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Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?
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Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?

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Presentation from Thinktank Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?

Presentation from Thinktank Roundtable C - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - Liquid? Gas? Electric?

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  • Xin Jiang Erdos, Inner Mongolia - Up to 33 trucks per day can be loaded at this facility. Some travel several thousand kilometres to deliver the LNG from the remote production location.
  • As we would expect, LNG is playing a major role at this end of the market. This is the case on on all the major continents except Latin America and Africa. The fuel cost savings and high energy density are proving compelling for some fleet operators who are making serious commitments to the fuel. Investment in LNG refuelling infrastructure is keeping pace with this interest and I ’ m pleased to say that China is one of the market leaders.
  • While NGVs are in use in almost every on-road application you can imagine, off-road applications are proving increasingly popular also. Typically these vehicles have singular infrastructure requirements and easily estimated fuel use. As they are off-road vehicles, they are also less subject to the weight restrictions that sometimes limit the amount of natural gas that can be carried on board on-road vehicles. The fuel savings for large mining trucks, such as the one shown to the right, are comparable to those of a locomotive, thus making it an attractive proposition, both for the fleet operator and also the gas supplier. Once again, China is also a leader in the off-road sector.
  • LNG is also making inroads into the maritime sector. This is arguably the fastest growing sector in the industry, driven both by economics of massive fuel price savings and mandates requiring the industry to reduce emissions. Ports are historically areas of high air pollution. This pollutions comes from the heavily polluting marine engines that rely on bunker oil and to date have not been subject to emissions requirements, and also from the trucks that service the ports. Shipping industry experts are in fact predicting that LNG will become not an alternative fuel in the marine sector, but the dominant fuel. They have predicted that by 2020 there will be more orders for LNG ships than oil fuelled ships and that by 2030, LNG will account for more than 50% of all marine fuel consumed. It ’ s no surprise to see, once again, that China is a leader in this field also.
  • But the off-road sector doesn ’ t just include wheeled vehicles. Serious work is also under way on super heavy-duty engines for rail locomotives. Just last year an LNG locomotive in Russia was used to set a world record for the largest load hauled by a single rail locomotive - 16,000 tonnes in 170 rail cars. Major players such as General Electric are investing millions of dollars in developing technology specifically for rail applications. The fuel price savings in this sector are extraordinary and can amount to millions of dollars for rail operators each year. We expect to see commercial supplies of rail engines to come on to the market within the next 2-3 years. World record September 2011, Russia Largest load by a single locomotive of any fuel type 16,000 tonnes, 170 rail cars
  • And while it won ’ t happen overnight, it appears as if natural gas is getting ready to tackle the final frontier of transport – aviation. Prototype aircraft have in fact already been flown on natural gas, both CNG and LNG. The concept is proven and Boeing says it can be done but as we would expect, there is a long lead time for commercial technology development. NASA N+4 2040-2050 timeframe
  • Cold LNG vehicles usually require LNG at 3 bar/-153° but can run on higher pressures as well - Cold LNG vehicles run on high pressure injection dual fuel engines - No minimum pressure to run the vehicle as the on-board pump pressurizes LNG before injection - Cold LNG vehicles are always refueled with one nozzle capable of fuelling and venting
  • Potential fuel savings of millions of dollars for operators
  • Another take on this with a bit more detail.
  • NO emissions from CNG taxis will eventually oxidize in the atmosphere to NO2, but by that time it is dilute and dispersed. NO2 emissions direct from the tailpipe of a DPF equipped diesel create roadside exposure of the population at large to a recognized toxic component.   NO2 creates lung inflammation, and reduces resistance to respiratory disease. A study recently carried by Environment Canada in cooperation with Health Canada exposed exhaust from DPF equipped diesels to laboratory rats and found evidence of inflammatory lung response relative to a control group. While this was done using a heavy duty diesel engine, the same mechanism will occur in light duty diesels. A report has been issued entitled “Treatment of Diesel Exhaust with a Diesel Particulate Filter enhances lung inflammation” (1) The report indicates that the enhanced inflammatory and oxidative stress response to diesel exhaust treated with a diesel particulate filter is in line with a 4 fold increase in NO2 emissions.   The Euro 4 diesel taxis may therefore be creating an additional hazardous air pollutant in the process of reducing PM. This does not occur with the CNG taxis.
  • Continuing to use CNG taxis in their present form saves 16 kilotonnes CO2 per year compared to what the Crown diesels produce, and if the new Toyota Wish CNG taxi is used in place of the Epica diesel taxi, the savings can be 20 kiltonnes CO2 per year.
