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BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
BRT in China: A brief review
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BRT in China: A brief review

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By Xiaomei Duan, Chief Engineer, Guangzhou Municipal Technology Development Corp and (Guangzhou, China) and Karl Fjellstrom, Deputy Director, Institute for Transportation and Development Policy …

By Xiaomei Duan, Chief Engineer, Guangzhou Municipal Technology Development Corp and (Guangzhou, China) and Karl Fjellstrom, Deputy Director, Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (Washington, D.C., USA)

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  • 1. BRT in China: A brief review Duan Xiaomei, Chief Engineer, GMTDC Guangzhou Municipal Engineering Design & Research Institute Project-In-Charge, Guangzhou BRT Project Karl Fjellstrom, Deputy Director, ITDP World Bank, Washington 14 January 2009
  • 2. In operation research or in construction
  • 3. BRT in China Kunming Chongqing Xiamen Beijing Hangzhou Jinan Changzhou Guangzhou Dalian Conclusion
  • 4. Kunming: • Opened 1999 • 5 corridors, 47km bus lanes • 63 stations • Peak capacity 8,600 pphpd
  • 5. System Aspect classification See www.chinaBRT.org for latest figures
  • 6. Kunming median bus lanes
  • 7. Kunming. Many problems are concentrated at the intersection. But many intersections have been convert from 4 phase to 2 phase.
  • 8. Daily experience in Kunming’s busway corridors
  • 9. Kunming: unsafe access to a mid-block bus station
  • 10. BRT in China Kunming Chongqing Xiamen Beijing Hangzhou Jinan Changzhou Guangzhou Dalian Conclusion
  • 11. Beijing: • Opened 2004 • 3 corridors, 37km bus lanes(55Km) • 61 stations • Peak capacity 8,000 pphpd
  • 12. See www.chinaBRT.org for latest figures
  • 13. A typical open-air corridor 1 station
  • 14. Passengers wait for a non-BRT bus at a Beijing BRT station (this situation has since been greatly improved, and rarely do non-BRT buses now operate in the BRT corridor)
  • 15. Runway degradation in corridor 1
  • 16. Better stations in outer part of corridor 2; overtaking mixed traffic; right-side doors
  • 17. Station in inner part of corridor 2, without shelter
  • 18. Offset station in corridor 2
  • 19. In all corridors the large majority of bus demand is outside the BRT, making an overall time saving benefit for bus passengers unlikely. Corr. 2&3 demand ~2,000 pphpd in BRT
  • 20. BRT in China Kunming Chongqing Xiamen Beijing Hangzhou Jinan Changzhou Guangzhou Dalian Conclusion
  • 21. Hangzhou: • Opened 2006 • 2 corridors, 7km bus lanes(27.2Km) • 25 stations • Peak capacity 1,500 pphpd 7km dedicated bus lanes; 27.2km corridor, 2nd corridor recently opened
  • 22. See www.chinaBRT.org for latest figures
  • 23. Hangzhou station, with buses entering mixed traffic at the intersection
  • 24. High quality station environment
  • 25. More than 75% of public transport demand is outside BRT lane. Mixed traffic in the BRT lane in peak hours
  • 26. Severe bus and mixed traffic congestion
  • 27. Hangzhou's BRT is now open to 12m 'feeder' buses serving 4 routes in addition to the two trunk line 18m BRT bus routes. Flexible routing has been introduced to boost demand
  • 28. Runway degradation
  • 29. Where high volumes of bikes are forced onto the walkway, many instead use the BRT lane
  • 30. Corridor 2: now operational; curbside bus bay-style stops and very poor results for buses, bicycles and pedestrians
  • 31. Corridor 2: now operational; curbside stops and very poor results
  • 32. BRT in China Kunming Chongqing Xiamen Beijing Hangzhou Jinan Changzhou Guangzhou Dalian Conclusion
  • 33. Changzhou: • Opened 2008 • 26 stations • 1 corridor, 21km bus lanes(25Km) • Peak capacity 4,500 pphpd
