1
Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and
urban development in Latin
America and India
June 18-19, 2014
Moderators:
Anjali Mahendra, E...
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 The LEDS Global Partnership does not endorse or
recommend specific products or services. Information
provided in this ...
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Two Options for Audio (select audio mode):
1.Listen through your computer.
 Please select the “mic and speakers” radio ...
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To ask a question:
Select the “questions” pane on your screen and
type in your question.
Having trouble with the webina...
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 Overview of the LEDS Global Partnership & Transport
Working Group
 Presentation:
Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban de...
6
LEDS GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP
Advancing Climate-Resilient Low Emission Development
Around the World
Mission
Harness the collec...
7
LEDS GP ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
REGIONAL
PLATFORMS
define priorities, lead
peer learning, and
support delivery
IMPROVED...
8
EXAMPLES OF LEDS GP SUPPORT
Peer learning and knowledge sharing
Global and regional workshops and trainings for more th...
9
LEDS GP – Transport Working Group
 Leaders:
 EMBARQ, the sustainable transport and urban
development program of the Wo...
10
ledsgp.org
Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban
development in Latin America and India
Ahmedabad
IndoreC. Guatemala
Bogotá...
11
ledsgp.org
Outline
I. Background
II. Literature review
III. Research questions and methodology
IV.BRT stop typologies i...
12
ledsgp.org
Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
Background: BRT
 High quality bus ...
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Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
Latin America
world leader on BRT…
...
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Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
BRT and Urban Development
 BRT sys...
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Source: Vergel (2011)
Curitiba
Brazil 1974
Quito
Ecuador 1996
Bogotá
Colombia 2000
Ahmedabad
India 2009
Sour...
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1972 1977 1986 1993 1997 2001 2005 2009 ...
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Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
3,000 6,000 12,000 25,000 45,000
Bu...
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Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
Transit Oriented Development TOD
At...
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Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
Benefits of TOD
 Make transit use ...
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Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
Motivation
 Generalized perception...
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Outline
I. Background
II. Literature review
III. Research questions and methodology
IV.BRT stop typologies i...
22
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Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
Literature Review: BRT & Prices
 Q...
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Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
Literature Review: BRT & Density
 ...
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Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
Literature Review: TOD typologies
...
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Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
Literature Review: TOD typologies
...
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Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
Literature Review:
Empirical typolo...
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Outline
I. Background
II. Literature review
III. Research questions and methodology
IV.BRT stop typologies i...
28
ledsgp.org
Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
Research Questions
 What is occurr...
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Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
Methodology: Latin America
 Collec...
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Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
Methodology: India
 Collect segmen...
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Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
Methodology: Data collection
Segmen...
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Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
Methodology: Audit
 Land uses, hei...
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Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
Methodology: BRT Stops
 Identify s...
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Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
Methodology: BRT Terminals
 Identi...
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0.00
0.25
0.50
0.75
1.00
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
BRT-oriented land uses BRT unsupportive land uses
0.00
0...
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BRT
Ahmedabad
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
BRT-oriented...
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Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
Methodology: Areas audited
177.30
1...
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Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
Methodology: Areas audited
63.20
43...
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Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
X1……...X38
O1
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.
.
.
.
.
.
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O82
D...
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BRT CORRIDOR BRT CORRIDOR
BRT CORRIDOR BRT CORRIDOR
Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin A...
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Outline
I. Background
II. Literature review
III. Research questions and methodology
IV.BRT stop typologies i...
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Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
Factor Analysis: Latin America
# Va...
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Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
Factor Analysis: Latin America
# Va...
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Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
BRT Typologies: Latin America
1 (n=...
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Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
BRT STOP
PLAZA GRANDE
Historic Cent...
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Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
BRT Typologies: Latin AmericaBRT ST...
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Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
Factor Analysis: India
# Variable
B...
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Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
BRT Typologies: India
1 (n=1) 2 (n=...
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BRT STOP
TYPE 15
India
BRT STOP
SHASTRINAGAR
AHMEDABAD
0.82
3.46
0.57
0.72
-0.91
0.73
Mean Values (factors a...
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BRT STOP
TYPE 8
India
BRTS STOP
ISKON MANDIR
AHMEDABAD
-0.94
-0.47
0.19
-1.35
2.78
1.50
Bus Rapid Transit (B...
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Outline
I. Background
II. Literature review
III. Research questions and methodology
IV.BRT stop typologies i...
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Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
BRT typology Latin America
Source: ...
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Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
BRT typology Latin America
Built en...
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Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
BRT typology India
Built environmen...
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Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
BRT typology India
Built environmen...
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Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
Comparison BRT typologies
TOD indic...
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-3-2-1
012
Standardizedvaluesof(entropy)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
-3-2-1
012
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10...
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Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
-1
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Standardizedvaluesof(vacant...
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Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
-2-1
012
Standardizedvaluesof(comme...
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Outline
I. Background
II. Literature review
III. Research questions and methodology
IV.BRT stop typologies i...
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Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
Discussion
 BRT typologies of urba...
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Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
Discussion
 Does the typology capt...
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Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
Discussion
 BRT types with high tr...
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Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
Discussion
 BRT typologies and TOD...
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Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
Discussion
 BRT stops and presence...
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Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
Acknowledgements
Professor Daniel R...
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TIME FOR Q&A
Questions ?
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 How did we do?
 Your feedback is important!
SURVEY
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Thank You!