  • Transcript

    • 1. THINKTANK ROUNDTABLE CNATURAL GAS USES INTRANSPORTATION: LIQUID? GAS?ELECTRIC?Organised by:Institute for the Analysis of Global Security (IAGS)
    • 2. Dr. Gal LuftSenior Adviser, United States Energy Security CouncilCo-director, Institute for the Analysis of Global Security
    • 3. William Ball Harold Brown William Perry William Clark George Shultz Mary Peters John Block John Lehman Former Sec. of Navy Former Sec. of Former Sec. of Former Sec. of Former Sec. of State Former Sec. of Former Sec. of Former Sec. of Defense Defense Interior Transportation Agriculture NavyGen. Barry James Roche Alan Greenspan Geoffrey Bible Gen. Sen. Bennett Johnston Gov. Tom Ridge Prof. GeorgeMcCaffrey Former Sec. Former Chairman Former Chairman Carlton Former Sec. of Olah of Air Force Federal Reserve Kraft Foods Fulford Homeland Security Nobel Laureate Robert C. McFarlane R. James Woolsey Former National Former Director Central Security Advisor Intelligence V. Admiral Dennis John Hofmeister Norm Augustine Michael Leven Boyden Gray Stephen Hadley James Hachett, CEOGen. Wesley Clark Sen. Gary Hart McGinn Former Pres. Shell Former CEO President, Las Former White House Former National Anadarko Petroleum Oil Lockheed Martin Vegas Sands Counsel Security Advisor WWW.USESC.ORG
    • 4. Fuel Choices/Commodity arbitrage Natural Gas Methanol Biofuels Electricity
    • 5. SIEW 2012NATURAL GAS USES IN TRANSPORTATION LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS BRENDA SMITH MANAGING DIRECTOR, GAS ADVISERS, HONG KONGBOARD MEMBER, INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF NATURAL GAS VEHICLES VICE PRESIDENT, ASIA PACIFIC NATURAL GAS VEHICLES ASSOCIATION
    • 6. TRADITIONAL LNG INFRASTRUCTURE - LARGE SCALE LNG EXPLORATION & LIQUEFACTION PRODUCTION STORAGE & SHIPPING REGASIFICATION12 GAS ADVISERS SIEW 2012 25-OCT-2012
    • 7. TRUCK LOADING FACILITIES13 GAS ADVISERS SIEW 2012 25-OCT-2012
    • 8. DISTRIBUTION BY ROAD, RAIL & SMALL MARINE VESSELS14 GAS ADVISERS SIEW 2012 25-OCT-2012
    • 9. LNG IS NOW AVALABLE TO THE TRANSPORTATION SECTOR GAS ADVISERS SIEW15 2012 25-OCT-2012
    • 10. LNG IS TAKING OFF AROUND THE WORLD16 GAS ADVISERS SIEW 2012 25-OCT-2012
    • 11. OFF ROAD VEHICLES• Very heavy fuel use• Fewer weight restrictions• Potential fuel savings of millions of dollars for operators17 GAS ADVISERS SIEW 2012 25-OCT-2012
    • 12. MARINE18 GAS ADVISERS SIEW 2012 25-OCT-2012
    • 13. RAIL19 25-OCT-2012 GAS ADVISERS SIEW 2012
    • 14. AVIATION20 GAS ADVISERS SIEW 2012 25-OCT-2012
    • 15. KEY BENEFITS  EMISSION BENEFITS THE SAME AS CNG  CAN BE STORED ON BOARD IN A RELATIVELY SMALL SPACE, SIMILAR TO DIESEL, THUS PROVIDING GOOD VEHICLE RANGE  BECOMING WIDELY AVAILABLE IN MANY PARTS OF THE WORLD  EASILY DISTRIBUTED BY ROAD AND OTHER FORMS OF TRANSPORT  PRICING IS VERY COMPETITIVE WITH EXISTING FUELS IN MANY LOCATIONS  INHERENTLY SAFER THAN MANY OTHER FUELS GAS ADVISERS21 25-OCT- 2012 SIEW 2012
    • 16. ENGINE TECHOLOGIES 1.SPARK IGNITION 2. DUAL FUEL – 45% to 75% DIESEL SUBSTITUTION 3. HIGH PRESSURE DIRECT INJECTION THE NATURAL GAS IS INJECTED AT HIGH PRESSURE DIRECTLY INTO THE COMBUSTION CHAMBER LATE IN THE COMPRESSION CYCLE IGNITION IS BY PILOT DIESEL FUEL <5% OF FUEL CONSUMPTION IS DIESEL NO MINIMUM PRESSURE BUT THE LNG IS PREFERRED TO BE “COLD” - 3 BAR / -153OC22 13-SEP- GAS ADVISERS 2012
    • 17. LNG VEHICLE TANKS23 GAS ADVISERS SIEW 2012 25-OCT-2012
    • 18. REFUELLING STATIONS LNG, LCNG OR BOTH24 GAS ADVISERS SIEW 2012 25-OCT-2012
    • 19. LNG & LCNG REFUELLING STATION25 25-OCT- GAS ADVISERS SIEW 2012 2012
    • 20. DISTRIBUTED LNG PRODUCTION  LNG available for distribution from main LNG terminals  Small scale LNG plants produce wherever suitable feed gas is available DISTRIBUTION  LNG distributed to points of use by road, rail or small marine vessels  LNG can be supplied to wherever there is a demand STORAGE  Fuel can be stored at central storage terminals and at points of use ADVANTAGES  Not dependant on pipeline infrastructure  Full supply coverage to match demand  Can take advantage of cheap and / or renewable feeds  Cost savings can be made by producing warm gas due to short supply chain26 GAS ADVISERS SIEW 2012 25-OCT-2012