  • 34. See www.chinaBRT.org for latest figures
  • 35. Most stations are offset across intersections. Some are facing
  • 36. Even with current low demand, some stations are already experiencing overcrowding
  • 37. In city centre, critical 500m section of BRT corridor is open to mixed traffic and is congested during peak periods
  • 38. Significant time savings are possible in the city centre, though BRT peak hour city centre speeds are low
  • 39. Stations located at the intersection already sometimes result in queues blocking the intersection and the pedestrian crossing, even with current relatively low bus volumes
  • 40. None of the BRT systems so far have incorporated bike parking into any of the BRT designs, despite very high bicycle volumes in Beijing, Changzhou, Kunming and Hangzhou
  • 41. Changzhou's BRT stations are too narrow
  • 42. Narrow stations mean that just a few people reading the information board is enough to block passage
  • 43. BRT in China Kunming Chongqing Xiamen Beijing Hangzhou Jinan Changzhou Guangzhou Dalian Conclusion
  • 44. Dalian: • Opened 2008 • 1 corridor, 9km bus lanes (13.7km) • 14 stations • Peak capacity 6,500 pphpd
  • 45. See www.chinaBRT.org for latest figures
  • 46. Median aligned busway; minimal cover at stations; low demand along the corridor
  • 47. 3 door 12m BRT buses
  • 48. 4 door 18m BRT buses
  • 49. Flexible routing
  • 50. Route 405 is a feeder (non-BRT) buses, a large fleet, frequency roughly the same as the two BRT routes (12m blue and 18m red) combined
  • 51. Regular buses in the BRT corridor outnumber BRT buses by roughly 3:1
  • 52. Morning peak into the city: bus demand outside far exceeds inside the corridor
  • 53. BRT in China Kunming Chongqing Xiamen Beijing Hangzhou Jinan Changzhou Guangzhou Dalian Conclusion
  • 54. Dalian: • Opened 2008 • 1 corridor, 6km bus lanes(11.5km) • 9 stations • Peak capacity 200 pphpd
  • 55. See www.chinaBRT.org for latest figures
  • 56. BRT bus exiting the central bus lanes
  • 57. Access at the Jiu Keng Zi terminal station at Daping
  • 58. Passengers alight at the BRT terminal
  • 59. As well as the step to enter the bus, passengers have one additional step in bus doorway
  • 60. Best thing you can say about Chongqing BRT is that for 1 RMB can get shoe polished outside the downtown terminal station
  • 61. Produce from an adjacent field adorns a damaged BRT station sign on a pedestrian bridge
  • 62. The corridor is only a 21 minute trip, but the Chongqing BRT bus has been designed like an intercity coach, with 39 large padded seats and little standing room
  • 63. BRT in China Kunming Chongqing Xiamen Beijing Hangzhou Jinan Changzhou Guangzhou Dalian Conclusion
  • 64. Xiamen: • Opened 2008 • 2 corridors, 38km bus lanes • 30 stations • Peak capacity 3,600 pphpd
  • 65. See www.chinaBRT.org for latest figures
  • 66. BRT feeder route map
  • 67. Most demand below the elevated busway; shortage of access ramps
  • 68. Severe overcrowding, even during off peak, has led to consideration of using 18m buses
  • 69. Queuing for exit fare validation scanning (for distance-based fare application) delays station exit at busy stations by several minutes
  • 70. Narrow station access combined with the exit fare verification and few turnstiles further limits system capacity
  • 71. Queuing at the Railway Station BRT station
  • 72. Bicycles are banned along Xiahe Lu, Xiamen's main BRT corridor
  • 73. Lots of stairs
  • 74. On street parking
  • 75. BRT in China Kunming Chongqing Xiamen Beijing Hangzhou Jinan Changzhou Guangzhou Dalian Conclusion
  • 76. Jinan: • Opened 2008 • 2 corridors, 10km bus lanes (14.2) • 22 stations • Peak capacity 4500 pphpd
  • 77. BRT under a massive elevated road: dead at birth?
