Data-Driven Design:
State-of-the-Art Street Engineering
Istanbul
26 August 2013
•  Urban Context & Challenge
•  Pedestrian Safety Metrics
•  Projects/Design
•  Conclusions
future research 2
Today’s Pres...
•  Needs
–  Measure city’s performance
–  Prioritize projects/measure facility performance
–  Evaluate projects/design cha...
•  Speed & Arterials
•  Likelihood of KSI increases steeply with
increased speed
•  Late-night crashes twice as deadly for...
•  National fatality rates are >3x higher than NYC rates
•  NYC has low PMT & VMT per capita
–  Safer per trip, but more r...
6
•  Divide bicyclist KSI by
indexed commuter bike
volume
•  Show improvement in safety
per cyclist
•  Not a comparison to...
•  KSI per mile over 5-year period (all modes)
–  KSI: Persons Killed or Severely Injured.
(Fatalities + “A” Injuries)
–  ...
8
Information for Planners and Designers
•  KSI by mode
•  High-Crash
Corridor
designation
•  Injuries by
severity by mode...
•  High Crash Locations
prioritized
•  Involve communities & local
leaders at depth
commensurate with project
•  In-house ...
Monitoring &
Before-After
•  Injury crashes
•  KSI
•  Radar speeds
•  Other data:
–  Travel Times and/
or LOS
–  Community...
•  Before:
–  60’
–  Two lanes each
direction
•  After:
–  One lane each
direction
–  Left turn bays
–  Bike lanes or wide...
•  Before:
– 50’, two lanes
•  After:
– Flush center
median
– Left turn bays
– Bike lanes or
wide parking
lanes
12
Project...
13
Project Type: Protected Bike Path
•  Before:
–  Multi-lane one-way
–  Marked bicycle lane
•  After:
–  Parking-protecte...
•  Before:
–  Mixed traffic
–  Lefts vs.
pedestrians
•  After:
–  Dedicated left
turn signal from
avenue
–  Shortened
cros...
•  Before:
–  100’ wide
–  Narrow/short islands
–  Narrow LT lane
–  3 lanes, narrow right
lane
•  After:
–  Wider pedestr...
•  Before:
–  Narrow medians
don’t extend into
crosswalk
•  After:
–  Widened median
tips extend into
crosswalk as
pedestr...
•  Speed limit lowered to 20
mph (from 30)
•  Small, self-contained area
•  Announced with signs and
gateway treatments
• ...
•  Measuring Safety
–  Use risk per person as comprehensive performance measure
–  Use exposure measures useful for fast-g...
Questions
Matthew Roe
matthewjafferoe@gmail.com
v
Decade
NYC
Pedestrian
Fatalities
Avg per Year
Pedestrian
Fatalities per
100,000
Residents per Year
% Pedestrian
1910 – 191...
Year
Fatalities
All Modes
Severe
Injuries
All Modes
Pedestrian
Fatalities
Pedestrian
Severe
Injuries
2001 393 5,417 193 1,...
•  Population 8.25 m +
•  302 mi2 (783 km2)
•  NYC Department of
Transportation:
–  6,300 mi of streets &
highways
–  781 ...
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Data Driven Design - Matthew Roe, New York City DOT

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Matthew Roe is a Senior Planning and Research Manager for the New York City Department of Transportation. This presentation from August 26, 2013 comes from a seminar on the value of quality data in aiding street design for enhanced public safety. The seminar was hosted by EMBARQ Turkey at the Istanbul Technical University.

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Data Driven Design - Matthew Roe, New York City DOT

