, incidents and encroachment
  21. 21. Component Advances Elements to Improve User • High Bus User Acceptance • Continuous monitoring of user Acceptance (88% CSE, Jun 08) perception • Good accessibility - at- grade pedestrian crossings • Reduce pedestrian wait time at at signalized intersections; pedestrian crossings, • Acceptable waiting time for • Introduce non-grade Travel Time bus services: 5 minute intersections where warranted interval during peak hour (expected) • Good Commercial speed: • Further increase the 16-19 Km/h (7-15 Km/h commercial speed for buses without the bus corridor) • Reduce the high variability in bus intervals and speeds • Automatic vehicle location (dispatch, control, signal (GPS) for a fraction of the management) Reliability bus fleet may provide • Reduce the observed bunching information to monitor this • Reduce and manage high level variable of breakdowns, incidents and encroachment
  22. 22. Component Advances Elements to Improve • Bus shelters provide better • Reduce the high occupancy protection than former bus stops of buses and platforms • Presence of guards increase the (match supply and demand) Comfort perception of safety and security • Increase and maintain in • A fraction of the fleet has adequate condition the user advanced characteristics information systems (scarce • Variable message signs or vandalized maps & signs) • Low Costs: capital investment • Collect data on capital and Cost (Infrastructure 14 Crores/km) operational productivity • Monitor and report fatality rates (currently high • Reduced emissions (particulate 0.8/month) Externalities matter, CNG engines; 13% New • Expand corridor and improve Fleet bus service – attract motor vehicle users
  23. 23. Component Advances Elements to Improve • Bus shelters provide better • Reduce the high occupancy protection than former bus stops of buses and platforms • Presence of guards increase the (match supply and demand) Comfort perception of safety and security • Increase and maintain in • A fraction of the fleet has adequate condition the user advanced characteristics information systems (scarce • Variable message signs or vandalized maps & signs) • Low Costs: capital investment • Collect data on capital and Cost (Infrastructure 14 Crores/km) operational productivity • Monitor and report fatality rates (currently high • Reduced emissions (particulate 0.8/month) Externalities matter, CNG engines; 13% New • Expand corridor and improve Fleet bus service – attract motor vehicle users
  24. 24. Lessons from Delhi The bus corridor has improved people mobility along the initial stretch, but requires significant performance, safety and service quality enhancements The observed problems in its initial operations are partially the result of incomplete implementation of the project plans and lack of understanding of the systematic nature of public transport improvements The project only comprised major changes in infrastructure but lacked of integrated implementation of service plans, technologies and operations.
  25. 25. Key Recommendations for Delhi Establish a Performance Monitoring System with the participation of external stakeholders in measurement and oversight Focus on improving Reliability and Comfort Reevaluate the bus service plans to provide a better match between demand and supply
  26. 26. Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico Area: - City 151 km2 - Metro 2,734 km2 Population (2008) - City 1,579,174 - Density 10,458/km2 - Metro 4,300,000 - Metro Density 1,572/km2
  27. 27. Macrobus Guadalajra, Mexico
  28. 28. 16 Km, 27 Stations, 41 Articulated Buses + 103 Feeder Buses
  29. 29. Macrobus, Guadalara, Mexico Initial Operation: March 10, 2009 Corridor: 16 kms, 27 stations Buses: 41 articulated buses Euro IV ULSD +103 conventional feeder buses Privately Operated under PPP Total Ridership: 110,000 passengers/day Peak Load: 4,000 passengers/hour/direction Commercial Speed 19.6 km/hour Infrastructure Investment: USD 46.2 million USD 2.9 million/km Equipment Investment: ~USD 15 million USD 0.9 million/km User Fare: USD 0.38 (+ 0.08 feeder + 0.19 LRT)
  30. 30. Macrobus, Guadalajara, Mexico
