A Workshop on Public TransportTerminals and Support Facilities      Vehicles and Fuels           Bengaluru         Februar...
Aim of the Project To develop a decision framework that guides the  evaluation and selection of bus fleet vehicle  techno...
Evolution of Vehicular EmissionNorms In India   The first Indian emission regulations were “idle emission”    limits (198...
Evolution of Vehicular EmissionNorms In India The National Auto Fuel Policy(2003) laid down a phased program forintroduct...
Evolution of Bus Emission Norms inIndia The Emission standards for Bus engines(g/kWh) are as under:     Year    Reference...
Evolution of Vehicular EmissionNorms In India In 2007, ARAI developed emission factors for Bus (>600cc) as under:        ...
Fuel used in Urban Buses in India   Diesel with varying degrees of sulphur content(50-    350ppm) is used in many Indian ...
Life Cycle Costs   Capital cost of bus purchase   Cost of modifications in depots and terminals   Cost of infrastructur...
Life Cycle Emissions   Carbon Monoxide(CO)   Oxides of Nitrogen(NOX)   Particulate Matter(PM)   Hydrocarbons(HC)   Gr...
Criteria Pollutants   CO,HC,NOX and PM are the criteria pollutants, but NOX and PM are    the most important   NOX leads...
CNG vs Diesel Technical experts have estimated CNG, to be environmentfriendly and cost effective. Critics opine that ULS...
CNG vs DieselARAI study concluded that:Diesel buses fitted with advanced emission control devices and very low sulphur fu...
CNG vs Diesel1. ULSD is a clean fuel If no special measures are taken NOX emissions of CNGare higher than diesel ARB stu...
CNG vs Diesel
CNG vs Diesel   2.CNG emits more ultrafine particles than diesel
CNG vs Diesel   3.CNG is more carcinogenic than diesel, while research proves that diesel is    fare more carcinogenic th...
CNG vs Diesel   3.Cancer potency of CNG is 12 times more than baseline diesel
CNG vs Diesel   The PM value for CNG is 5 times the value of DPF equipped diesel   CNG also gives highest NOX values
CNG Vs DieselCNG buses produced 63&84% lower NOX and PMemissions than diesel bus according to a study inWashington Metrop...
CNG Vs Diesel                20
CNG Vs Diesel                21
Conclusions on CNG vs Diesel Debate   There are great variations in the results of different studies therefore it    is v...
Other Alternate Fuels-Ethanol   Although ethanol is a clean fuel, it is much more expensive    in terms of costs   Based...
Other Alternate Fuels-Hydrogen FuelCellBased on a study in US, there are savings of 60-80CO2 EMT per year on 8,000 miles t...
Other Alternate Fuels-Hybrid According to a study based in Seattle, Hybrid performs better in terms of all criteria pollut...
Other Alternate Fuels-HybridDiesel hybrid offers:27% higher fuel economy than diesel4% lower maintenance cost than dies...
Conclusion   Decision of selection of fuel needs to be made by    conducting a life cycle emission and costs analysis of ...
EMBARQ, The WRI Center forSustainable Transport, catalyzes andhelps implement sustainable transportsolutions that enhance ...
Thank you!      Global Strategic Partners                       Bloomberg Philanthropies           FedExThe British High C...
EMBARQ India - Talking Transit - Vehicles and Fuels - Umang Jain
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EMBARQ India - Talking Transit - Vehicles and Fuels - Umang Jain

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Talking Transit, Bangalore, 16th February, 2012

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EMBARQ India - Talking Transit - Vehicles and Fuels - Umang Jain