    • 21. DISTRIBUTED LNG FOR THE TRANSPORT SECTOR Abundant supply from truck and ship loading facilities at base load LNG facilities Broad-based production infrastructure through small-scale production Utilisation of various feeds enhances environmental benefits and reduces costs Short distribution distances reduces costs Fuel can be available wherever there is a demand Reliable, flexible and cost effective supply for NGVs27 25-OCT-2012 GAS ADVISERS SIEW 2012
    • 22. THANK YOUbrenda.smith@gasadvisers.com
    • 23. GAS ADVISERS29 25-OCT- 2012 SIEW 2012
    • 24. Dom LaVigne Director, Government & Public Affairs (AP/ME) Methanol Institute SingaporeMethanol Fuels: Safe, Efficient,Affordable, and Mature
    • 25. Overview About MI Methanol Basics Methanol as a Transportation Fuel Global Public Policy Experiences
    • 26. Methanol Basics About MI
    • 27. About MI • Members include: – World’s leading methanol producers; – Distributors; and – Technology companies. • Provides market support: – To traditional markets & derivatives; – Leads the development of new emerging markets and applications; and – Delivers safe handling tools to global distribution chain. 33
    • 28. About MI: 2012 Members Oman Methanol Company METORRaymond James Forum 34 34October 6, 2009
    • 29. Methanol BasicsMethanol Basics
    • 30.  The simplest of all alcohols CH3OH  A pure clean burning liquid fuel with the highest available hydrogen to carbon ratio  A high octane blending component for gasoline  A globally marketed commodity with a distributionMethanol Basics system similar to gasoline  A fuel made from non-petroleum feedstocks, such as natural gas, coal and residue/biomass/renewable  A much less flammable fuel than gasoline  A fuel competitive with gasoline, and a biofuel competitive with ethanol
    • 31. Methanol Basics: Physical Properties• Name: Methanol • Odor: Faintly sweet alcohol• Chemical Family: Aliphatic • Boiling Point: 148o Alcohol • Freezing Point: -144o• Synonyms: Carbinol; • LEL/UEL: 6% and 36%by volume Methyl Alcohol; Wood in air Alcohol; Wood Spirits • Vapor Density: 1.11 (@60o)• Formula: CH3OH • Vapor Pressure: 1.86 psia (@68o)• CAS #: 67-56-1 • Density: 6.63 lb per gallon• Form: Colorless Liquid • Flammable and Toxic• pH: 7.2• Solubility: 100% 37
    • 32. Methanol Basics: Must Knows of MethanolFlammable Bur ns with a clear, low heat flame Dif ficult to see during daylight Biodegrades quickly ImpactSoluble in water size of confined to spill Toxic Readily absorbed into the body 38
    • 33. Methanol Basics: Polygeneration Methanol Natural Gas Gasoline Coal Fuels DME Synthesis Gas MTBE Biomass Methanol Olefins Chemicals Formaldehyde CO2 Acetic Acid Fuels Chemicals 39
    • 34. Methanol Basics: Chemical Applications 40
    • 35. Methanol asa Transportation Fuel
    • 36. Methanol Basics: Transportation Fuel Applications Direct Fueling •Blended with gasoline (M3 – M85) •8 million metric ton annual demand (2.6 billion gallons) •BioMethanol is 2nd Generation biofuelDimethyl Ether•Either DME or BioDME•Can be used neat or blended with propane•Low-carbon, no-sulfur, diesel replacement•Transport market is emerging with partners like Volvo and Nissan. Pilots in EU, Japan and China Biodiesel •Key ingredient in esterfication •Renewable methanol can make ultra-clean biodiesel •Roughly 15-20% of oil source by mass 42
    • 37. Methanol Basics: Transportation Fuel Applications MTBE/BioMTBE •Extensive world markets remain for MTBE •Up to 15% MTBE content allowed in EU, compliance with Renewable Energy Directive with BioMTBE attractiveMethanol-to-Olefins•A 600,000 tonnes/year MTO project requires 1.8mtonnes/year of methanol•MTO eases burden of petroleum supply bydiversifying feedstocks for light olefins Methanol-to-Gasoline •ExxonMobil MTG technology produces sulfur-free 92 Research Octane drop in gasoline •Better yields than Fischer-Tropsch fuels at lower costs 43