Visit:
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Contact:
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Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India - By Erik Vergel-Tovar

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Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India - By Erik Vergel-Tovar

  1. 1. 1 Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India June 18-19, 2014 Moderators: Anjali Mahendra, EMBARQ India Angela Enriquez, World Resources Institute-EMBARQ Presenter: Erik Vergel-Tovar PhD Candidate Department of City and Regional Planning University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
  2. 2. 2  The LEDS Global Partnership does not endorse or recommend specific products or services. Information provided in this webinar is feature on the LEDS Global Partnership web site as one of many best practices resources reviewed and selected by technical experts. DISCLAIMER
  3. 3. 3 Two Options for Audio (select audio mode): 1.Listen through your computer.  Please select the “mic and speakers” radio button on the right hand audio pane display 2.Listen by telephone.  Please select the “telephone” option in the right-hand display, and a phone number and PIN will display 3.Panelists – Please mute your audio device when not presenting. 4.Technical Difficulties:  Contact the GoToWebinars Help Desk: 888.259.3826 SOME HOUSEKEEPING ITEMS
  4. 4. 4 To ask a question: Select the “questions” pane on your screen and type in your question. Having trouble with the webinar: A video/audio recording of this webinar and slide decks will be available at: http://ledsgp.org/Transportation_Toolkit/Training SOME HOUSEKEEPING ITEMS (CONTINUED)
  5. 5. 5  Overview of the LEDS Global Partnership & Transport Working Group  Presentation: Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India  Questions and Answers  Closing Remarks  Survey AGENDA
  6. 6. 6 LEDS GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP Advancing Climate-Resilient Low Emission Development Around the World Mission Harness the collective knowledge and resources of governments, donors and international organizations, and practitioners in scaling up and strengthening implementation of climate-resilient low emission development around the world. Objectives Strengthen support for LEDS Mobilize capacity and advance peer-to-peer learning and collaboration on LEDS Improve coordination of LEDS at the country, regional, and global levels. Launched in 2011, the LEDS GP now catalyzes action and collaboration across more than 120 countries and international organizations.
  7. 7. 7 LEDS GP ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE REGIONAL PLATFORMS define priorities, lead peer learning, and support delivery IMPROVED LEDS SECRETARIAT coordinates implementation STEERING COMMITTEE sets strategic direction GLOBAL WORK STREAMS Provide technical support and training LEDS Planning LEDS Analysis Models and Tools Finance Sectors Africa LEDS Partnership Asia LEDS Partnership Latin America and Caribbean Platform
  8. 8. 8 EXAMPLES OF LEDS GP SUPPORT Peer learning and knowledge sharing Global and regional workshops and trainings for more than 800 practitioners on LEDS planning, analysis, finance, and sectoral programs Technical collaboration Transportation and Development Impacts Assessment (DIA) toolkits and country assistance National LEDS Finance Strategies with Colombia, Peru, and Chile No cost expert assistance available on LEDS analysis, finance, and sector measures to all members  e.g. support to Mauritius on solar hot water program, Bhutan on transport options, Indonesia on budget allocation, Cambodia on green fund, and Cote D’Ivoire on bio-energy Understanding and analysis of LEDS benefits Application of DIA visual tool with Ghana, Kenya, and Montenegro Broader portfolio of shared LEDS communication resources under development Learn more at: www.LEDSGP.org
  9. 9. 9 LEDS GP – Transport Working Group  Leaders:  EMBARQ, the sustainable transport and urban development program of the World Resources Institute (WRI)  United States National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)  United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)  What do we do?  Knowledge management and diffusion  Peer-to-peer training and regional workshops
  10. 10. 10 ledsgp.org Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India Ahmedabad IndoreC. Guatemala Bogotá Quito Guayaquil Goiânia Sao Paulo Curitiba Erik Vergel-Tovar evergel@live.unc.edu PhD Candidate Department of City and Regional Planning University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
  11. 11. 11 ledsgp.org Outline I. Background II. Literature review III. Research questions and methodology IV.BRT stop typologies in Latin America and India V. Comparative approach of BRT typologies VI.Discussion and acknowledgements Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
  12. 12. 12 ledsgp.org Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India Background: BRT  High quality bus service as a mass transit option  Priority (lanes, intersections)  High capacity and level boarding  Off-board data collection  Latin America (63.3% worldwide ridership)  Asia (26.4% world ridership)  Latin America and Asia world leaders (89.7% world ridership) Source: http://www.brtdata.org/ Global BRT Data 2013
  13. 13. 13 ledsgp.org Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India Latin America world leader on BRT… 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s Source: www.brtdata.org (2014) 8,165,822 passengers per day 19,542,283 passengers per day 33% 53% 49 BRT 85 BRT 20 BRT 7 BRT7 BRTLatin America Asia Europe/North America/Africa/ Oceania Asia emerging leader on BRT
  14. 14. 14 ledsgp.org Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India BRT and Urban Development  BRT systems  Cost-effectiveness and relative flexibility  Can mobilize as many passengers as most conventional light rail systems  Cost-effectiveness of BRT hinges on the ability to have demand concentrated along system corridors  BRT & urban development  Experience of Curitiba (transport and land use)  Limited empirical evidence regarding the development impacts that BRT investments cause
  15. 15. 15 ledsgp.org Source: Vergel (2011) Curitiba Brazil 1974 Quito Ecuador 1996 Bogotá Colombia 2000 Ahmedabad India 2009 Source: Vergel (2011, 2013) Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
  16. 16. 16 ledsgp.org 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 5 3 3 4 5 3 7 6 13 12 8 14 13 17 10 12 8 0 5 10 15 20 1972 1977 1986 1993 1997 2001 2005 2009 2013 Source: Hidalgo, Gutierrez, BRT and BHLS around the world, 2012 Background: Cities with BRT 1972-2013 Bogotá Quito Goiânia Source: adapted from www.brtdata.org (2014) Indore Ahmedabad Sao Paulo ABD Curitiba Guayaquil Guatemala Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
  17. 17. 17 ledsgp.org Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India 3,000 6,000 12,000 25,000 45,000 Bus Bus Rapid Transit – BRT MetroLRT New view of transit capacity Passengers / hour direction Source: Bud Rapid transit: a review of recent advances (Lloyd Wright, 2012) © Vergel (2014)
  18. 18. 18 ledsgp.org Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India Transit Oriented Development TOD Attributes of transit-oriented development (TOD):  Compact and dense  High land use mixtures  High-quality pedestrian environment  Strong coordination between transit and the built environment Arlington, Virginia (USA) Curitiba, Brazil Sources: http://sites.arlingtonva.us/rosslynsector/about/planning-in-arlington/ IPPUC (2011)
  19. 19. 19 ledsgp.org Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India Benefits of TOD  Make transit use more viable (TCRP 2008)  Provision several transportation modes – efficient manner  Concentrates demand (economies of density)  Time and costs savings for residents  Accessibility benefits (local & regional scale)  Real estate/neighborhood-community development strategy  Efficient land use and development around transit stops  Generates revenue for the city  Property tax, value capture, ridership, etc.
