Delhi Transport CorporationAdvantages of CNG over other           Fuels              Prepared by            Ravinder Minha...
Delhi Transport Corporation          Introduction• The use of CNG as an alternative fuel to diesel  and gasoline has offer...
Delhi Transport Corporation               Advantage• CNG stands for Compressed Natural Gas. It  is one of the most viable ...
Delhi Transport Corporation• It is considered to be an environmentally  "clean" alternative to gasoline (petrol) or  diese...
Delhi Transport Corporation               Green fuel• Commonly referred to as the green fuel  because of its lead and sulp...
Delhi Transport CorporationIncreased life of oils and mixes         evenly in air• Another practical advantage observed is...
Delhi Transport Corporation                  Safety• CNG is less likely to auto-ignite on hot  surfaces, since it has a hi...
Delhi Transport Corporation        Low operational cost• The operational cost of vehicles running on  CNG, as compared to ...
Delhi Transport CorporationProperties           Unit        Petrol   Diesel    LPG           CNGRelative density     Water...
Delhi Transport Corporation  Why CNG is better than other           fuels?• Compressed natural gas is the cleanest  burnin...
Delhi Transport Corporation• The use of CNG as a fuel reduces vehicular  exhaust emissions significantly. Carbon  Monoxide...
Delhi Transport Corporation• The basic engine characteristics of a vehicle  are retained while converting it to run on  CN...
Delhi Transport Corporation• Dedicated CNG engines are superior in  performance to gasoline engines• Natural gas is cheape...
Delhi Transport Corporation• Surveys indicate that NGVs are as safe or  safer than those powered by other fuels. A  1992 A...
Delhi Transport Corporation• Saves 70% of fuel cost.• CNG is cost effective as compared to  gasoline and diesel.• CNG is a...
Delhi Transport CorporationCNG is the best Auto Fuel as it is                                   “Control pollution        ...
Delhi Transport Corporation     “Control pollution”                        17
Delhi Transport Corporation       What is CNG?CNG stands for Compressed Natural   Gas. It is a gaseous fuel and is a  mixt...
Delhi Transport Corporation         Is CNG safe?Yes, it is safe. The properties of CNG  make it a safe fuel. It is lighter...
Delhi Transport CorporationWill my fuel expenses reduce after conversion to CNG?Yes, the fuel bill on the basis of average...
Delhi Transport Corporation    Is CNG environmentally friendlier than any other fuel? Yes, it is. As CNG mainly consists o...
Delhi Transport Corporation    Are cylinders used for filling             CNG safe?  Cylinders used for storing gas are de...
Delhi Transport Corporation   Which type of vehicles can be      converted into CNG?  All spark-ignited engines can be con...
Delhi Transport Corporation       What are the dimensions and        weight of a CNG cylinder?CNG cylinders are manufactur...
Delhi Transport Corporation     What is the pressure of CNG in a cylinder? Is    refueling of a cylinder safe, given the p...
Delhi Transport Corporation   Does CNG have any harmful      effect on the engine?    Owing to CNGs distinct features, it ...
Delhi Transport Corporationrsminhas1961@gmail.com                              “Control pollution”                        ...
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Embarq india talking transit - august 2012 - advantage of cng over other fuels.