    • 38. Achieving Transportation Energy PoliciesTwo Basic Approaches • Very expensive vehicle cost Change Electric Cars • Low energy density of batteries and hydrogen Technolog Fuel Cells • High distribution system cost for electricity y • Very high costs for hydrogen infrastructure • Useable in existing engines/FFV’s • Biomass limit/food vs fuel/ILUC Ethanol • Wide LCA GHG emissions reduction variations Biodiesel • Better yields expected with second generation biofuels Change Methanol • • Useable in existing engines/FFV’s Cost competitive with gasoline/ethanol Fuel & Biomethanol • Biomethanol - High LCA GHG emissionFeedstock reduction /no competition with food • Useable in existing engines/FFV’s Renewable • From atmospheric CO2 and water Synthetic • Carbon-neutral status reached Methanol • Integration with renewable power 44
    • 39. Gasoline: US$3.69 / gasoline gallon equivalent (gge)Methanol Basics M-85: $3.26 gge E-85: 4.28 gge
    • 40. Global Public Policy Initiatives Methanol Basics
    • 41. U.S. Policy Drivers •Introduced in the House by Reps. Shimkus (R- IL), Engel (D-NY), Bartlett (R-MD) and Israel (D- NY).Open Fuel Standard Act •Introduced in the Senate by Sens. Cantwell (D-• Requires starting in 2014, 50% WA) and Lugar (R-IN). of all new cars warranted to operate on non-petroleum fuels. •Supporters: MI, RFA, US Energy Security Council, Growth Energy, National Biodiesel• Goes up to 80% by 2016, and Board. 95% by 2017. •Detractors: Chamber of Commerce, American• Includes alcohol FFVs, and Petroleum Institute, Alliance of Automobile vehicles running on CNG, propane, plug-in battery Manufacturers. electrics, and fuel cells. 47
    • 42. • In 1988, EPA granted Clean Air ActOCTAMIX Waiver waiver to Texas Methanol Company for OCTAMIX blend of 5% methanol andIn 2012, U.S. EPA approved 2.5% co-solvent (ethanol, butanol,two petitions for the use of pentanols)corrosion inhibitors with • Considered “substantially similar” toOCTAMIX methanol fuel gasoline and will not cause orwaiver. contribute to failure of any emission•Spirit of 21st Century control device•Baker Hughes • Recognition that low-level methanol fuel blends are allowed under U.S. law • For commercial introduction, fuel blend must be registered with EPA • Given constraints of RFS, finding a niche market may be difficult 48
    • 43. Global Methanol Fuel ExperienceEuropean Union  European fuel standards allow up to 3% methanol in gasoline with stabilizing agents  Low concentration methanol blends Lotus Tri-fuel Exige 270E sold in Iceland, UK, Netherlands  Use of methanol in “E85 Flex Fuel Vehicles” (FFV’s) being tested  ~27 million FFV’s globally Flower of Scotland Streamliner 49
    • 44. Global Methanol Fuel Experience China China Methanol Demand 2000 to 2011 (Source: CMAI) 25 20MILLIONS OF METRIC TONNES (MMT) Energy Demand 15 10 5 Traditional Chemical Demand 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 • Methanol helps China reduce fuel price inflation and be less dependent on foreign energy • M-85 and M-100 standards went into effect on December 1, 2009. M-15 standard in final stages of review, and may be released in Q1 2013. • Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) has launched methanol fuel trials in Shaanxi and Shanxi Provinces and the municipality of Shanghai 50
    • 45. Global Methanol Fuel Experience Asia and Middle East• Israel M15 demonstration underway• 100kMTA methanol used in Korean fuel ~ additive CENOX• Pakistan govt. and oil companies evaluating M15 to reduce fuel costs• Discussions with govt. on methanol fuels introduction underway in Egypt• M2-M3 trials in Iran• Australia looking at methanol, 10-year excise tax-free holiday 51
    • 46. Dom LaVigneDirector of Government & Thank you! Public Affairs (AP/ME)Methanol Institutedlavigne@methanol.orgwww.methanol.org+65 6325 6300
    • 47. François BOLLON FRMB-Consulting DMEA sustainable alternative fuel for transpor tation FRMB@FRMB-CONSULTING.COM Tel. +33-686075937
    • 48. SIEW - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation – 25 October 2012What is Dimethyl Ether (DME)?  Dimethyl Ether (DME) is the simplest ether.  Its formula is CH 3 -O-CH 3  A clean, colorless gas that is easy to liquefy and transpor t  An environmentally compatible propellant for spray cans  A foaming agent for polystyrene insulating material  A low-boiling solvent, a refrigerant, a fuel for the production of ultra-pure glass Close to LPG but with a good cetane number, DME is considered as a low CO 2 fuel, which can be used as a clean burning alternative to LPG, LNG FRMB@FRMB-CONSULTING.COM –Tel. +33-686075937 and diesel.