  20. 20. 20 ledsgp.org Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India Motivation  Generalized perception that the “T” in TOD is rail, not BRT  Lack of locational rigidity & permanence  Noise & pollution  Allure of rails’ newness  All this, despite Curitiba’s exemplary approach
  21. 21. 21 ledsgp.org Outline I. Background II. Literature review III. Research questions and methodology IV.BRT stop typologies in Latin America and India V. Comparative approach of BRT typologies VI.Discussion and acknowledgements Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
  22. 22. 22 ledsgp.org Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India Literature Review: BRT & Prices  Quasi-experimental methods  Bogota: Between 0-15% residential premium (Perdomo et al; Rodriguez & Mojica)  Ecatepec: No change due to announcement  Observational (cross-sectional) methods  Seoul (Sung & Cho, 2011)  5-10% residential premium (within 300 m)  3% retail premium (within 300m)
  23. 23. 23 ledsgp.org Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India Literature Review: BRT & Density  BRT expansion increased densities in Bogota (Bocarejo et al, 2012)  Auto oriented uses, parking, long blocks barriers to Jinan BRT (Thomas & Deakin, 2008) Source : Bocarejo et al, 2012
  24. 24. 24 ledsgp.org Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India Literature Review: TOD typologies  Prospective, from visionaries/planners  Encourage strategic planning  Guide investment  Engage public  Retrospective, empirically-based  Descriptive  Basis for explicative research  Can be used prospectively
  25. 25. 25 ledsgp.org Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India Literature Review: TOD typologies  Urbanity  Urban and neighborhood TODs (Calthorpe, 1997)  Land use, intensity, design, public spaces  Regional, community, neighborhood by technology in FL  Geography and urbanity  Dominant view (Dittmar & Poticha, 2004)  In Sacramento, Denver, San Francisco  Core, employment centers, commuter enter, mixed use dense, urban neighborhood Source: Reconnectingamerica.org` Source: Calthorpe, 1997`
  26. 26. 26 ledsgp.org Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India Literature Review: Empirical typologies Source: Reconnectingamerica.org`  25 Hong Kong rail stops  5 types based on land use, intensity, area  27 Phoenix LRT stops  5 types based on land use, intensity, socio- demographics and housing Source: Cervero and Murakami, 2008
  27. 27. 27 ledsgp.org Outline I. Background II. Literature review III. Research questions and methodology IV.BRT stop typologies in Latin America and India V. Comparative approach of BRT typologies VI.Discussion and acknowledgements Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
  28. 28. 28 ledsgp.org Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India Research Questions  What is occurring around BRT stops in Latin America and India?  Examine the built environment around BRT stops  Develop a typology of environments  Help understand where BRT is happening and how  Guide decision makers towards possible future scenarios  What are the factors explaining land development changes and TOD features around BRT stops?
  29. 29. 29 ledsgp.org Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India Methodology: Latin America  Collect segment-block-stop-level data  Reduce data and use it to develop types  Inclusion criteria  > 5 yrs in operation  Medium to large city  Seven cities  16% of worlds’ BRT use  31% of Latin America BRT use Source: Rodriguez and Vergel (2012)
  30. 30. 30 ledsgp.org Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India Methodology: India  Collect segment-block-stop-level data  Reduce data and use it to develop types  Inclusion criteria  BRT under operation  Medium to large city  Indore 7.19 % India BRT use  Ahmedabad 16.85% India BRT use Source: Vergel (2013), Global BRT Data http://www.brtdata.org/#/country/Asia/India
  31. 31. 31 ledsgp.org Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India Methodology: Data collection Segment BRT Stop (buffer area) Block BRT Stop Jardim Botanico Curitiba (Brazil) BRT stops studied Curitiba (Brazil) Source: Rodriguez and Vergel (2012)
  32. 32. 32 ledsgp.org Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India Methodology: Audit  Land uses, heights, consolidation, density, quality of construction, parking  Public spaces, facilities, pedestrian supports  Pedestrian Environment Data Scan PEDS Tipo de Desarrollo Urbano: Portal _______ Intercambiador________ Parada _________ 0 - 250mts___________250 - 500mts___________ Previo____Durante Const BRT____Posterior BRT_____ 0. Tipo de Segmento 0. Tipo de Segmento 0. Tipo de Segmento 0. Tipo de Segmento 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 A. Entorno Medio Ambiente Construido A. Entorno Medio Ambiente Construido A. Entorno Medio Ambiente Construido A. Entorno Medio Ambiente Construido 1. Usos del Suelo (seleccionar todos los presentes) 1. Usos del Suelo (seleccionar todos los presentes) 