  1. 1. A Workshop on Public TransportTerminals and Support Facilities Vehicles and Fuels Bengaluru February 16, 2012 Umang Jain Associate-Urban Transport
  2. 2. Aim of the Project To develop a decision framework that guides the evaluation and selection of bus fleet vehicle technologies and fuels by comparing different options’ life cycle costs and life cycle emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants.
  3. 3. Evolution of Vehicular EmissionNorms In India The first Indian emission regulations were “idle emission” limits (1989) Idle emission limits replaced by mass emission limits for petrol and diesel vehicles(1991-92) Since year 2000,India started adopting European emission and fuel regulations for 4 wheeled light and heavy duty vehicles For 2 wheelers and 3 wheelers Indian emission regulations apply
  4. 4. Evolution of Vehicular EmissionNorms In India The National Auto Fuel Policy(2003) laid down a phased program forintroduction of Euro emissions and fuel regulations as under: Equivalent Date ofIndian Standard European Applicable Region Implementation Standard India 2000 Euro 1 2000 Nationwide 2001 NCR, Mumbai, Kolkata, ChennaiBharat Stage II Euro 2 April 2003 NCR, 12 Cities† (BS II) April 2005 NationwideBharat Stage III April2005 NCR, 12 Cities† Euro 3 (BS III) April 2010 NationwideBharat Stage IV Euro 4 April2010 NCR*, 12 Cities† (BS IV) † Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, 4 Ahmedabad, Pune, Surat, Kanpur, Lucknow, Sholapur, Agra
  5. 5. Evolution of Bus Emission Norms inIndia The Emission standards for Bus engines(g/kWh) are as under: Year Reference CO HC NOx PM 1992 - 17.3-32.6 2.7-3.7 - - 1996 - 11.20 2.40 14.4 - 2000 Euro I 4.5 1.1 8.0 0.36 2005 Euro II 4.0 1.1 7.0 0.15 2010 Euro III 2.1 0.66 5.0 0.10 5
  6. 6. Evolution of Vehicular EmissionNorms In India In 2007, ARAI developed emission factors for Bus (>600cc) as under: 6
  7. 7. Fuel used in Urban Buses in India Diesel with varying degrees of sulphur content(50- 350ppm) is used in many Indian cities In 1998, The Supreme Court of India passed a judgment to convert entire bus fleet of Delhi to CNG which paved the way for some other cities to convert to CNG as well There is a perception that CNG is the cleanest fuel and is the way to go as far as fuel for public transport is concerned There is not enough research into aspects of life cycle emissions and costs of the different alternative fuels
  8. 8. Life Cycle Costs Capital cost of bus purchase Cost of modifications in depots and terminals Cost of infrastructure including terminals, fuelling infrastructure Operation and Maintenance costs including fuel costs, periodic and preventive maintenance, periodic bus overhaul cost.
  9. 9. Life Cycle Emissions Carbon Monoxide(CO) Oxides of Nitrogen(NOX) Particulate Matter(PM) Hydrocarbons(HC) Green House gases(GHG) Upstream Emissions are also an important factor to consider
  10. 10. Criteria Pollutants CO,HC,NOX and PM are the criteria pollutants, but NOX and PM are the most important NOX leads to pulmonary diseases, impairment of eyes, lungs and also leads to acidification PM(<1NM) are the most dangerous as they cause maximum damage to respiratory system
  11. 11. CNG vs Diesel Technical experts have estimated CNG, to be environmentfriendly and cost effective. Critics opine that ULSD is as good in terms of emissions andecology and better in terms of feasibility and economics. While some tests have shown that ULSD, when used withcomplementing engines, gives lesser emissions than CNG, othershave shown just the opposite.In many studies vehicles of different ages, condition andtechnologies have been compared leading to biased results
  12. 12. CNG vs DieselARAI study concluded that:Diesel buses fitted with advanced emission control devices and very low sulphur fuel-emissions are comparable to Euro II CNG busNOX emissions from TWC equipped CNG bus are lower than DCO+CRT equippeddiesel bus, however the gap is lower for NOX than PM 12
  13. 13. CNG vs Diesel1. ULSD is a clean fuel If no special measures are taken NOX emissions of CNGare higher than diesel ARB study in USA proves thatCNG gives lower NOX than dieselCNG and diesel with CRT have same PM emissionsMutagenicity of CNG is higherCNG gives more PM(less than 50nm)
  14. 14. CNG vs Diesel
  15. 15. CNG vs Diesel 2.CNG emits more ultrafine particles than diesel
  16. 16. CNG vs Diesel 3.CNG is more carcinogenic than diesel, while research proves that diesel is fare more carcinogenic than CNG
  17. 17. CNG vs Diesel 3.Cancer potency of CNG is 12 times more than baseline diesel
  18. 18. CNG vs Diesel The PM value for CNG is 5 times the value of DPF equipped diesel CNG also gives highest NOX values
  19. 19. CNG Vs DieselCNG buses produced 63&84% lower NOX and PMemissions than diesel bus according to a study inWashington Metropolitan AreaCNG also exhibited 9% better fuel economy than diesel 19
  20. 20. CNG Vs Diesel 20
  21. 21. CNG Vs Diesel 21
  22. 22. Conclusions on CNG vs Diesel Debate There are great variations in the results of different studies therefore it is very difficult to suggest which is the better fuel PM emissions from CNG is low independent of technology CNG, depending on the technology produces from very low to very high levels of NOX DPF reduces the PM emissions in diesel in some cases to below CNG, but increases the NO2 emissions significantly In terms of scale of operation, a study in India estimated 8000 cum per day of CNG needs to be sold to make operations viable. It is observed that Diesel can be adulterated, while CNG cannot be adulterated
  23. 23. Other Alternate Fuels-Ethanol Although ethanol is a clean fuel, it is much more expensive in terms of costs Based on demonstrations in SaoPaulo, the fuel related operations cost is 20-40%higher than diesel The fuel economy of diesel is higher by 60% The maintenance costs is the same The costs related with ethanol are bound to come down with increase in size of operations
  24. 24. Other Alternate Fuels-Hydrogen FuelCellBased on a study in US, there are savings of 60-80CO2 EMT per year on 8,000 miles travelled per year
  25. 25. Other Alternate Fuels-Hybrid According to a study based in Seattle, Hybrid performs better in terms of all criteria pollutants 25
  26. 26. Other Alternate Fuels-HybridDiesel hybrid offers:27% higher fuel economy than diesel4% lower maintenance cost than diesel15% lower operation cost than diesel 26
  27. 27. Conclusion Decision of selection of fuel needs to be made by conducting a life cycle emission and costs analysis of different fuels Trade off needs to be made in fuel selection as no fuel is an ideal fuel in terms of all emissions as well as costs Upstream emissions is an important parameter to be included in making fuel choices Research and investment are needed in alternate fuels
  28. 28. EMBARQ, The WRI Center forSustainable Transport, catalyzes andhelps implement sustainable transportsolutions that enhance quality of lifeand the environment
  29. 29. Thank you! Global Strategic Partners Bloomberg Philanthropies FedExThe British High Commission email: ujain@embarqindia.org web: EMBARQ.ORG blog: THECITYFIX.COM
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