    • 49. SIEW - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation – 25 October 2012DME proper ties and benefits FRMB@FRMB-CONSULTING.COM –Tel. +33-686075937
    • 50. SIEW - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation – 25 October 2012DME proper ties and benefitsLiquefies at -25°C or under 6 atmospheres ► Can be stored and transported just like LPGHigher cetane number than diesel ► Can be used in diesel enginesCompletely safe with no adverse impacton health ► No problems expanding useHazard equivalent to LPGDecomposes in the atmosphere in several No concern over ozone layer depletion ►ten of hours (alternative to CFCs)No sulfur content No particulate matter (PM) or soot emission ►No direct carbon bonds (CH3-O-CH3) from combustionLower temperature catalytic reforming ► Better fuel for fuel cellsthan gasoline On net energy content basis: 1.6 kg of DME is equivalent to 1kg of LPG, 1.25 m 3 of DME is equivalent to 1 m 3 of LPG 1.2 m 3 of DME is equivalent to 1 m 3 of diesel FRMB@FRMB-CONSULTING.COM –Tel. +33-686075937
    • 51. SIEW - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation – 25 October 2012DME production Wide range of resource utilization DME can be produced By methanol dehydration - 2 CH 3 OH → CH 3 OCH 3 + H 2 O – the two-steps process (1,4 tons of methanol to produce 1 ton of DME) Or through direct synthesis – the one-step process. FRMB@FRMB-CONSULTING.COM –Tel. +33-686075937
    • 52. DME industr Usesand SIEW - Natural Gas y in Transportation – 25 October 2012development First use as an aerosol propellant (Akzo Nobel) Many companies are interested in DME: Methanex, Total, Volvo truck, Mitsubishi Gas Chemical, ENN, China Energy, Kogas, Aygas, … but China represents most of the DME capacities in the world for DME as fuel. FRMB@FRMB-CONSULTING.COM –Tel. +33-686075937
    • 53. SIEW - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation – 25 October 2012DME usages FRMB@FRMB-CONSULTING.COM –Tel. +33-686075937
    • 54. SIEW - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation – 25 October 2012DME as automotive fuelAs an automotive fuel , DME demonstrates a number of significantbenefits:Ultra low exhaust emissionsNo par ticulate matter (PM); ver y low NOx; no SOx)Low CO 2  emissionsLow engine noiseHigh fuel economyHigh well-to-wheel ef ficiencyThermal ef ficiency equivalent to diesel engineper formanceIgnition characteristics equivalent to diesel engineper formanceThe reduction or elimination of par ticulate emissions , alsocommonly known as “soot” or black smoke, is an impor tantbenefit. FRMB@FRMB-CONSULTING.COM –Tel. +33-686075937
    • 55. SIEW - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation – 25 October 2012Japanese DME vehicle tests The Japanese per formed some tests of DME for transpor tation from 2003 to 2007 with 4 DME filling stations. At this period, they made 1,000 km with DME trucks. They created the DME Vehicle Promotion Committee organized by 13 private companies – whose Iwatani, Isuzu, Total Japan, Toyota Tsusho, JFE, Idemitsu Kosan, Japan DME – in March 2006 in order to develop and research DME vehicles operation, DME fuel supply infrastructure and DME distributions and logistics. From 2009, they launched some demonstration of DME Truck for commercial transpor t operation covering the full chain from production of DME to the utilisation in DME vehicles in Niigata and Kanto regions. Isuzu and Nissan Diesel made DME trucks for commercial use. FRMB@FRMB-CONSULTING.COM –Tel. +33-686075937
    • 56. SIEW - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation – 25 October 2012Japanese DME vehicle tests DME Vehicles Demonstration (commercial use) FRMB@FRMB-CONSULTING.COM –Tel. +33-686075937
    • 57. SIEW - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation – 25 October 2012Chinese DME vehicle tests DME buses tests in Shanghai: the line #147 In 2010 FRMB@FRMB-CONSULTING.COM –Tel. +33-686075937