1. Usos del Suelo (seleccionar todos los presentes) 1. Usos del Suelo (seleccionar todos los presentes) 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 2. Altura Edificios (numero de pisos) 2. Altura Edificios (numero de pisos) 2. Altura Edificios (numero de pisos) 2. Altura Edificios (numero de pisos) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2_3 2 2_3 2 2_3 2 2_3 2 4_5 3 4_5 3 4_5 3 4_5 3 Mas de 5 Mas de 5 Mas de 5 Mas de 5 No hay ninguno No hay ninguno No hay ninguno No hay ninguno 3. Densidad Urbana 3. Densidad Urbana 3. Densidad Urbana 3. Densidad Urbana Baja 1 Baja 1 Baja 1 Baja 1 Media 2 Media 2 Media 2 Media 2 Alta 3 Alta 3 Alta 3 Alta 3 4. Nivel Consolidacion 4. Nivel Consolidacion 4. Nivel Consolidacion 4. Nivel Consolidacion Bajo 1 Bajo 1 Bajo 1 Bajo 1 Medio 2 Medio 2 Medio 2 Medio 2 Alto 3 3 3 3 5. Estado Construcciones 5. Estado Construcciones 5. Estado Construcciones 5. Estado Construcciones Bajo 1 Bajo 1 Bajo 1 Bajo 1 Medio 2 Medio 2 Medio 2 Medio 2 Alto 3 3 3 3 B. Comentarios Adicionales B. Comentarios Adicionales B. Comentarios Adicionales B. Comentarios Adicionales Frente a Corredor BRT 1 Frente a Corredor BRT 1 Frente a Corredor BRT 1 Frente a Corredor BRT 1 Vehiculos Estacionados en la Calle 2 Vehiculos Estacionados en la Calle 2 Vehiculos Estacionados en la Calle 2 Vehiculos Estacionados en la Calle 2 Desarrollos en Altura 3 Desarrollos en Altura 3 Desarrollos en Altura 3 Desarrollos en Altura 3 Fuera Area de Influencia 4 Fuera Area de Influencia 4 Fuera Area de Influencia 4 Fuera Area de Influencia 4 1 5 1 5 2 6 2 6 3 7 3 7 4 8 4 8 Especificar Otros: Otro 9 Otro 9 Nombre Estacion:__________________ID#:________'_ Fecha:_________________Hora:_______________ Troncal: ________________________________ # Cuadrante:1 ______2______3______4______ BLOCK_ID_N:__________________________ Segmento 1 Segmento 2 Segmento 3 Segmento 4 Via de bajo volumen (2- Carriles) Via de bajo volumen (2- Carriles) Industrial Industrial Industrial Industrial Ciudad: __________________________ID#:________ Tipo de Estacion: Area de Influencia: Via de bajo volumen (2- Carriles) Via de bajo volumen (2- Carriles) Via de alto volumen (3+ Carriles) Via de alto volumen (3+ Carriles) Via de alto volumen (3+ Carriles) Via de alto volumen (3+ Carriles) Segmento Peatonal Segmento Peatonal Segmento Peatonal Segmento Peatonal Comercial/Residencial Comercial/Residencial Comercial/Residencial Comercial/Residencial Comercial NETO Comercial NETO Comercial NETO Comercial NETO Comercial MEDIO Comercial MEDIO Comercial MEDIO Comercial MEDIO Residencial Sencillo Residencial Sencillo Residencial Sencillo Residencial Sencillo Residencial Multifamiliar Residencial Multifamiliar Residencial Multifamiliar Residencial Multifamiliar Industrial/Comercial Industrial/Comercial Industrial/Comercial Industrial/Comercial Alto Alto Alto Parqueaderos Parqueaderos Parqueaderos Parqueaderos Vacante/No desarrollado Vacante/No desarrollado Vacante/No desarrollado Vacante/No desarrollado Institutional Institutional Institutional Institutional Parque/Zona Verde Parque/Zona Verde Parque/Zona Verde Parque/Zona Verde Alto Alto Alto Centro de Salud/Hospital Deportivo/Recreacion Plazoletas Cicloruta Espacio Publico Sistema BRT, Especificar Otros: C. Equipamientos: D. Espacio Publico: Gran Superficie (acceso automovil) Templo/Iglesia Zonas Verdes Alamedas Gran Superficie (acceso peaton) Biblioteca Parques Calles Peatonales Escuela/Centro Educativo Plaza de Mercado/Ferias Plazas Areas Puentes Peatonales Block level Segment-level Source: Rodriguez and Vergel (2012)
  33. 33. 33 ledsgp.org Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India Methodology: BRT Stops  Identify stops with different conditions  Confirmed/reconsidered with local planners 5 7 9 6 9 7 8 12 21 4.4% 13.2% 8.0% 31.6% 50.0% 8.9% 16.0% 57.1% 19.3% Bogotá Sao Paulo (Corredor ABD) Curitiba Goiânia Ciudad de Guatemala Quito Guayaquil Indore Ahmedabad 33 India 51 Latin America Source: Rodriguez and Vergel (2012), Vergel (2013)
  34. 34. 34 ledsgp.org Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India Methodology: BRT Terminals  Identify stops with different conditions  Confirmed/reconsidered with local planners 5 5 7 5 1 5 3 0 0 71.4% 62.5% 23.3% 100.0% 33.3% 45.5% 100.0% Bogotá Sao Paulo (Corredor ABD) Curitiba Goiânia Ciudad de Guatemala Quito Guayaquil Indore Ahmedabad 31 Latin America Source: Rodriguez and Vergel (2012), Vergel (2013)
  35. 35. 35 ledsgp.org 0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 BRT-oriented land uses BRT unsupportive land uses 0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 % seg 2-lanes % seg 3-lanes % seg-peds BRT corridor Indore Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India Source: Vergel (2013) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Segment types Density of land uses per BRT stop (sum of segments by land use / gross area) • BRT-oriented land uses: commercial, residential, and institutional • BRT-unsupportive land uses: industrial, industrial & commercial, and vacant
