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  • 1. Charting openterritory:Learners’ experiencesin MOOCsA keynote presentation at ELESIGMarch 11 2013Allison LittlejohnDirector, Caledonian AcademyChair of Learning Technologywww.gcu.ac.uk/academyCollaborators:Dr Colin Milligan, , Dr Anoush Margaryan, Dr Isobel falconer,Lou McGill, Helen Beetham, Glasgow Caledonian University, UK
  • 2. Key challenge: continual learning Grand challenge“The most profound impact of the Internet…is its ability to support and expand thevarious aspects of social learning”.“Attention has moved from access toinformation towards access to other people”.John Seeley Brown (2008), Minds on Fire
  • 3. Scenario 4Grand challenge
  • 4. Scenario 4Grand challenge Massive Open Online Course
  • 5. Scenario 4 Grand challengeOnline courses aiming atlarge-scale participation &open access. Massive Open Online Course
  • 6. Scenario 4 Grand challengeOnline courses aiming atlarge-scale participation &open access.May represent a pedagogicalapproach ideallysuited to the network age. Massive. Open Online Course
  • 7. Scenario 4 Grand challengeOnline courses aiming atlarge-scale participation &open access.May represent a pedagogicalapproach ideallysuited to the network age. MassiveLittle known about how thelearning experience Openafforded by MOOCs is Onlinesuited to diverse learners. Course
  • 8. Scenario 4 Grand challengexMOOC• Learning goals defined byinstructor• Learning pathwaysstructured by environment• Limited interaction with otherlearners Massive Open Online Course
  • 9. Scenario 4 Grand challengexMOOC• Learning goals defined byinstructor• Learning pathwaysstructured by environment• Limited interaction with otherlearners MassivecMOOC Open• Learning goals defined by Onlinelearner• Learning pathways ill defined Course• Interaction with othersdepends on the learner
  • 10. Scenario 4Grand challengexMOOCCourseraEdXCanvas NetCodeacademyClass2goeCornellFuturelearnNPTELOpenstudy MassiveOpenHPIUdacity OpenUniMOOC-Tec10gen OnlineEtc… Course
  • 11. Scenario 4Grand challengexMOOC cMOOCCoursera CCK08EdX Change 11Canvas Net DS106Codeacademy HowtoMOOCClass2go MoocMooceCornell MOOCDLFuturelearn MechanicalMOOCNPTEL OCTELOpenstudy ODLMOOC MassiveOpenHPI Etc…Udacity OpenUniMOOC-Tec10gen OnlineEtc… Course
  • 12. Scenario 4 Grand challenge• Fini (2009) digitalliteracies critical to learningin a MOOC• Mackness et al (2011)tensions acrossautonomy, diversity, openess, connectedness Massive• Kop et al (2011) critical Openliteracies required to learnin MOOCs Online Course• Littlejohn et al (2009, 2011& 2012) learners have toself regulate their learning
  • 13. Key challenge: continual learning Grand challengeGC: Every university graduate has theability, confidence and literacies to sethis/her own learning pathway toachieve individual learning goals.
  • 14. E-learning research and development tends to Scenario 4Focus on... Largely ignoring...Trends within the education Wider societal trends and thesector impact on educationOnline versions of current Learners map out their ownlearning design where teachers learning pathwaysdesign learning pathwaysBounded, structured Open, unstructured environmentsenvironments as the ‘norm’Content as the central object of People learn together via objectsactivity of activityStepanyan, K, Littlejohn, A & Margaryan, A (2012) Sustainable eLearning,Journal of Educational Technology and Society
  • 15. Key challenge: continual learning Grand challenge1. How do learners learn in open, unstructured, networked environments?1. What learning approaches do they use?2. How can learners learn in open, unstructured, networked environments3. What /who structures learning?
  • 16. Question 1How do people learn inopen, unstructured, networked environments?