    • 58. The European Bio-DME SIEW - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation – 25 October 2012project The project was launched in 2008 and is coming to an end in December this year. FRMB@FRMB-CONSULTING.COM –Tel. +33-686075937
    • 59. The European Bio-DME SIEW - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation – 25 October 2012project A consor tium of Chemrec, Haldor Topsøe, Volvo, Preem, Total, Delphi and ETC. The project is suppor ted by the Swedish Energy Agency and the EUs Seventh Framework Programme. The total budget is: €28.4 million including EU funding for €8.2 million and the Swedish Energy Agency for €9.5 million. DME produced from black liquor from the paper and pulp mill of Smur fit Kappa in Piteå (Nor th of Sweden) a fleet consisting of 10 Volvo trucks four DME filling stations: Stockholm, Jönköping, Göteborg and Piteå The four-year project has already demonstrated that DME works in daily commercial operations, with 10 Volvo trucks in use by a number of haulage firms already having driven 400,000 km on bio-DME FRMB@FRMB-CONSULTING.COM –Tel. +33-686075937
    • 60. SIEW - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation – 25 October 2012The Spireth project FRMB@FRMB-CONSULTING.COM –Tel. +33-686075937
    • 61. SIEW - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation – 25 October 2012The Spireth project Objectivesidentify the best and most ef fective way for the shippingindustr y to comply with the upcoming regulations regardingemissionsDevelop and install an onboard process for the conversionof methanol to DMEInstall auxiliar y engine adopted for operation on DMEVerify rule compliance, function and endurance BenefitsMethanol can be made available in principle ever ywhereMethanol energy cost lower than for Marine Gas OilMethanol-DME operation will fulfill tier 3 NOxrequirements without af ter treatmentThe cost for conversion and/or adaption to methanol is afraction of the comparable cost for LNG FRMB@FRMB-CONSULTING.COM –Tel. +33-686075937
    • 62. Future of DME for SIEW - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation – 25 October 2012transpor tation Oppor tunitiesa high cetane number,a quiet combustiona clean burning fuel (no soot, nosmoke, no par ticles and 100% SO xreduction)can be used in conventional dieselengines with a modified fuel injectionsystem.storage tanks same as the ones of LPGfor vehicles with small modifications FRMB@FRMB-CONSULTING.COM –Tel. +33-686075937a large market.
    • 63. Future of DME for SIEW - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation – 25 October 2012transpor tation ChallengesSome technical and regulator y hurdlesremainrequires some appropriated lubricatingagentneed probably a specific lubricantviscosity is lower than the one of diesel,we must prevent possible leakageLPG-like infrastructure, which must beset up most of the time from scratchneeds governments appropriatedgovernment suppor t and regulations . FRMB@FRMB-CONSULTING.COM –Tel. +33-686075937
    • 64. Future of DME for SIEW - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation – 25 October 2012transpor tation Driver for DMEThe big driver for DME today is thetighter emissions control. DME is one of the lowest cost ways tomeet the tighter emissions regulations(like the Spireth project). Besides the low cost of the fuel it alsoallows vehicles, power plants, ships tomeet the tighter emission regulationswithout expensive exhaust gas af ter-treatment devices. FRMB@FRMB-CONSULTING.COM –Tel. +33-686075937
    • 65. DME: the cleanest diesel SIEW - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation – 25 October 2012alternativeCetane No. For diesel engines High GTL Diesel Biodiesel DM DME Diesel E Regular Ethanol Gasoline Methanol High Octane Gasoline CNG LPG For gasoline type engines Low Cleanness (PM, S, NOx) High FRMB@FRMB-CONSULTING.COM –Tel. +33-686075937
