Xin JiangErdos, Inner Mongolia - Up to 33 trucks per day can be loaded at this facility. Some travel several thousand kilometres to deliver the LNG from the remote production location.
As we would expect, LNG is playing a major role at this end of the market. This is the case on on all the major continents except Latin America and Africa. The fuel cost savings and high energy density are proving compelling for some fleet operators who are making serious commitments to the fuel. Investment in LNG refuelling infrastructure is keeping pace with this interest and I’m pleased to say that China is one of the market leaders.
While NGVs are in use in almost every on-road application you can imagine, off-road applications are proving increasingly popular also.Typically these vehicles have singular infrastructure requirements and easily estimated fuel use. As they are off-road vehicles, they are also less subject to the weight restrictions that sometimes limit the amount of natural gas that can be carried on board on-road vehicles. The fuel savings for large mining trucks, such as the one shown to the right, are comparable to those of a locomotive, thus making it an attractive proposition, both for the fleet operator and also the gas supplier. Once again, China is also a leader in the off-road sector.
LNG is also making inroads into the maritime sector. This is arguably the fastest growing sector in the industry, driven both by economics of massive fuel price savings and mandates requiring the industry to reduce emissions.Ports are historically areas of high air pollution. This pollutions comes from the heavily polluting marine engines that rely on bunker oil and to date have not been subject to emissions requirements, and also from the trucks that service the ports.Shipping industry experts are in fact predicting that LNG will become not an alternative fuel in the marine sector, but the dominant fuel. They have predicted that by 2020 there will be more orders for LNG ships than oil fuelled ships and that by 2030, LNG will account for more than 50% of all marine fuel consumed.It’s no surprise to see, once again, that China is a leader in this field also.
But the off-road sector doesn’t just include wheeled vehicles.Serious work is also under way on super heavy-duty engines for rail locomotives. Just last year an LNG locomotive in Russia was used to set a world record for the largest load hauled by a single rail locomotive - 16,000 tonnes in 170 rail cars.Major players such as General Electric are investing millions of dollars in developing technology specifically for rail applications.The fuel price savings in this sector are extraordinary and can amount to millions of dollars for rail operators each year.We expect to see commercial supplies of rail engines to come on to the market within the next 2-3 years. World recordSeptember 2011, RussiaLargest load by a single locomotive of any fuel type16,000 tonnes, 170 rail cars
And while it won’t happen overnight, it appears as if natural gas is getting ready to tackle the final frontier of transport – aviation.Prototype aircraft have in fact already been flown on natural gas, both CNG and LNG. The concept is proven and Boeing says it can be done but as we would expect, there is a long lead time for commercial technology development. NASA N+42040-2050 timeframe
Cold LNG vehicles usually require LNG at 3 bar/-153° but can run on higher pressures as well - Cold LNG vehicles run on high pressure injection dual fuel engines - No minimum pressure to run the vehicle as the on-board pump pressurizes LNG before injection - Cold LNG vehicles are always refueled with one nozzle capable of fuelling and venting
Potential fuel savings of millions of dollars for operators
Brenda Smith: Natural Gas Uses in Transportation - LNG
SIEW 2012 NATURAL GAS USES IN TRANSPORTATION LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS BRENDA SMITH MANAGING DIRECTOR, GAS ADVISERS, HONG KONGBOARD MEMBER, INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF NATURAL GAS VEHICLES VICE PRESIDENT, ASIA PACIFIC NATURAL GAS VEHICLES ASSOCIATION
TRADITIONAL LNG INFRASTRUCTURE - LARGE SCALE LNG EXPLORATION LIQUEFACTION & PRODUCTION STORAGE & SHIPPING REGASIFICATIO N2 GAS ADVISERS SIEW 2012 25-OCT-2012
TRUCK LOADING FACILITIES3 GAS ADVISERS SIEW 2012 25-OCT-2012
DISTRIBUTION BY ROAD, RAIL & SMALL MARINE VESSELS4 GAS ADVISERS SIEW 2012 25-OCT-2012
LNG IS NOW AVALABLE TO THE TRANSPORTATION SECTOR GAS ADVISERS SIEW5 2012 25-OCT-2012
LNG IS TAKING OFF AROUND THE WORLD6 GAS ADVISERS SIEW 2012 25-OCT-2012
OFF ROAD VEHICLES• Very heavy fuel use• Fewer weight restrictions• Potential fuel savings of millions of dollars for operators7 GAS ADVISERS SIEW 2012 25-OCT-2012
KEY BENEFITS EMISSION BENEFITS THE SAME AS CNG CAN BE STORED ON BOARD IN A RELATIVELY SMALL SPACE, SIMILAR TO DIESEL, THUS PROVIDING GOOD VEHICLE RANGE BECOMING WIDELY AVAILABLE IN MANY PARTS OF THE WORLD EASILY DISTRIBUTED BY ROAD AND OTHER FORMS OF TRANSPORT PRICING IS VERY COMPETITIVE WITH EXISTING FUELS IN MANY LOCATIONS INHERENTLY SAFER THAN MANY OTHER FUELS11 GAS ADVISERS 25-OCT- SIEW 2012 2012
ENGINE TECHOLOGIES 1.SPARK IGNITION 2. DUAL FUEL – 45% to 75% DIESEL SUBSTITUTION 3. HIGH PRESSURE DIRECT INJECTION THE NATURAL GAS IS INJECTED AT HIGH PRESSURE DIRECTLY INTO THE COMBUSTION CHAMBER LATE IN THE COMPRESSION CYCLE IGNITION IS BY PILOT DIESEL FUEL <5% OF FUEL CONSUMPTION IS DIESEL NO MINIMUM PRESSURE BUT THE LNG IS PREFERRED TO BE “COLD” - 3 BAR / -153OC12 13-SEP- GAS ADVISERS 2012
LNG VEHICLE TANKS13 GAS ADVISERS SIEW 2012 25-OCT-2012
REFUELLING STATIONS LNG, LCNG OR BOTH14 GAS ADVISERS SIEW 2012 25-OCT-2012
DISTRIBUTED LNG PRODUCTION LNG available for distribution from main LNG terminals Small scale LNG plants produce wherever suitable feed gas is available DISTRIBUTION LNG distributed to points of use by road, rail or small marine vessels LNG can be supplied to wherever there is a demand STORAGE Fuel can be stored at central storage terminals and at points of use ADVANTAGES Not dependant on pipeline infrastructure Full supply coverage to match demand Can take advantage of cheap and / or renewable feeds Cost savings can be made by producing warm gas due to short supply chain16 GAS ADVISERS SIEW 2012 25-OCT-2012
DISTRIBUTED LNG FOR THE TRANSPORT SECTOR Abundant supply from truck and ship loading facilities at base load LNG facilities Broad-based production infrastructure through small-scale production Utilisation of various feeds enhances environmental benefits and reduces costs Short distribution distances reduces costs Fuel can be available wherever there is a demand Reliable, flexible and cost effective supply for NGVs17 25-OCT-2012 GAS ADVISERS SIEW 2012