  • 17. How do learners learn in unstructured env?Context: Shell global knowledge sharing networksPeriod: Sept 08-Apr 09Method/instruments: Mixed method: Questionnaire(Cross and Parker, 2004) & semi-structuredinterviews (critical incident)Sample: survey: n=462 (E46%; N27%; M27%);interviews: n=29 (E41%, N31%, 28%M)
  • 18. You Your goal
  • 19. You Your goal Formal Libraries of Dynamic Knowledge Collaborative Learning Cases / Examples Knowledge, e.g. wikis Networks Spaces of Practice Smart Your Shared resources Recommended Information Knowledge (e.g. delicious) Resources
  • 20. Anyone People with similar skills Team Peers with similar goals Tutor External You contactsYou Your goal Formal Libraries of Dynamic Knowledge Collaborative Learning Cases / Examples Knowledge, e.g. wikis Networks Spaces of Practice Smart Your Shared resources Recommended Information Knowledge (e.g. delicious) Resources
  • 21. GROUP Anyone People with similar skills Team Peers with similar goals Tutor External You contactsYou Your goal Formal Libraries of Dynamic Knowledge Collaborative Learning Cases / Examples Knowledge, e.g. wikis Networks Spaces of Practice Smart Your Shared resources Recommended Information Knowledge (e.g. delicious) Resources
  • 22. GROUP NETWORK Anyone People with similar skills Team Peers with similar goals Tutor External You contactsYou Your goal Formal Libraries of Dynamic Knowledge Collaborative Learning Cases / Examples Knowledge, e.g. wikis Networks Spaces of Practice Smart Your Shared resources Recommended Information Knowledge (e.g. delicious) Resources
  • 23. GROUP NETWORK Anyone People with similar skills Team Peers with similar goals Tutor External You contactsYou Your goal Formal Libraries of Dynamic Knowledge Collaborative Learning Cases / Examples Knowledge, e.g. wikis Networks Spaces of Practice Smart Your Shared resources Recommended Information Knowledge (e.g. delicious) Resources COLLECTIVE
  • 24. Anyone People with similar skills Team Peers with similar goals CONNECT Tutor External You contactsYou CONSUME Your goal Formal Libraries of Dynamic Knowledge Collaborative Learning Cases / Examples Knowledge, e.g. wikis Networks Spaces of Practice Smart Your Shared resources Recommended Information Knowledge (e.g. delicious) Resources
  • 25. Anyone People with similar skills Team Peers with similar goals CONNECT Tutor External You contacts CREATEYou CONSUME Your goal Formal Libraries of Dynamic Knowledge, Knowledge Collaborative Learning Cases / Examples e.g. wikis Networks Spaces of Practice Smart Your Shared resources Recommended Information Knowledge (e.g. delicious) Resources
  • 26. Anyone People with similar skills Team Peers with similar goals CONNECT Tutor External You contacts CREATEYou CONSUME Your goalCONTRIBUTE Formal Libraries of Dynamic Knowledge Collaborative Learning Cases / Examples Knowledge, e.g. wikis Networks Spaces of Practice Smart Your Shared resources Recommended Information Knowledge (e.g. delicious) Resources
  • 27. Anyone People with similar skills Team Peers with similar goals CONNECT Tutor External You contacts CREATE You and CONSUME YourYour Peers goals CONTRIBUTE Formal Libraries of Dynamic Knowledge Collaborative Learning Cases / Examples Knowledge, e.g. wikis Networks Spaces of Practice Smart Your Shared resources Recommended Information Knowledge (e.g. delicious) Resources
  • 28. How do learners learn in the open? COLLECTIVE KNOWLEDGE
  • 29. How do learners learn in the open? Connect COLLECTIVE KNOWLEDGE
  • 30. How do learners learn in the open? Connect COLLECTIVE KNOWLEDGE Consume
  • 31. How do learners learn in the open? Connect COLLECTIVE KNOWLEDGE Create Consume
  • 32. How do learners learn in the open? Contribute Connect COLLECTIVE KNOWLEDGE Create Consume
  • 33. How do learners learn in the open? Contribute Connect COLLECTIVE KNOWLEDGE Create Consume
  • 34. Scenario 4Question 2What learningapproachesmight learnersuse?