    • 66. SIEW - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation – 25 October 2012DME investments and costs DME production costs are presently around USD 540 to 595 per metric ton ( whose USD 490 to 545 come from the methanol cost) DME plants: around 15 millions Euro for a capacity of 80,000 tons of DME per year (Europe, Japan or USA - cheaper in China) In the bio-DME project, the cost of a filling station was around €200,000 (instead of €120,000 for a filling station with diesel) Regarding DME trucks, injection equipment and fuel tanks are more expensive but we gain on the lower pressure and the exhaust af ter-treatment. The real challenge is to get through the “valley of death”   (i.e. the initial low volumes) FRMB@FRMB-CONSULTING.COM –Tel. +33-686075937
    • 67. SIEW - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation – 25 October 2012DME and natural gasAs the investments for DME production are much lower than the ones of a LNG chain and as it can be easily stored in LPG storage with few modifications, DME is a good solution for stranded gasDME requires limited capital investment versus LNG, less costs for liquefaction and re-gas, can be used in small quantities and does not need a large consumption base to suppor t the supply.As there is no methane slip compared to LNG so there is less GHG impact FRMB@FRMB-CONSULTING.COM –Tel. +33-686075937
    • 68. SIEW - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation – 25 October 2012DME versus CNGCNG vehicles suf fer from:Reduced compression ratio with lowerthermal ef ficiencyHigh unburned CH 4 emissionsCombination of high CH 4 emissions andreduced ef ficiency eliminates the H/C ratiobenefit of CNG over diesel fuel with respect toCO 2 eqv emissions FRMB@FRMB-CONSULTING.COM –Tel. +33-686075937
    • 69. SIEW - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation – 25 October 2012DME versus CNGWhy consider DME for transpor tationinstead of CNG? Because it makes sense on many levels  Higher energy density than CNG  Will not vent due to evaporation over time  Does not need cr yogenic storage  Ease of refueling (no venting, no compressors)  Diesel engine ef ficiency  Ultra low emissions with simple emissions controls  Represents in most cases an increase in the value of natural gas –Tel. +33-686075937 FRMB@FRMB-CONSULTING.COM
    • 70. SIEW - Natural Gas Uses in Transportation – 25 October 2012 Fr ançois BOLLON FRMB-CONSULTINGContact:FRMB@FRMB-CONSULTING.COMTel. +33-686075937 FRMB@FRMB-CONSULTING.COM –Tel. +33-686075937
    • 71. C. Melchers GmbH & Co. CNG presentationSingapore International Energy Week Natural Gas Uses in Transportation: Liquid? Gas? Electric? 25th Oct 2012
    • 72. C. Melchers CNG References• Melchers opened the first dedicated conversion workshop in Singapore• About 60% market share in converted vehicles using Italian conversion technology• >1600 Taxis passed the 200,000 km mark.• First company to introduce Type 4 (light-weight) cylinders for mass conversion• Engineered and built world’s largest CNG station at Toh Tuck• Currently supplying of CNG systems to Malaysia, Vietnam, Indonesia, Myanmar.
    • 73. Singapore – CNG study As of Sep 2012: 25,192 Diesel Taxis, 2,643 CNG Taxis Study undertaken in 2011 to illustrate environmental benefits of CNGtaxis vs. diesel taxis. Cost of CNG: ~ USD 0.85/litre equivalent (incl USD 0.16 governmentduty). Cost of Diesel: ~ USD 1.30/litre Types of taxis compared:  Toyota Wish 1800cc CNG/Petrol  Toyota Wish 2000cc CNG/Petrol  Toyota Crown Euro 2 Diesel  Chevrolet Epica Euro 4 Diesel  Hyundai Sonata Euro 4 Diesel
    • 74. Comparison of Toxic EmissionsVehicle PM Emissions PM Emissions from 1000 taxis PM emissions from 1000 taxis on annual basis g/km g/km at 208,000 km/Annum Kg/AnnumToyota Crown Euro 2 diesel 0.1 - 0.2 100 - 200 20,800 - 41,600Chevrolet Epica Euro 4 diesel 0.001 1 208Toyota Wish CNG Not detectable 0 0Note: Even though Particulate Matter (PM) emissions from Euro 4 vehicles hasbeen reduced considerably by the DPF, it can create new toxic emissions in the process by creating NO2: PM accumulates in DPF → Passive regeneration by oxidizing NO to NO2→ NO2 reacts with carbon to burn off as CO2. If NO2 slip occurs, excess NO2 emission results.
