Climate Change and Transport in India: Initiatives and experience


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By O.P Agarwal, Managing Director, Urban Mass Transit Company

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Climate Change and Transport in India: Initiatives and experience

  1. 1. Climate Change and Transport in India: Initiatives and experience O.P. Agarwal Managing Director, Urban Mass Transit Co. Vice President, Institute of Urban Transport (India) TRB 2009
  2. 2. National Action Plan on Climate Change <ul><li>A comprehensive plan, with 8 missions, directly under the Prime Minister’s Office </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Mission </li></ul><ul><li>Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Mission on Sustainable Habitat </li></ul><ul><li>Water Mission </li></ul><ul><li>Mission for Sustaining Himalayan Ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>Mission for Green India </li></ul><ul><li>Mission for Sustainable Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change </li></ul>
  3. 3. Mission on Sustainable Habitat <ul><li>Extending application of the “Energy Conservation Building Code” </li></ul><ul><li>Recycling of material and Urban Waste Management </li></ul><ul><li>Better urban planning and modal shift to public transport </li></ul>
  4. 4. National Urban Transport Policy - 2006 <ul><li>Integrated land use and transport planning </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on public transport and NMT </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinated planning through a Unified Metropolitan Transport Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Innovative Financing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use land as a resource </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater involvement of the private sector </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cleaner fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity building – demonstration projects </li></ul>
  5. 5. National Urban Renewal Mission <ul><li>Established a partnership for the national, provincial and local governments to finance the needed urban infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>National government commits $ 12 billion over a 7 year period </li></ul><ul><li>Linked to prescribed reforms </li></ul>
  6. 6. Thus: National Urban Transport Policy National Urban Renewal Mission Established a Framework for action Created an incentive for implementation
  7. 7. Unique features of the Indian situation <ul><li>Dominance of 2-wheelers – makes a shift to public transport much more difficult to achieve </li></ul><ul><li>Rising income creates an urge to own a personal vehicle </li></ul><ul><li>Poor social image of the bus and cycling </li></ul><ul><li>Climate and terrain can be constraints for NMT in some cities </li></ul>
  8. 8. Public Bus Transport in India Out of 85 cities with over 0.5 million people, only 20 have a structured bus service City population Number Number with formal bus services > 4 million 7 7 1 – 4 million 28 8 0.5 to 1.0 million 50 5 0.1 to 0.5 million 370 NIL
  9. 9. Public bus transport in India <ul><li>Largely dominated by state owned monopoly entities </li></ul><ul><li>Very poor quality buses – image of a poor man ’ s compulsion </li></ul><ul><li>Services lack customer focus </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Loss making despite prime land </li></ul><ul><li>In Delhi – sizable segment of net cost private operators – small owners providing highly unsafe services </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to attract corporate operators </li></ul>
  10. 10. Initiatives taken <ul><li>15 cities plan to introduce modern bus services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indore has been a catalyst </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BRT in 11 cities - others on the anvil </li></ul><ul><li>6 cities planning new metro rail systems </li></ul><ul><li>National pressure for Unified Metropolitan Transport Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive mobility plan is a must </li></ul><ul><li>Large capacity building program in the pipeline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Training, Education, Legal frameworks, Institutions, standards and manuals </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Modern bus services <ul><li>Attractive bus </li></ul><ul><li>Offering value added services </li></ul><ul><li>Financially sustainable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Innovative financing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prioritization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traffic light signaling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Road space </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Bus Rapid Transit <ul><li>Two cities have started services </li></ul><ul><li>Severe teething problems but now stabilizing </li></ul><ul><li>Good learning opportunity for others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need an influential champion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to avoid haste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of capacity – city engineers, consultants, people at large </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unique problems need unique solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor Public awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adverse impact on the influential section of society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complexity of the design process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value of reliable data </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Future Outlook <ul><li>Need one successful example to start operations </li></ul><ul><li>Need to avoid haste – there is still a lot to learn and imbibe </li></ul><ul><li>Better to have a delayed system than not have one at all </li></ul>
  14. 15. Metro rail systems <ul><li>3 coming up on government financing </li></ul><ul><li>Others looking at PPP options </li></ul><ul><li>Hyderabad has created doubts on the PPP option </li></ul>
  15. 16. What has been overlooked <ul><li>Simple low cost traffic improvement measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intersection improvements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Segregation of low speed and high speed vehicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One way streets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved traffic circulation systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improvement/modernization of existing bus systems </li></ul><ul><li>Improving facilities for pedestrians and cyclists </li></ul>
  16. 17. Main challenges <ul><li>Lack of capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate appreciation of holistic planning – tends to be fragmented </li></ul><ul><li>Fragmented governance </li></ul><ul><li>Preference for highly visible and high cost investments </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of a reliable database for credible planning </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate contextual research </li></ul>Thank You