  1. 1. Data-Driven Design: State-of-the-Art Street Engineering Istanbul 26 August 2013
  2. 2. •  Urban Context & Challenge •  Pedestrian Safety Metrics •  Projects/Design •  Conclusions future research 2 Today’s Presentation 6,300 mi of streets & highways 781 bridges, 6 tunnels 12,000+ signalized intersections
  3. 3. •  Needs –  Measure city’s performance –  Prioritize projects/measure facility performance –  Evaluate projects/design changes 3 Measurement Challenges •  Challenges –  “NYC is different” –  Fairness to modes – severity, exposure –  Precision, timeliness –  Work In Real Life
  4. 4. •  Speed & Arterials •  Likelihood of KSI increases steeply with increased speed •  Late-night crashes twice as deadly for pedestrians •  2/3 of pedestrian fatalities are on arterial streets (<15% of network) •  Deadly combination: Speeding + midblock/ against signal crossing •  Left Turns & Other Conflicts –  Both one-way and two-way arterials –  3 times as many pedestrian KSI as right turns –  47% of pedestrians killed in crosswalks had right-of-way. 4 Pedestrian Safety Challenges Academic study of 5 years of pedestrian KSI cases (NYU/ RPI/SUNY-Buffalo)
  5. 5. •  National fatality rates are >3x higher than NYC rates •  NYC has low PMT & VMT per capita –  Safer per trip, but more risky per mile. •  Single-mode stats and PMT/VMT stats punish dense, safe urban areas 5 Exposure Matters for City Comparisons Traffic Fatalities per 100,000 Residents Yearly Average (2008-2010) Journey-to-Work Transit + Walking Mode Share (2008-2010) Pedestrian Non-Pedestrian Total NYC 1.8 1.4 3.3 68.3% Peer Cities 2.1 4.4 6.5 26.8% USA (less NYC) 1.4 10.2 11.5 8.2% Sources: NYCDOT, NHTSA FARS, Census ACS 2010 3-year estimates (excl. worked at home)
  6. 6. 6 •  Divide bicyclist KSI by indexed commuter bike volume •  Show improvement in safety per cyclist •  Not a comparison to other modes •  Risk indicator important when use of a particular mode is changing rapidly •  Similar method could be used for specific facilities/ sub-city areas if data is available Exposure Matters for Growing Modes
  7. 7. •  KSI per mile over 5-year period (all modes) –  KSI: Persons Killed or Severely Injured. (Fatalities + “A” Injuries) –  Vulnerable road users more represented than in total injuries –  More spatiotemporal consistency than fatalities, but similar crash characteristics –  Reflects crash severity without requiring a specific weighting system •  High Crash Corridors: top 1/3 of mileage in each borough •  Allows quick project prioritization –  Corridor safety issues should be addressed at the corridor level –  Fair to all modes –  KSI/mile represents problem/cost 7 Prioritizing Corridors
  8. 8. 8 Information for Planners and Designers •  KSI by mode •  High-Crash Corridor designation •  Injuries by severity by mode •  Map of corridor •  Interface allows project managers to access safety data quickly, determine priority level
  9. 9. •  High Crash Locations prioritized •  Involve communities & local leaders at depth commensurate with project •  In-house implementation •  Fast – 6 to 18 months from initiation to completion 9 Planning & Implementation
  10. 10. Monitoring & Before-After •  Injury crashes •  KSI •  Radar speeds •  Other data: –  Travel Times and/ or LOS –  Community feedback –  Economic development 10 Evaluation
  11. 11. •  Before: –  60’ –  Two lanes each direction •  After: –  One lane each direction –  Left turn bays –  Bike lanes or wide parking lanes (13’) –  Planted refuge islands 11 Project Type: 4-to-3-Lane Conversion Empire Boulevard, Brooklyn
  12. 12. •  Before: – 50’, two lanes •  After: – Flush center median – Left turn bays – Bike lanes or wide parking lanes 12 Project Type: 2-to-3-Lane Conversion E. 180th Street, Bronx
  13. 13. 13 Project Type: Protected Bike Path •  Before: –  Multi-lane one-way –  Marked bicycle lane •  After: –  Parking-protected on-street bike path –  Parking lane or pedestrian plaza –  Left turn bays w/ signal or “mixing zones” –  Shortened crossings 9th Avenue, Manhattan
  14. 14. •  Before: –  Mixed traffic –  Lefts vs. pedestrians •  After: –  Dedicated left turn signal from avenue –  Shortened crossings 14 Project Type: Left Turn Separation 7th Avenue & W. 23rd Street, Manhattan
  15. 15. •  Before: –  100’ wide –  Narrow/short islands –  Narrow LT lane –  3 lanes, narrow right lane •  After: –  Wider pedestrian islands –  2 standard lanes –  Wide parking lane –  Longer/wider LT lanes 15 Project Type: Center Median Widening 4th Avenue, Sunset Park, Brooklyn
  16. 16. •  Before: –  Narrow medians don’t extend into crosswalk •  After: –  Widened median tips extend into crosswalk as pedestrian islands 16 Project Type: Arterial Street Median Tips Queens Boulevard, Queens
  17. 17. •  Speed limit lowered to 20 mph (from 30) •  Small, self-contained area •  Announced with signs and gateway treatments •  Self-enforcing speed humps, parking lane stripes, standardized lane widths 17 Project Type: Neighborhood Slow Zones Claremont Slow Zone, Bronx
  18. 18. •  Measuring Safety –  Use risk per person as comprehensive performance measure –  Use exposure measures useful for fast-growing modes, locations –  KSI or weighted crashes are fair metrics for urban streets –  Need user-friendly data at corridor or intersection level –  Prioritize loosely (strict rankings don’t work in real life) •  Designing with Data –  Problems: Speed, left turns, crossing against signal & midblock –  Designs: removing extra lanes, organizing left turns, reducing time/distance between crossings –  Implement quickly, learn quickly 18 Conclusions
  19. 19. Questions Matthew Roe matthewjafferoe@gmail.com v
  20. 20. Decade NYC Pedestrian Fatalities Avg per Year Pedestrian Fatalities per 100,000 Residents per Year % Pedestrian 1910 – 1919 381 7.3 70% 1920 – 1929 735 11.7 70% 1930 – 1939 693 9.6 70% 1940 – 1949 567 7.4 84% 1950 – 1959 454 5.8 72% 1960 – 1969 434 5.5 60% 1970 – 1979 386 5.2 52% 1980 – 1989 331 4.6 55% 1990 – 1999 261 3.4 51% 2000 – 2009 167 2.0 51% 20 The Century
  21. 21. Year Fatalities All Modes Severe Injuries All Modes Pedestrian Fatalities Pedestrian Severe Injuries 2001 393 5,417 193 1,452 2002 386 5,820 186 1,417 2003 362 5,434 177 1,418 2004 297 4,823 155 1,311 2005 321 4,585 157 1,285 2006 324 4,834 168 1,353 2007 274 4,501 139 1,313 2008 291 4,380 151 1,308 2009 258 4,101 156 1,161 2010 271 4,040 152 1,155 2011 245 4,323* 139 1,160* 21 •  38% reduction in total traffic fatalities since 2001 •  28% reduction in pedestrian fatalities since 2001 •  >20% reduction in pedestrian and all severe injuries since 2001 •  Goal: 50% reduction in all fatalities from 2007 to 2030 The Decade * Preliminary
  22. 22. •  Population 8.25 m + •  302 mi2 (783 km2) •  NYC Department of Transportation: –  6,300 mi of streets & highways –  781 bridges, 6 tunnels –  12,000+ signalized intersections –  Staten Island Ferry –  Not subway/bus operations (MTA) 22 New York City & NYCDOT
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