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  1. 1. Delhi Transport CorporationAdvantages of CNG over other Fuels Prepared by Ravinder Minhas Delhi Transport Corporation (Govt. of NCT of Delhi) New Delhi for EMBARQ’s Second Talking Transit workshop held on August 30 – 31, 2012 at Vishakapatnam – 530 020 “Control pollution” 1
  2. 2. Delhi Transport Corporation Introduction• The use of CNG as an alternative fuel to diesel and gasoline has offered numerous advantages, which has increased the use of CNG substantially in the last few years. Some of these advantages of CNG are:• CNG offers lower operating cost after initial investment.• CNG is cheaper than gasoline and diesel.• CNG is cleaner and thus reduces pollution level “Control pollution” 2
  3. 3. Delhi Transport Corporation Advantage• CNG stands for Compressed Natural Gas. It is one of the most viable alternatives to traditional fuel energy resources for the automotive industry. CNG is low in pollutants, high in calorific value and heat yield, economical and available in abundance globally. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is a substitute for gasoline (petrol) or diesel fuel. “Control pollution” 3
  4. 4. Delhi Transport Corporation• It is considered to be an environmentally "clean" alternative to gasoline (petrol) or diesel fuel. It is made by compressing methane (CH4) extracted from natural gas. It is stored and distributed in hard containers, usually cylinders. “Control pollution” 4
  5. 5. Delhi Transport Corporation Green fuel• Commonly referred to as the green fuel because of its lead and sulphur free character, CNG reduces harmful emissions. Being non-corrosive, it enhances the longevity of spark plugs. Due to the absence of any lead or benzene content in CNG, the lead fouling of spark plugs and lead or benzene pollution are eliminated. “Control pollution” 5
  6. 6. Delhi Transport CorporationIncreased life of oils and mixes evenly in air• Another practical advantage observed is the increased life of lubricating oils, as CNG does not contaminate and dilute the crankcase oil.• Being a gaseous fuel CNG mixes in the air easily and evenly. “Control pollution” 6
  7. 7. Delhi Transport Corporation Safety• CNG is less likely to auto-ignite on hot surfaces, since it has a high auto-ignition temperature (540 degrees centigrade) and a narrow range (5%-15%) of inflammability. It means that if CNG concentration in the air is below 5% or above 15%, it will not burn. This high ignition temperature and limited flammability range makes accidental ignition or combustion very unlikely. “Control pollution” 7
  8. 8. Delhi Transport Corporation Low operational cost• The operational cost of vehicles running on CNG, as compared to those running on other fuels, is significantly low. At the prevailing price of fuel in Delhi, operational cost of CNG vehicles is 68% lower than petrol and 36% lower than diesel. “Control pollution” 8
  9. 9. Delhi Transport CorporationProperties Unit Petrol Diesel LPG CNGRelative density Water = 1 0.74 0.84 0.55 -Relative density Air =1 - - 1.285 0.64Auto-ignitionTemperature Degree C 360 280 374 540 % in Air 1-8 0.6-5.5 2.2-9.0 5-15Flame Temperature Degree C 2,030 1,780 1,983 1,900Octane Number - 87 - 93 127 Comparison of Properties of CNG with other Fuels “Control pollution” 9
  10. 10. Delhi Transport Corporation Why CNG is better than other fuels?• Compressed natural gas is the cleanest burning fuel operating today. This means less vehicle maintenance and longer engine life.• The cost of CNG is almost a third of the cost of Petrol in terms of calorific value resulting in substantial saving in fuel cost, and investment on the CNG kit is paid back in a short period. “Control pollution” 10
  11. 11. Delhi Transport Corporation• The use of CNG as a fuel reduces vehicular exhaust emissions significantly. Carbon Monoxide emissions are reduced by 70 to 90% and Hydrocarbon emissions by 40 to 60% as compared to vehicles that use the conventional fuel – Petrol or Diesel. Carbon Dioxide emissions, a cause for global warming, are also reduced significantly by 10%. “Control pollution” 11
  12. 12. Delhi Transport Corporation• The basic engine characteristics of a vehicle are retained while converting it to run on CNG. The vehicle therefore is capable of running either on Petrol or on CNG at the flick of a switch on its dashboard.• CNG vehicles produce the fewest emissions of any motor fuel.• CNG produces significantly less pollutants than gasoline or Diesel. “Control pollution” 12
  13. 13. Delhi Transport Corporation• Dedicated CNG engines are superior in performance to gasoline engines• Natural gas is cheaper per equivalent gallon than gasoline (an average of 15% to 50% less than gasoline).• Converting a gasoline-powered vehicle to CNG requires only minor engine modifications. “Control pollution” 13
  14. 14. Delhi Transport Corporation• Surveys indicate that NGVs are as safe or safer than those powered by other fuels. A 1992 AGA (American Gas Association) survey of more than 8,000 vehicles found that with more than 278 million miles traveled, NGV injury rates per vehicle mile traveled were 34% lower than the rate for gasoline vehicles. There were no fatalities reported--even though these vehicles were involved in over 1,800 collisions. “Control pollution” 14