  • 35. Scenario 4 What learning approaches are used?Acquisition Participatoryof knowledgeSfard, 1998
  • 36. Scenario 4 What learning approaches are used? Knowledge creationAcquisition Participatoryof knowledgeSfard, 1998
  • 37. What learning approaches are used?Acquisition Contribute Connect COLLECTIVE KNOWLEDGE Create Consume
  • 38. What learning approaches are used?Acquisition Contribute Connect• OER (podcasts)•x-type MOOC COLLECTIVE KNOWLEDGE Create Consume
  • 39. Scenario 4What learning approaches are used?
  • 40. Scenario 4 What learning approaches are used?AcquisitionTypically sequenced tasks with vidcastlectures, computer marked tests.Little or no interaction with the (hundredsor thousands of) other learners
  • 41. What learning approaches are used?Participatory Contribute Consume COLLECTIVE KNOWLEDGE Create Connect
  • 42. What learning approaches are used?Participatory•blended Contribute Consumelearning• cMOOC COLLECTIVE KNOWLEDGE Create Connect
  • 43. Scenario 4What learning approaches are used?
  • 44. Scenario 4 What learning approaches are used?ParticipatoryTypically structure provided by instructor.Learners provide peer support & create/contribute content
  • 45. What learning approaches are used?Knowledge creationThird type affordedby networked Contribute Connecttechnologies COLLECTIVE KNOWLEDGE Create Consume
  • 46. What learning approaches are used?Knowledge creationThird type affordedby networked Contribute Connecttechnologies research COLLECTIVE KNOWLEDGEdegrees Create Consumeprofessional orworkplace learning
  • 47. What learning approaches are used?Charting occurs wheneach learner mapshis/ her learning Contribute Connectpathway throughplanning,implementing CHARTING& reflecting onlearning goals Create ConsumeBuilds individual &collective knowledge
  • 48. Pause for thoughtQ Will MOOCs be a mainstream approach tolearning in universities?No –Not mainstream but there will be someMOOCs–Yes –If yes or maybe, how will learners learn inMOOCs?
  • 49. Question 3Can learners selfregulate theirlearning?
  • 50. Scenario 4Can learners self regulate their learning?Self Regulated Learning in MOOCsContext: Change11 MOOCPeriod: Jan 12-Apr 12Method/instruments: Mixed method: SRL Questionnaire & semi-structured interviewsSample: survey: n=29 interviews: n=29Study Hypothesis:People who exhibit a high degree of Self-Regulation in theirlearning will use qualitatively different strategies to plan,monitor and reflect on their learning than individuals whoexhibit a low degree of Self-Regulation in their learningwww.gcu.ac.uk/academy/srl-mooc/
  • 51. Scenario 4 Can learners self regulate their learning?Zimmerman, B. J. (2005). Attaining self-regulation: a social cognitive perspective. InBoekaerts, M., Zeidner, M., and Pintrich, P.R (eds) Handbook of self-regulation, pp13-39.Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
  • 52. Scenario 4 Can learners self regulate their learning?Zimmerman, B. J. (2005). Attaining self-regulation: a social cognitive perspective. InBoekaerts, M., Zeidner, M., and Pintrich, P.R (eds) Handbook of self-regulation, pp13-39.Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
  • 53. Scenario 4 Can learners self regulate their learning?Zimmerman, B. J. (2005). Attaining self-regulation: a social cognitive perspective. InBoekaerts, M., Zeidner, M., and Pintrich, P.R (eds) Handbook of self-regulation, pp13-39.Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
  • 54. Scenario 4 Can learners self regulate their learning? Facebook, youTube, Blog browser, bookmarking Microblog (Twitter), Word, Powerpoint, personal network Video softwareZimmerman, B. J. (2005). Attaining self-regulation: a social cognitive perspective. InBoekaerts, M., Zeidner, M., and Pintrich, P.R (eds) Handbook of self-regulation, pp13-39.Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
  • 55. Scenario 4 Can learners self regulate their learning? Facebook, youTube, Blog browser, bookmarking Microblog (Twitter), Word, Powerpoint, personal network Video softwareZimmerman, B. J. (2005). Attaining self-regulation: a social cognitive perspective. InBoekaerts, M., Zeidner, M., and Pintrich, P.R (eds) Handbook of self-regulation, pp13-39.Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
  • 56. Can learners self regulate their learning?Active learners who set goals & structure theirlearning Passive learners who expect others to provide structure Lurkers….
