EMBARQ India - Talking Transit - Vehicles and Fuels - Umang Jain
A Workshop on Public TransportTerminals and Support Facilities Vehicles and Fuels Bengaluru February 16, 2012 Umang Jain Associate-Urban Transport
Aim of the Project To develop a decision framework that guides the evaluation and selection of bus fleet vehicle technologies and fuels by comparing different options’ life cycle costs and life cycle emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants.
Evolution of Vehicular EmissionNorms In India The first Indian emission regulations were “idle emission” limits (1989) Idle emission limits replaced by mass emission limits for petrol and diesel vehicles(1991-92) Since year 2000,India started adopting European emission and fuel regulations for 4 wheeled light and heavy duty vehicles For 2 wheelers and 3 wheelers Indian emission regulations apply
Evolution of Vehicular EmissionNorms In India The National Auto Fuel Policy(2003) laid down a phased program forintroduction of Euro emissions and fuel regulations as under: Equivalent Date ofIndian Standard European Applicable Region Implementation Standard India 2000 Euro 1 2000 Nationwide 2001 NCR, Mumbai, Kolkata, ChennaiBharat Stage II Euro 2 April 2003 NCR, 12 Cities† (BS II) April 2005 NationwideBharat Stage III April2005 NCR, 12 Cities† Euro 3 (BS III) April 2010 NationwideBharat Stage IV Euro 4 April2010 NCR*, 12 Cities† (BS IV) † Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, 4 Ahmedabad, Pune, Surat, Kanpur, Lucknow, Sholapur, Agra
Evolution of Bus Emission Norms inIndia The Emission standards for Bus engines(g/kWh) are as under: Year Reference CO HC NOx PM 1992 - 17.3-32.6 2.7-3.7 - - 1996 - 11.20 2.40 14.4 - 2000 Euro I 4.5 1.1 8.0 0.36 2005 Euro II 4.0 1.1 7.0 0.15 2010 Euro III 2.1 0.66 5.0 0.10 5
Evolution of Vehicular EmissionNorms In India In 2007, ARAI developed emission factors for Bus (>600cc) as under: 6
Fuel used in Urban Buses in India Diesel with varying degrees of sulphur content(50- 350ppm) is used in many Indian cities In 1998, The Supreme Court of India passed a judgment to convert entire bus fleet of Delhi to CNG which paved the way for some other cities to convert to CNG as well There is a perception that CNG is the cleanest fuel and is the way to go as far as fuel for public transport is concerned There is not enough research into aspects of life cycle emissions and costs of the different alternative fuels
Life Cycle Costs Capital cost of bus purchase Cost of modifications in depots and terminals Cost of infrastructure including terminals, fuelling infrastructure Operation and Maintenance costs including fuel costs, periodic and preventive maintenance, periodic bus overhaul cost.
Life Cycle Emissions Carbon Monoxide(CO) Oxides of Nitrogen(NOX) Particulate Matter(PM) Hydrocarbons(HC) Green House gases(GHG) Upstream Emissions are also an important factor to consider
Criteria Pollutants CO,HC,NOX and PM are the criteria pollutants, but NOX and PM are the most important NOX leads to pulmonary diseases, impairment of eyes, lungs and also leads to acidification PM(<1NM) are the most dangerous as they cause maximum damage to respiratory system
CNG vs Diesel Technical experts have estimated CNG, to be environmentfriendly and cost effective. Critics opine that ULSD is as good in terms of emissions andecology and better in terms of feasibility and economics. While some tests have shown that ULSD, when used withcomplementing engines, gives lesser emissions than CNG, othershave shown just the opposite.In many studies vehicles of different ages, condition andtechnologies have been compared leading to biased results
CNG vs DieselARAI study concluded that:Diesel buses fitted with advanced emission control devices and very low sulphur fuel-emissions are comparable to Euro II CNG busNOX emissions from TWC equipped CNG bus are lower than DCO+CRT equippeddiesel bus, however the gap is lower for NOX than PM 12
CNG vs Diesel1. ULSD is a clean fuel If no special measures are taken NOX emissions of CNGare higher than diesel ARB study in USA proves thatCNG gives lower NOX than dieselCNG and diesel with CRT have same PM emissionsMutagenicity of CNG is higherCNG gives more PM(less than 50nm)
Conclusions on CNG vs Diesel Debate There are great variations in the results of different studies therefore it is very difficult to suggest which is the better fuel PM emissions from CNG is low independent of technology CNG, depending on the technology produces from very low to very high levels of NOX DPF reduces the PM emissions in diesel in some cases to below CNG, but increases the NO2 emissions significantly In terms of scale of operation, a study in India estimated 8000 cum per day of CNG needs to be sold to make operations viable. It is observed that Diesel can be adulterated, while CNG cannot be adulterated
Other Alternate Fuels-Ethanol Although ethanol is a clean fuel, it is much more expensive in terms of costs Based on demonstrations in SaoPaulo, the fuel related operations cost is 20-40%higher than diesel The fuel economy of diesel is higher by 60% The maintenance costs is the same The costs related with ethanol are bound to come down with increase in size of operations
Other Alternate Fuels-Hydrogen FuelCellBased on a study in US, there are savings of 60-80CO2 EMT per year on 8,000 miles travelled per year
Other Alternate Fuels-Hybrid According to a study based in Seattle, Hybrid performs better in terms of all criteria pollutants 25
Other Alternate Fuels-HybridDiesel hybrid offers:27% higher fuel economy than diesel4% lower maintenance cost than diesel15% lower operation cost than diesel 26
Conclusion Decision of selection of fuel needs to be made by conducting a life cycle emission and costs analysis of different fuels Trade off needs to be made in fuel selection as no fuel is an ideal fuel in terms of all emissions as well as costs Upstream emissions is an important parameter to be included in making fuel choices Research and investment are needed in alternate fuels
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