  36. 36. 36 ledsgp.org BRT Ahmedabad 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 BRT-oriented land uses BRT unsupportive land uses 0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 % seg 2-lanes % seg 3-lanes % seg-peds Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India Source: Vergel (2013) Segment types • BRT-oriented land uses: commercial, residential, and institutional • BRT-unsupportive land uses: industrial, industrial & commercial, and vacant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Density of land uses per BRT stop (sum of segments by land use / gross area)
  37. 37. 37 ledsgp.org Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India Methodology: Areas audited 177.30 101.92 100.50 118.64 131.60 118.75 151.09 92.83 172.86 0 50 100 150 200 Bogota Sao Paulo Curitiba Goiânia Guatemala Quito Guayaquil Indore Ahmedabad 49.60 30.92 28.44 35.27 39.00 31.42 44.18 26.33 33.81 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Bogota Sao Paulo Curitiba Goiânia Guatemala Quito Guayaquil Indore Ahmedabad City No. BRT Stops & Terminals Segments Bogota 10 1,773 Sao Paulo 12 1,223 Curitiba 16 1,608 Goiânia 11 1,305 Guatemala 10 1,316 Quito 12 1,425 Guayaquil 11 1,662 Indore 12 1,114 Ahmedabad 21 3,630 Total 115 15,056 City No. BRT Stops & Terminals Blocks Bogota 10 496 Sao Paulo 12 371 Curitiba 16 455 Goiânia 11 388 Guatemala 10 390 Quito 12 377 Guayaquil 11 486 Indore 12 316 Ahmedabad 21 710 Total 115 3,989 Segments/BRT stop (Average 129.5) Blocks/BRT stop (Average 35.44)
  38. 38. 38 ledsgp.org Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India Methodology: Areas audited 63.20 43.14 48.78 64.33 89.88 66.43 102.13 92.83 172.86 0 50 100 150 200 Bogota Sao Paulo (ABD) Curitiba Goiânia Ciudad de Guatemala Quito Guayaquil Indore Ahmedabad 19.20 14.43 16.00 20.50 27.88 19.00 30.00 26.33 33.81 0 10 20 30 40 50 Bogota Sao Paulo (ABD) Curitiba Goiânia Ciudad de Guatemala Quito Guayaquil Indore Ahmedabad City # Simple stops Segments Bogota 5 316 Sao Paulo (ABD) 7 302 Curitiba 9 439 Goiânia 6 386 Ciudad de Guatemala 8 719 Quito 7 465 Guayaquil 8 817 Indore 12 1,114 Ahmedabad 21 3,630 Total 83 8,188 City # Simple stops Blocks Bogota 5 96 Sao Paulo (ABD) 7 101 Curitiba 9 144 Goiânia 6 123 Ciudad de Guatemala 8 223 Quito 7 133 Guayaquil 8 240 Indore 12 316 Ahmedabad 21 710 Total 83 2,086 Segments/BRT stop (Average 82.62) Blocks/BRT stop (Average 23.02)
  39. 39. 39 ledsgp.org Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India X1……...X38 O1 . . . . . . . . O82 Data matrix X1……...X38 O1 . . . . . . . . O82 Data matrix F1...Fk Built Environment FACTORS Built Environment raw variables aggregated at BRT stop level • Land Use • Building Heights • Density • Development • Building heights • Public Space • Housing • Parking • Sidewalks Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 Factor 4 Factor 5 Factor 6 Factor 7 Factor 8 Factor 9 India Latin America Methodology: Factor Analysis Source: Rodriguez, Vergel (2012)
  40. 40. 40 ledsgp.org BRT CORRIDOR BRT CORRIDOR BRT CORRIDOR BRT CORRIDOR Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India Methodology: Cluster Analysis BRT STOP Type 1 BRT STOP Type 2 BRT STOP Type 3 BRT STOP Type 4 BRT STOP TYPOLOGY CONCEPT Source: Rodriguez, Vergel (2012)
  41. 41. 41 ledsgp.org Outline I. Background II. Literature review III. Research questions and methodology IV.BRT stop typologies in Latin America and India V. Comparative approach of BRT typologies VI.Discussion and acknowledgements Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
  42. 42. 42 ledsgp.org Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India Factor Analysis: Latin America # Variable Pedestrian friendly, connected green and public spaces (Factor 1) Non-core single family attached (Factor 2) High density residential multifamily (Factor 3) Undeveloped land (Factor 4) High condition mixed use areas (Factor 5) High condition green spaces (Factor 6) BRT-O public facilities (Factor 7) Commercial large-scale development (Factor 8) Consolidated non-industrial fabric (Factor 9) 1 Facility index 0.66 2 Facility density 0.48 -0.42 3 BRT-oriented facility index 0.74 4 BRT-oriented facility density 0.54 5 Green areas’ density 0.97 6 Park density 0.93 7 NMT friendliness 0.94 8 Land use index 0.59 9 Commercial 0.45 10 Industrial -0.56 11 Residential single family (attached) 0.85 12 Residential multifamily 0.82 13 Mixed: Industrial- commercial -0.60 14 Vacant 0.94 15 Institutional* 16 Green 0.67 0.42 Eigenvalue 6.64 4.94 4.16 3.06 2.24 1.89 1.60 1.16 1.02 Cronbach’s Alpha 0.88 0.83 0.85 0.85 0.67 0.70 0.69 0.64 0.61 Note: factor loadings <0.40 are left blank. *Variables with all factor loadings <|0.40| Results continue on next slide Source: Rodriguez, Vergel (2012)