  31. 31. Component Advances Elements to Improve • Strong longitudinal segregation • Geometry in selected points (narrow Running • Median Busways returns) Ways • Good pavement structure • Quality of the reflective material • Signs to channel left detoursComplete • Left turning movements eliminated pedestrian crossing in far side of Traffic • Adequate Changes in Roadway stations Engineering Geometry • Complete traffic signal implementation (expected) • Wide enclosed facilities, glass • Complete interior signage doors Stations • Open far side doors and pedestrian • Level Boarding and Prepayment crossings (expected) • Passing lanes for express services • Articulated vehicles (18 m), with Vehicles Euro IV ULSD • Improve internal ventilation • Easy Boarding/Alighting - 4 doors • Combination of local and express • Adjust service plan to travel needs Services services sharing the infrastructure • Introduce dual services (feeder + trunk, • Feeder services in selected points to reduce transfers) • Central control and dispatch ITS • Yet to complete implementation • Variable message signs at stations
  32. 32. Component Advances Elements to Improve • Strong longitudinal segregation • Geometry in selected points (narrow Running • Median Busways returns) Ways • Good pavement structure • Quality of the reflective material • Signs to channel left detours • Left turning movements eliminated • Complete pedestrian crossing in far Traffic • Adequate Changes in Roadway side of stations Engineering Geometry • Complete traffic signal implementation (expected) • Wide enclosed facilities, glass • Complete interior signage doors Stations • Open far side doors and pedestrian • Level Boarding and Prepayment crossings (expected) • Passing lanes for express services • Articulated vehicles (18 m), with Vehicles Euro IV ULSD • Improve internal ventilation • Easy Boarding/Alighting - 4 doors • Combination of local and express • Adjust service plan to travel needs Services services sharing the infrastructure • Introduce dual services • Feeder services in selected points • Central control and dispatch ITS • Yet to complete implementation • Variable message signs at stations
  33. 33. Component Advances Elements to Improve • Monitor user perception through periodic surveys • High users approval (72%) and rate User Acceptance • Enhance user education, (8.2 out of 10) especially on the use of card vending/recharging machines • Good accessibility through at- grade pedestrian crossings at • Complete the implementation of signalized intersections traffic signals for pedestrians • Acceptable frequency: 5 minute Travel Time • Further increase the commercial intervals speed for buses through • High Commercial speed: 18.5 km/h improved driver’s training local service, 21 km/h express service • Complete the implementation of automatic vehicle location (GPS) for the bus fleet • Regular dispatch at terminal points Reliability • Complete the integration of the using radio controlled operations traffic signals to implement coordinated signal plans • Monitor and manage reliability
  34. 34. Component Advances Elements to Improve • Monitor user perception through periodic surveys • High users approval (72%) and rate User Acceptance • Enhance user education, (8.2 out of 10) especially on the use of card vending/recharging machines • Good accessibility through at- grade pedestrian crossings at • Complete the implementation of signalized intersections traffic signals for pedestrians • Acceptable frequency: 5 minute Travel Time • Further increase the commercial intervals speed for buses through • High Commercial speed: 18.5 km/h improved driver’s training local service, 21 km/h express service • Complete the implementation of automatic vehicle location (GPS) for the bus fleet • Regular dispatch at terminal points Reliability • Complete the integration of the using radio controlled operations traffic signals to implement coordinated signal plans • Monitor and manage reliability
  35. 35. Component Advances Elements to Improve • Bus stations provide very good • Improve the ventilation inside the protection - wide, tall and well buses (introduce air conditioned ventilated buses in system expansions) • Bus occupancy, especially in non • Activate variable message signs Comfort peak hours is low in stations to provide real time • Very good and comprehensive information on bus arrivals maps, signs • Introduce dual services (feeders • Good connectivity with other that continue on the trunk road to modes: feeder buses and light rail reduce transfers) • Low capital investment cost (Infrastructure USD 2.9 million /km, • Collect data on capital and Cost Equipment ~USD 0.9 million/km) operational productivity • Low operational costs (USD 1.9/ bus-km trunk services) • Monitor and report externalities • Expected reductions in emissions, Externalities (accidents, emissions, land use accidents, urban development development)