  15. 15. Delhi Transport Corporation• Saves 70% of fuel cost.• CNG is cost effective as compared to gasoline and diesel.• CNG is a cleaner fuel and thus reduces pollution level.• CNG can be used with both the Otto Cycle (spark ignition) and the modified Diesel cycle.• Flexibility of usage in conjunction with other fuels such as gasoline or diesel. “Control pollution” 15
  16. 16. Delhi Transport CorporationCNG is the best Auto Fuel as it is “Control pollution 16
  17. 17. Delhi Transport Corporation “Control pollution” 17
  18. 18. Delhi Transport Corporation What is CNG?CNG stands for Compressed Natural Gas. It is a gaseous fuel and is a mixture of hydrocarbons, mainlymethane in the range of 95%. Due toits low density, it is compressed to a pressure of 200 bar to enhance the vehicle on-board storage capacity. “Control pollution” 18
  19. 19. Delhi Transport Corporation Is CNG safe?Yes, it is safe. The properties of CNG make it a safe fuel. It is lighter than air, and hence in case of leakage itdisperses into the atmosphere rapidly. Its high auto-ignition temperature of 540 degrees centigrade as against petrol’s 360 degrees centigrade makes it even more safe fuel. CNG also has a narrow inflammabilityrange of 5% to 15%, making it much safer than other fuels. “Control pollution” 19
  20. 20. Delhi Transport CorporationWill my fuel expenses reduce after conversion to CNG?Yes, the fuel bill on the basis of averagerunning of vehicle reduces substantiallywhen compared to other conventional fuels.Price of CNG is lesser than other fuels andalso it enhances the mileage of the vehicle,making it the most economical fuel. “Control pollution” 20
  21. 21. Delhi Transport Corporation Is CNG environmentally friendlier than any other fuel? Yes, it is. As CNG mainly consists of methane which is the simplest hydrocarbon, it is a much cleaner and efficient fuel. The use of CNG significantly reduces harmful exhaust gas emissions like carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide which causes harmful diseases like cancer, asthama etc. CNG also helps in reducing the effects of global warming.• Top “Control pollution” 21
  22. 22. Delhi Transport Corporation Are cylinders used for filling CNG safe? Cylinders used for storing gas are designed with very high safety factor in accordance with global standards. These cylinders are tested and certifiedfor usage by statutory authorities and each cylinderis defined with an expiry date of usage after which they are to be tested again for safe use. These cylinders have been designed to take impact of collision in case of accidents. “Control pollution” 22
  23. 23. Delhi Transport Corporation Which type of vehicles can be converted into CNG? All spark-ignited engines can be converted to CNG, for which a specially designed conversionkit is required for the conversion process. The kitconsists of a cylinder to be fixed in the boot of the car and other equipments to allow gas flow into the engine. “Control pollution” 23
  24. 24. Delhi Transport Corporation What are the dimensions and weight of a CNG cylinder?CNG cylinders are manufactured from a special steel alloyand are seamless in construction. Their compact size allowsthem to easily fit into a small car. An empty CNG cylinder with a 50 litre-water-carrying capacity weighs 48 kg (approximately), and has a length of 835 mm and a diameter of 316 mm. The 50 litre capacity cylinder is the one most regularly used in CNG kits but cylinders with 45litre, 55 litre, 60 litre and 65 litre capacity are used as well. “Control pollution” 24
  25. 25. Delhi Transport Corporation What is the pressure of CNG in a cylinder? Is refueling of a cylinder safe, given the pressure? CNG cylinders are designed and built in such a way so as to withstand high pressure. The maximum pressure in a CNGcylinder is up to 200 bar. CNG cylinders are safe as they are manufactured as per specific requirements and tested before use, in accordance with international specifications and standards, and are duly approved by the Chief Controller of Explosives. Moreover, they are provided with a pressurerelief device (PRD) that consists of a fusible plug and a burst disc that ruptures in case of extremely high pressure and temperature “Control pollution” 25
  26. 26. Delhi Transport Corporation Does CNG have any harmful effect on the engine? Owing to CNGs distinct features, it does not contaminate or dilute crankcase oil, giving a newlease of life to the engine. The absence of any leadcontent in CNG helps avoid lead fouling of plugs, thereby enhancing plug life. As CNG enters the engine in the form of a gas (and not as a spray or mist like other fuels),no carbon is generated during the combustion of CNG reducing the chances of wear and tear. “Control pollution” 26
  27. 27. Delhi Transport Corporationrsminhas1961@gmail.com “Control pollution” 27
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