  43. 43. 43 ledsgp.org Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India Factor Analysis: Latin America # Variable Pedestrian friendly, connected green and public spaces (Factor 1) Non-core single family attached (Factor 2) High density residential multifamily (Factor 3) Undeveloped land (Factor 4) High condition mixed use areas (Factor 5) High condition green spaces (Factor 6) BRT-O public facilities (Factor 7) Commercial large-scale development (Factor 8) Consolidated non- industrial fabric (Factor 9) 17 BRT-oriented land uses 0.84 18 BRT unsupportive land uses* 19 High density 0.55 20 Low height 0.66 21 Medium height 0.46 22 High height 0.92 23 No Height 0.85 24 Low consolidation 0.68 25 High consolidation 0.44 0.42 26 Low condition 0.42 -0.60 27 Medium condition -0.82 28 High condition 0.55 0.52 29 High rise development 0.88 30 Commercial and parking 0.76 31 Vacant and BRT 0.70 32 Segment on BRT -0.69 33 On street parking -0.65 34 Vacant on trinary 35 Entropy 0.42 0.71 36 Distance to CBD 0.57 37 Segment density 0.67 Eigenvalue 6.64 4.94 4.16 3.06 2.24 1.89 1.60 1.16 1.02 Cronbach’s Alpha 0.88 0.83 0.85 0.85 0.67 0.70 0.69 0.64 0.61 Note: factor loadings <0.40 are left blank. *Variables with all factor loadings <|0.40| Source: Rodriguez, Vergel (2012)
  44. 44. 44 ledsgp.org Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India BRT Typologies: Latin America 1 (n=17) 2 (n=1) 3 (n=7) 4 (n=12) 5 (n=2) 6 (n=11) 7 (n=5) 8 (n=16) 9 (n=5) 10 (n=5) Mean Factor1 -0.29 Factor2 -0.46 Factor4 -0.58 Factor5 0.70 Institutional 0.71 BRTO land use -0.81 Pop density -0.15 Mean Factor1 1.87 Factor2 -2.41 Factor4 -0.82 Factor5 0.01 Institutional 4.63 BRTO land use -1.20 Pop density -0.31 Mean Factor1 0.23 Factor2 -0.25 Factor4 0.06 Factor5 -0.46 Institutional -0.46 BRTO land use -0.62 Pop density 0.73 Mean Factor1 0.15 Factor2 0.17 Factor4 0.06 Factor5 0.24 Institutional -0.58 BRTO land use -0.33 Pop density 0.33 Mean Factor1 4.57 Factor2 0.52 Factor4 -0.16 Factor5 0.33 Institutional -0.26 BRTO land use -0.48 Pop density 2.53 Mean Factor1 -0.39 Factor2 -0.55 Factor4 -0.39 Factor5 -0.50 Institutional -0.72 BRTO land use -0.07 Pop density -0.76 Mean Factor1 -0.62 Factor2 -1.05 Factor4 -0.77 Factor5 -0.52 Institutional -0.52 BRTO land use 0.50 Pop density -0.84 Mean Factor1 -0.08 Factor2 0.84 Factor4 0.46 Factor5 0.54 Institutional 0.17 BRTO land use 1.29 Pop density -0.16 Mean Factor1 0.10 Factor2 1.63 Factor4 -0.40 Factor5 -1.35 Institutional -0.25 BRTO land use 0.13 Pop density 1.00 Mean Factor1 -0.15 Factor2 -0.51 Factor4 2.65 Factor5 -0.75 Institutional 0.81 BRTO land use 0.48 Pop density -0.26
  45. 45. 45 ledsgp.org Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India BRT STOP PLAZA GRANDE Historic Center QUITO BRT STOP TYPE 2 Latin America 0.86 -1.26 4.63 -0.31 -0.82 -2.41 1.87 Institutional land use Non-core single family attached Pedestrian friendly and public spaces Undeveloped land Population density Centrality Segment density Mean Values (factors and standardized variables)
  46. 46. 46 ledsgp.org Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India BRT Typologies: Latin AmericaBRT STOP TYPE 5 Latin America 3.24 0.21 -0.26 2.53 -0.16 0.52 4.57 Pedestrian friendly and public spaces Non-core single family attached Mean Values (factors and standardized variables) Undeveloped land Population density Institutional land use Centrality Segment density BRT TERMINAL CALLE 80 BOGOTÁ
  47. 47. 47 ledsgp.org Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India Factor Analysis: India # Variable BRT-OD Facility- high dense built- up & rickshaws (Factor 1) Slums NMT friendly & low height (Factor 2) BRT-OD land uses consolidated and connected (Factor 3) Green spaces and parks (Factor 4) High-rise good condition & vacant BRT (Factor 5) Noncore mixed areas facing BRT (Factor 6) 1 Public facility index 0.90 2 Public facility density 0.86 3 BRT-oriented facility index 0.80 4 BRT-oriented facility density 0.78 5 Green areas’ density 0.94 6 Park density 0.95 7 NMT friendliness 0.80 8 Rickshaw/street vendors density 0.55 9 Land use index* 10 Average block size -0.48 11 Segment on BRT 0.49 12 BRT-oriented land uses 0.86 13 BRT unsupportive land uses -0.82 14 Low building height 0.87 15 High-rise 0.77 16 High urban density 0.60 17 High development level -0.58 0.46 18 High condition & maintenance -0.47 0.47 19 Slums 0.88 20 Commercial and parking -0.69 21 Vacant and BRT 0.54 22 Entropy 0.69 23 Distance to CBD 0.62 24 Segment density 0.72 0.46 Eigenvalue 5.09 4.76 2.97 1.92 1.47 1.15 Cronbach’s Alpha 0.87 0.84 0.77 0.96 0.56 0.60 Note: Factors loading <|0.40| are left blank. *Land use index is the only variable did not load in any factor