  36. 36. Component Advances Elements to Improve • Bus stations provide very good • Improve the ventilation inside the protection - wide, tall and well buses (introduce air conditioned ventilated buses in system expansions) • Bus occupancy, especially in non • Activate variable message signs Comfort peak hours is low in stations to provide real time • Very good and comprehensive information on bus arrivals maps, signs • Introduce dual services (feeders • Good connectivity with other that continue on the trunk road to modes: feeder buses and light rail reduce transfers) • Low capital investment cost (Infrastructure USD 2.9 million /km, • Collect data on capital and Cost Equipment ~USD 0.9 million/km) operational productivity • Low operational costs (USD 1.9/ bus-km trunk services) • Monitor and report externalities • Expected reductions in emissions, Externalities (accidents, emissions, land use accidents, urban development development)
  37. 37. Lessons from Guadalajara The BRTS has been a successful project: rapid implementation, relative low cost, high quality, good performance and high user acceptance The BRT improved the current practices in Latin America: median busways with good pavements, strong segregation, wide/well ventilated stations, passing lanes, good operational planning The system still requires some improvements, especially the implementation of a performance monitoring system to enhance reliability and comfort
  38. 38. Delhi Bus Corridor: Requires significant performance, safety and service quality enhancements Guadalajara BRTS: Requires minor implementation adjustments and a continuous quality improvement program
  39. 39. Janmarg Ahmadabad, India
  40. 40. Component Advances Elements to Improve • Strong longitudinal segregation • Completing details Running • Median Busways • Careful maintenance Ways • Good pavement structure • Promote bike track use • Complete pedestrian crossing in far Traffic • Adequate Changes in Roadway side of stations Engineering Geometry • Complete traffic signal implementation (expected) • Narrow entry/exit • Median station, good design • Complete interior details and signage • Enclosed facilities, glass doors Stations • Install turnstiles and ticketing • Level Boarding and Prepayment • Careful maintenance • Accessible • Manage interior flow of passengers • Renewed fleet (can be better at a cost) • Continue drivers’ training Vehicles • Easy Boarding/Alighting - 1 wide • Careful maintenance door Services • Frequent services • Adjust service plan to travel needs • Fare collection ITS • Yet to complete implementation • Central control and dispatch • Variable message signs at stations
  41. 41. Component “High End” BRT Quality of Service • High User Acceptance • Easily Accessible Travel Time • Low waiting time • High commercial speed • Low variability (intervals, speeds) Reliability • Low breakdowns, incidents • Low Occupancy Levels (buses, platforms) • Good user information Comfort • Seamless integration with other transport modes • Perception of safety and security • Relative low capital and operational costs Cost • High capital and operational productivity • Low level of accidents (fatalities, injuries) • Low emissions Externalities • Congestion relief (attraction of personalized vehicle users) • Increased land values
  42. 42. Delhi Bus Guadalajara BRTS Ahmadabad BRTS Corridor Strong leadership of the Strong leadership of Mr. Difficult coordination Governor and the Project I.P. Gotham, Municipal among stakeholders Leader Mr. D. Monraz Commissioner AMC Technical advisory team Permanent support from Weak institutional set-up with international practical CEPT with inputs from experience ITDP Fast implementation, Slow implementation, very Careful gradual adequate level of funding low planning and implementation with for planning and implementation budget visible results implementation Strong focus on Systematic approach: infrastructure + vehicles + infrastructure operations + technology
  43. 43. A good BRTS is the result of: Strong leadership Adequate coordination among stakeholders Good technical planning, careful implementation A systems approach: infrastructure + vehicles + operations + technologies + education Quality assurance trough performance monitoring Janmarg is already a “best practice” BRTS Very careful completion is required, then continuous monitoring and improvement
  44. 44. EMBARQ, The WRI Center for Sustainable Transport, catalyzes and helps implement sustainable transport solutions than enhance quality of life in cities and the global environment
  45. 45. Andes
  46. 46. Thank you! Global Strategic Partners CATERPILLAR FOUNDATION India Program Partners Sustainable Urban Mobility for Asia SUMA Godrej Industries The World Bank – Global Environmental Facility The UK High Commission SPF www.embarq.org
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