  • 78. Wide stations and ample turnstiles, but extremely low passenger demand
  • 79. Oppressive environment, but generally good pedestrian and bicycle facilities and access, elevated road minimizes development potential
  • 80. Spacious, well-protected stations
  • 81. Flexible 18m buses; 3 doors in both sides
  • 82. Doors in both sides
  • 83. BRT in China Kunming Chongqing Xiamen Beijing Hangzhou Jinan Changzhou Guangzhou Dalian Conclusion
  • 84. Steps in the Guangzhou BRT planning process • 2003-2004 preliminary BRT planning • ITDP MOU with Late 2009: Construction BRT Commission of operation Guangzhou , Apr. 2005 • GMTDC / GMEDRI work with ITDP since that time 2007-2008: Implementation planning & design. 2006: Phase II Final station & planning; further operational design, BRT traffic, operational authority, architecture, and design engineering planning & 2005: Conceptual design, metro demand analysis plan, demand integration, NMT for phase I analysis & corridor integration, demand comparison analysis
  • 85. Ceremony to launch BRT construction in Guangzhou
  • 86. News coverage of start of construction, 30-Nov-08
  • 87. China BRT systems peak passenger flows (actual ridership except Guangzhou, projected) 25000 20000 paek passegerns / hour / direction (pphpd) 15000 10000 5000 0 Chongqing Hangzhou Xiamen Jinan Changzhou Dalian Beijing Kunming Guangzhou Peak pphpd 200 1,500 3,600 4,500 4,500 6,500 8,000 8,600 23,000 Count date 29-Mar-08 06-Dec-07 05-Sep-08 08-Jan-09 17-Apr-08 14-Apr-08 15-May-07 05-Mar-08 2010
  • 88. 23 Phase I BRT routes
  • 89. Zhongshan Avenue bus speeds (morning peak, Tangxia to Tiyu Zhongxin) Km/hr 14 13 12 11 10 Source: ITDP/GMEDRI surveys
  • 90. 70,000 passenger hours time saving per day Passenger-hours saved per hour with BRT (east to west, morning peak), between BRT stations. Comparison between the alternative BRT corridors shows greatest time savings on Zhongshan Avenue – this analysis convinced the city to choose Zhongshan Avenue
  • 91. BRT Station layout One of the 1-module configurations (offset, at grade) One of the 1-module configurations (offset, footbridge) One of the 2-module configurations (facing, at grade crossing)
  • 92. Tianhe Gongyuan BRT station (After & Before): Currently 350 buses and 23,000 buses/hr/dir in the morning peak
  • 93. 4840辆
  • 94. Integration with the Guangzhou metro 地铁出口通道 换乘 通道 T石石桥石 BR 换乘乘乘 电梯梯 付费付 右 左 线 中 心 线
  • 95. BRT in China Kunming Chongqing Xiamen Beijing Hangzhou Jinan Changzhou Guangzhou Dalian Conclusion
  • 96. Hefei BRT, under construction
  • 97. Hefei BRT, under construction
  • 98. Concluding remarks • All have low capacity • Hefei BRT, under station design, limiting construction, seems to have a capacity and expansion higher capacity design • Most do not provide an • Guangzhou BRT is projected to be overall time saving benefit Asia’s first high capacity BRT, with for bus passengers or more than double the one-direction mixed traffic in the corridor capacity of any other BRT system in China. The system will also feature • All tend to design stations tunnels connecting metro and BRT of the same size, regardless at 3 stations, bike parking at BRT of passenger demand stations, a high quality enclosed • All have only one operator station design, and good pedestrian • There is a trend toward access ‘flexible’ operation modes • Several key issues, however, remain rather than ‘closed’ to be resolved during 2009 systems
  • 99. • www.itdp-china.org (all photos) • www.chinaBRT.org (BRT data) • www.gzbrt.org (Guangzhou BRT

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