  48. 48. 48 ledsgp.org Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India BRT Typologies: India 1 (n=1) 2 (n=1) 3 (n=3) 4 (n=3) 5 (n=1) 6 (n=2) 7 (n=7) 8 (n=2) 9 (n=2) 10 (n=3) 11 (n=2) 12 (n=2) 13 (n=2) 14 (n=1) 15 (n=1) BRT-OD LU -2.01 Green spaces and parks -0.69 Entropy -0.08 Segment density -0.95 Average block size 1.17 Sidewalks -0.45 BRT-OD LU -1.67 Green spaces and parks 0.10 Entropy 0.23 Segment density -0.34 Average block size -0.74 Sidewalks -0.81 BRT-OD LU 0.06 Green spaces and parks 1.14 Entropy -0.61 Segment density -0.62 Average block size -0.10 Sidewalks 0.19 BRT-OD LU 1.47 Green spaces and parks -1.04 Entropy 0.56 Segment density 0.37 Average block size 0.01 Sidewalks 0.97 BRT-OD LU 1.38 Green spaces and parks 0.13 Entropy 0.45 Segment density 0.59 Average block size 0.81 Sidewalks 0.53 BRT-OD LU -1.79 Green spaces and parks -0.09 Entropy 0.76 Segment density -0.89 Average block size 0.37 Sidewalks -0.71 BRT-OD LU -0.13 Green spaces and parks 0.43 Entropy -0.07 Segment density -0.30 Average block size -0.41 Sidewalks 0.34 BRT-OD LU -0.94 Green spaces and parks -0.47 Entropy 0.19 Segment density -1.35 Average block size 2.78 Sidewalks 1.50 BRT-OD LU 0.76 Green spaces and parks -0.21 Entropy 1.09 Segment density -0.51 Average block size -0.07 Sidewalks 0.26 BRT-OD LU -0.34 Green spaces and parks -1.01 Entropy -1.20 Segment density 0.44 Average block size 0.76 Sidewalks -1.04 BRT-OD LU 0.08 Green spaces and parks -0.58 Entropy 1.24 Segment density 1.51 Average block size -1.03 Sidewalks -0.80 BRT-OD LU 0.23 Green spaces and parks 0.39 Entropy -0.16 Segment density 2.27 Average block size -1.11 Sidewalks -0.86 BRT-OD LU 0.64 Green spaces and parks -0.07 Entropy -0.82 Segment density -0.64 Average block size -0.12 Sidewalks -0.02 BRT-OD LU 0.89 Green spaces and parks -1.22 Entropy -1.53 Segment density 0.73 Average block size -1.16 Sidewalks -1.45 BRT-OD LU 0.82 Green spaces and parks 3.46 Entropy 0.57 Segment density 0.72 Average block size -0.91 Sidewalks 0.73
  49. 49. 49 ledsgp.org BRT STOP TYPE 15 India BRT STOP SHASTRINAGAR AHMEDABAD 0.82 3.46 0.57 0.72 -0.91 0.73 Mean Values (factors and standardized variables) Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India BRT-OD LU consolidated and connected Green spaces and parks Entropy Segment density Average block size Sidewalks
  50. 50. 50 ledsgp.org BRT STOP TYPE 8 India BRTS STOP ISKON MANDIR AHMEDABAD -0.94 -0.47 0.19 -1.35 2.78 1.50 Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India Mean Values (factors and standardized variables) BRT-OD LU consolidated and connected Green spaces and parks Entropy Segment density Average block size Sidewalks
  51. 51. 51 ledsgp.org Outline I. Background II. Literature review III. Research questions and methodology IV.BRT stop typologies in Latin America and India V. Comparative approach of BRT typologies VI.Discussion and acknowledgements Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
  52. 52. 52 ledsgp.org Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India BRT typology Latin America Source: Rodriguez, Vergel (2013) Built environment factors per BRT typology (mean values per cluster) -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 1 (n=17) 2 (n=1) 3 (n=7) 4 (n=12) 5 (n=2) 6 (n=11) 7 (n=5) 8 (n=16) 9 (n=5) 10 (n=5) Pedestrian Friendly, Connected Green Areas and Public Spaces High density residential multifamily High condition mixed use area BRT OD facilities Institutional Land Use Population Density
  53. 53. 53 ledsgp.org Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India BRT typology Latin America Built environment factors per BRT typology (mean values per cluster) Source: Rodriguez, Vergel (2013) -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 1 (n=17) 2 (n=1) 3 (n=7) 4 (n=12) 5 (n=2) 6 (n=11) 7 (n=5) 8 (n=16) 9 (n=5) 10 (n=5) Non-core Single Family attached Undeveloped Land Consolidated Non-industrial fabric BRT unsupportive land uses
  54. 54. 54 ledsgp.org Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India BRT typology India Built environment factors per BRT typology (mean values per cluster) Source: Vergel (2013) -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 1 (n=1) 2 (n=1) 3 (n=3) 4 (n=3) 5 (n=1) 6 (n=2) 7 (n=7) 8 (n=2) 9 (n=2) 10 (n=3) 11 (n=2) 12 (n=2) 13 (n=2) 14 (n=1) 15 (n=1) BRT-OD Facility-high dense built-up & rickshaws BRT-OD land uses consolidated and connected Green spaces and parks
  55. 55. 55 ledsgp.org Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India BRT typology India Built environment factors per BRT typology (mean values per cluster) Source: Vergel (2013) -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 1 (n=1) 2 (n=1) 3 (n=3) 4 (n=3) 5 (n=1) 6 (n=2) 7 (n=7) 8 (n=2) 9 (n=2) 10 (n=3) 11 (n=2) 12 (n=2) 13 (n=2) 14 (n=1) 15 (n=1) Slums NMT friendly & connectivity High-rise good condition & vacant BRT Noncore mixed facing BRT Land use index
  56. 56. 56 ledsgp.org Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India Comparison BRT typologies TOD indicators: nonmotorized transport NMT -1 0123 Standardizedvaluesof(nmt_friendliness) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 02468 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Density of parks, plazas, pocket parks, boulevards, pedestrian alleys, pedestrian bridges, bicycleways Standardized values for comparison purposes *non-standardized value Standardized values for comparison purposes *non-standardized value Latin America (mean value 57.06*, n=82) India (mean value 155.5*, n=33)