    • 75. CO2 comparison between Diesel & CNG TaxisVehicle Description F.E. Fuel CO2 CO2 if 20% petrol CO2 for 1000 taxis CO2 Savings by L/100 km g/km and 80% CNG g/km on annual basis Using CNG Kilotonnes/Annum Kilotonnes/AnnumToyota Crown Diesel 10 Diesel 260 54.08Toyota Wish CNG 1800cc v1 9.73 Petrol 49 CNG 131 180 37.44 16.64Toyota Epica Euro 4 diesel, 6 spd auto 7.6 Diesel 210 43.68Toyota Wish CNG 2000cc v2 6.25 Petrol 31 CNG 85 116 24.13 19.55Hyundai Sonata Euro 4 diesel auto 7.3 Diesel 191 39.73Hyundai Sonata CNG 4 spd auto - not taxi 7.9 Petrol 39 CNG 106 145 30.16 9.57
    • 76. CNG Transport markets
    • 77. Thank you!Gilbert von der AueHead of Department, Oil & GasC. Melchers GmbH & Co., Singapore BranchTel: +65 6259 9288Email: gilbertaue@melchers.com.sg
    • 78. China Energy Limited DME as Transportation Fuel October 2012HK000NMN
    • 79. China Energy Limited CEL – pioneered DME as alternative energy in PRC DME – wide applications with easy adoption Patented Technology – efficient & economical 86HK000NMN
    • 80. DME Cost Efficient Production & Distribution Colourless, odourless & non-toxic gas Similar properties to LPG Natural Gas DME Production Coal Methanol Methanol Process DME DME Biomass Physical Properties of DME vs. Other Fuels China Methane Diesel Properties DME Typical (Natural Fuel LPG* Gas) CH3 OCH3 Boiling Point 180- -25.1 -42.0 -161.5 (ºC) 370 Liquid density 0.67 0.49 - 0.84 (g/cm3, 20ºC) Cetane number 55-60 5 0 40-55 * 70% Butane + 30% Propane by volume Sources: Purvin & Gertz DME Market Study (2006), Green Car Congress 87HK000NMN
    • 81. DME – Dimethyl Ether Viable Alternative Energy  “Clean” & safe Favourable  Lower smoke emission rates Characteristics  Characteristics similar to LPG  Blend stock or substitute for fuel Wide Applications  Expanding applications  Methanol can be derived from coal, natural gas Favourable Supply or biomass Dynamics – Abundance of coal: cost adv  Can be transported & stored like LPG High Adaptability  Minimal modifications to existing fuel system required 88HK000NMN
    • 82. DME Clean Energy For the Future Lower Emissions – Environmental Friendly Meets the most stringent emission regulations in Europe (EURO5), U.S. (U.S. 2010), & Japan (2009 Japan) http://www.japantransport.com/conferences/2006/03/dme_detailed_information.pdf Emissions from Diesel Engine DME Lab Emissions, DME Field Test Euro 4 Diesel g/k Whr Test Results Results Fuel Standard Nitrogen Oxide 3.30 2.99 3.50 Gases (NOx) Hydrocarbon 0.26 0.25 0.46 (HC) Carbon 0.03 0.12 1.50 Monoxide (CO) Particulate n/a <0.02 0.02 Matter (PM) 89HK000NMN
    • 83. DME Easy Adoption; Wide Applications Commercially Proven Potential Developing Market Market Market Chemicals Transportation (e.g. Aerosol LPG – Fuel Substitute Fuel Power Propellant ) Blendstock (e.g. diesel) Generation (e.g. LPG, LNG) Fuel DME DME Blend LPG with 20-25% DME to reduce costs * 70% Butane + 30% Propane by volume Sources: Purvin & Gertz DME Market Study (2006), Green Car Congress 90HK000NMN
    • 84. MNCs To Further Drive Application of DME Endorsing DME as alternative energy http://www.volvo.com/group/global/en- gb/volvo+group/ourvalues/environment/info_material/dme/dm e.htm http://www.biodme.eu/ http://www.cider.as/biodme/doc/080923_Volvo_FINAL.pdf 91HK000NMN
    • 85. China – Running DME-Powered Buses Joint Study with JiaoTong University 1.5 parts DME to 1 part diesel Good substitute for diesel 92HK000NMN
    • 86. TRANSPORTATION FUELHK000NMN 93 93
    • 87. DME AS TRANSPORTATION FUEL TRANSPORTATION FUEL JANUARY 2005- JIUTAI ENRGY WAS TASKED BY CHINESE SCIENCE MINISTRY TO CARRY OUT DME AUTOMOTIVE CLEAN FUEL PROGRAM. THE PROGRAM SUCCESSFULLY CONCLUDED IN JUNE 2007. R&D COLLABORATION WITH WEICHAI POWER, ZHONG TONG BUS, DME PUBLIC BUSES NOW OPERATING ON ROAD 19, LINYI FOR 5 YEARS WITH 200,000 KM MILEAGE. OPERATION SATISFACTORY. WITH 7 YEARS EXPERIENCE OF OPERATING MORE THAN 10 DME BUSES FOR EMPLOYEES, ACCUMULATED WEALTH OF PRACTICAL DATA AND KNOWHOW, ON 7 DECEMBER 2008, JIUTAI CHEMICAL WAS AWARDED “MODEL COMPANY FOR ETHER TRANSPORTATION CLEAN FUEL” BY ETHER TRANSPORTATION CLEAN FUEL ASSOCIATION.HK000NMN
    • 88. 感谢您对 久 泰 能 源 集 团 的关心支持! THANK YOU   95HK000NMN

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