  • 57. Can learners self regulate their learning?
  • 58. Can learners self regulate their learning?Active (12/29)“Oh there’s some people who are everywhere you turn in theChange 11 MOOC: there’s this group of people who areinspirational, just phenomenal the way they just keep goingand they know their way around it.” (P08).“You can read the comments of people who are participatingfrom different places and they give links to things that they aredoing or they think while you hear what is happening” (P20).“I have no idea how scattered I am across this MOOC, I haveno idea how many contributions I’ve made, 30? 50? I’ve got alot of replies… I usually end a reply on an open end” (P05).
  • 59. Can learners self regulate their learning?Lurkers (13/29)“I guess I tend to be a loner and I’ve done more lurking & Imquite happy lurking, I think it’s an honourable profession”(P21)“Lurking is actually hugely beneficial [knowledge is filtered bythe course organisers and has] more value than something Irandomly come across on the Internet” (P18)“Im going out to the MOOC and lurking and getting lots ofgreat interesting ideas [to my] networks” (P01).“I’m more or less like what do you call? A lurker and not veryactive … Im always invisible and the reason is that the wayI’ve been using the MOOC is to put into things that Imdoing… to be a network mentor” (P17).
  • 60. Can learners self regulate their learning?Passive (4/29)“Sure, I can read other people’s blogs and that’s not aproblem and I comment occasionally, but as far as reallyputting my ideas out there in the open in my own blog to betrampled on, you know there’s a bit of fear there I think that Ihave and so that has been difficult for me” (P12).”Im not really sure how to find a group of people online whoreally want to learn about what I most want to learn about.”(P13).
  • 61. Can learners self regulate their learning? Factors affecting engagement in a MOOC: • Prior Experience • Confidence • Motivation
  • 62. Scenario 4Can learners self regulate their learning?Our hypothesis:People with high SRL score use different learning strategies in MOOCs• Those with high SRL scores tend towards being ACTIVE• Those with low SRL scores tend towards being PASSIVE• Lurkers interspersedSome correlation between degree of Self-Regulation and learning BUT not statistically valid.www.gcu.ac.uk/academy/srl-mooc/
  • 63. Scenario 4 Can learners self regulate their learning?Zimmerman, B. J. (2005). Attaining self-regulation: a social cognitive perspective. InBoekaerts, M., Zeidner, M., and Pintrich, P.R (eds) Handbook of self-regulation, pp13-39.Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
  • 64. Question 4Who/ whatstructureslearning?
  • 65. What/ who structures learning?
  • 66. Key challenge: continual learning Grand challenge1. How do learners learn in open, unstructured, networked environments?1. What learning approaches do they use?2. How can learners learn in open, unstructured, networked environments3. What /who structures learning?
  • 67. Charting openterritory:Learners’ experiencesin MOOCsA keynote presentation at ELESIGMarch 11 2013Allison LittlejohnDirector, Caledonian AcademyChair of Learning Technologywww.gcu.ac.uk/academyCollaborators:Dr Colin Milligan, , Dr Anoush Margaryan, Dr Isobel falconer,Lou McGill, Helen Beetham, Glasgow Caledonian University, UK