  57. 57. 57 ledsgp.org -3-2-1 012 Standardizedvaluesof(entropy) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 -3-2-1 012 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India Comparison BRT typologies TOD indicators: Entropy evenness in the distribution of commercial, residential and institutional land uses Standardized values for comparison purposes *non-standardized value Standardized values for comparison purposes *non-standardized value Latin America (mean value 0.56*, n=82) India (mean value 0.61*, n=33) (n=1) (n=1) (n=3) (n=3) (n=1) (n=2) (n=7) (n=2) (n=2) (n=3) (n=2) (n=2) (n=2) (n=1) (n=1) -0.08 0.23 -0.61 0.56 0.45 0.76 -0.07 0.19 1.09 -1.20 1.24 -0.16 -0.82 -1.53 0.57 (n=17) (n=1) (n=7) (n=12) (n=2) (n=11) (n=5) (n=16) (n=5) (n=5) 0.78 -0.44 0.26 -0.23 0.37 -0.88 -1.23 0.40 -0.47 -0.05Mean Mean
  58. 58. 58 ledsgp.org Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India -1 0123 Standardizedvaluesof(vacant) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 -1 0123 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Comparison BRT typologies TOD indicators: Vacant land Standardized values for comparison purposes Standardized values for comparison purposes *non-standardized value Latin America (mean value 0.113*, n=82) India (mean value 0.196*, n=33) Segments with vacant land within the buffer area
  59. 59. 59 ledsgp.org Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India -2-1 012 Standardizedvaluesof(commercial_parking) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 -2-1 012 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Comparison BRT typologies TOD indicators: Commercial and parking India (mean value 0.16*, n=33) Standardized values for comparison purposes *non-standardized value Standardized values for comparison purposes *non-standardized value Segments with commercial land uses and parking (on-street and off-street) Latin America (mean value 0.30*, n=82)
  60. 60. 60 ledsgp.org Outline I. Background II. Literature review III. Research questions and methodology IV.BRT stop typologies in Latin America and India V. BRT and land development: Bogotá/Quito – Ahmedabad/Indore VI.Discussion and acknowledgements Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
  61. 61. 61 ledsgp.org Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India Discussion  BRT typologies of urban development in Latin America and India:  Several cities in Latin America do not have alleys so that usually blocks (squares - rectangles) have four segments  Most cities in India have alleys generating different block compositions and segments  Identification of BRT typologies separately for comparison purposes between two regions at different stages implementing BRT
  62. 62. 62 ledsgp.org Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India Discussion  Does the typology capture city specific factors?  Latin America (10 clusters)  BRT type 2 Quito (n=1, Historic center)  BRT type 7 Ciudad de Guatemala (n=5)  BRT type 3 mostly Brazil (n=6 out of 7)  India (15 clusters)  BRT types 1, 5, 6, 14 and 15 Ahmedabad (n=1)  BRT type 2 Indore (n=1)
  63. 63. 63 ledsgp.org Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India Discussion  BRT types with high transit orientation TOD  Latin America:  BRT type 5 (n=2): Bogota (Portal 80), Guayaquil (Mercado Caraguay)  BRT type 3 (n=7): Curitiba(4), Sao Paulo (2), Goiânia(1), Guayaquil (1)  India:  BRT type 9 (n=2): Ahmedabad (Anjali; Kankariya Lake)  BRT type 15 (n=1): Ahmedabad (Shastrinagar)
  64. 64. 64 ledsgp.org Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India Discussion  BRT typologies and TOD indicators:  NMT:  Latin America (multifamily residential and public spaces)  India (presence of slums)  Entropy: uses are highly mixed but with variations across typologies  Latin America (0.56 entropy)  India (0.61 entropy)  Vacant land: urban expansion areas  Commercial and parking: consolidated areas and big box developments Compare with 0.25-0.26 for Atlanta; San Francisco Bay Area; Winston-Salem; Chicago
  65. 65. 65 ledsgp.org Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India Discussion  BRT stops and presence of affordable housing and informal settlements (slums):  Differences:  Latin America: non-core housing far from activity nodes  India: core and non-core housing with high levels of pedestrian segments  Similarity:  Housing built or land occupation before the introduction of the BRT
  66. 66. 66 ledsgp.org Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India Acknowledgements Professor Daniel Rodriguez Dr. Anjali Mahendra Local governments Transportation agencies Participants Friends and colleagues
  67. 67. 67 ledsgp.org TIME FOR Q&A Questions ?
  68. 68. 68 ledsgp.org  How did we do?  Your feedback is important! SURVEY
  69. 69. 69 ledsgp.org Thank You! Visit: ledsgp.org/transport Contact: transport@ledsgp.org An audio recording of this webinar will be available at: http://ledsgp.org/sector/transport YOUR PARTICIPATION IS APPRECIATED

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